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I. Observations on the Natural History and Anatomy -of 
the Pelecanus Aquilus of Linnaus. By Edward Bur- 
ton, Esq. F.L.S. ----- p. 1 

II. The Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia, two new Ge- 
nera of Hemipterous Insects belonging to the Family of 
CicadiadcE : with a Description of several Species. By 

the Rev. William Kirby, M.A. F.R.S. and L.S. p. 12 

III. Observations on the Germination of Mosses : in a Letter 
to William Jackson Hooker, Esq. F.L.S. By Mr. 
James Drummond, A. L.S. - - - p. 24 

IV. Observations on some Animals of America allied to the 
Genus Antilope. By Charles Hamilton Smith, Esq. 
A.L.S. - - - - - - - p. 28 

V. Characters of a new Genus of Coleopterous Insects of the 
Family Byrrhidce. By William Elford Leach, M.D. 
F.R.S, and L.S. ----- p . 41 

VI. Description of some Shells found in Canada. By the 
Rev. Thomas Rackett, F.R.S. A.S. and L.S. p. 42 

VII. On the Indian Species of Menispermum. By Henry 
Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S. and L.S. - p. 44 

VIII. The Characters of three new Genera of Bats without 
foliaceous Appendages to the Nose. By William Elford 

Leach, M.D. F.R.S. and L.S. - - - p. 69 

IX. The 


IX. The Characters of seven Genera of Bats with foliaceous 
Appendages to the Nose. By William Elf or d Leach, 
M.D. F.R.S. a?7d L.S. p. 73 

X. On two new British Species of Mytilus, in a Letter to the 
Rev. E. J. Burrow, F.R.S. and L.S. By the Rev. 
Revett Sheppard, F.L.S. p. 83 

XL Obseriations on the natural Group of Plants called 

Pomaceze. By Mr. John Lindley, F.L.S. p. 88 

XII. Account of some new Species of Birds of the Genera 
Psittacus and Columba, in the Museum of the Linnean 
Society. By M. C. J. Temminck, F.M.L.S. $c. p. 107 

XIII. Descriptions of three Species oj the Genus Glareola. 

By William Elford Leach, M.D. F.R.S. and L.S. p. 131 

XIV . Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from 
thehlandofjava. %Thos.Horsneld,M.Z>. F.L.S. p. 133 

XV. An Account of a new Genus of Plants, named Raffle- 

sia. By Robert Brown, Esq., F.R.S. Libr. LiS. p. 201 

XVI. Descriptions of the Wild Dog of Sumatra, a new Spe- 
cies of Viverra, and a new Species of Pheasant. By 
Major-Gen. Thomas Hardwicke, F. R.S. and L.S. p. 23.3 

XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, 
made on account of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, in the Island of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under 
the Direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough', with additional 
Notices illustrative of the Natural History of those 
Countries. By Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt. 
F.R.S. Communicated by Sir Everard Home, Bart., 
F.R.S. and L.S. ~ - - _ p. 239 


























Otiocerus and Anotia, 
Antilope Furcifer 
Horns of Antilope palmata 
Antilope lanigera 
Helix and Mytilus 
Cocculus incanus, &c. - 
Mormoops Blainvillii 
Osteomeles anthyllidifolia 
Cotoneaster acuminata 
Photinia dubia 
Chamaemeles coriacea J 
Glareola Pratincola 

Orientalis 1 

Australis J 

i Rafflesia Arnoldi 

to front Page 







TAB. XXIII. and XXIV. referred to in Pages 235 and 236, will be delivered with 

Part II. of this Volume. 




I. Observations on the Natural History and Anatomy of the 
Pelecanus Aquilus* of Linn a us. By Edward Burton, Esq. 

Read February 3, 1818. 

J. HIS bird is most commonly met with by ships crossing the 
Atlantic ocean, at a great distance from land, and soaring at 
an immense height in the air ; and is known to seamen by the 
names of Frigate Bird, Man-of-war Bird, Sea Eagle, and Hal- 
cyon. An opportunity having occurred to me of collecting seve- 
ral of them at the Island of Ascension, where they are found in 
vast numbers during the month of September, which appears to 
be their breeding season, I propose to give some account of 
their natural history and anatomy ; premising, that the specimens 
which I procured differ essentially in many particulars from the 
description of the same bird given by Linnaeus. 
The average dimensions of five were as follows : 
Extreme length between the tips of the extended wings, six 
feet ten inches ; length of each extended wing, three feet two 
inches and a half ; length of the largest of the wing-feathers, one 

* Tcchypetes aquila of Vieiilot. 
VOL. XIII. B foot 

2 Mr. Burton on the Natural History and Anatomy 

foot five inches ; length from the tip of the beak to that of the 
tail, three feet. 

The average weight of the bird with its plumage, is about two 
pounds twelve ounces ; without plumage, two pounds two ounces. 

The predominating colour is black ; but the back of the male 
is inclined to a glossy-green, similar to that of the common black 
cock. The plumage of the female is more dusky ; and she dif- 
fers from the male in having the abdomen and nearly the whole 
of the head white. The eye and parts immediately surrounding- 
it are black. The beak is of a dirty-yellowish white. The feet 
of the male are black ; those of the female, of a blueish-white. 

The beak is of great strength, and not less than four inches 
and a half in length ; both the upper and lower mandibles are 
curved sharply downwards towards the point. Like all the birds 
of this genus it has a superficial linear fissure on each side of 
the upper mandible ; and in the mouth are two large longitudi- 
nal slits or openings in the palate, near its centre. The tongue 
is also of the same nature as that of the Pelicans in general, very 
small and thin, forming an irregular triangle in shape, and it's 
greatest length not more than the third of an inch ; it is situated 
far back in the mouth, immediately above the opening of the 
trachea. The neck is considerably longer than that of most other 
birds of the same genus. The male bird is further distinguished 
from the female by a large fleshy bag or sac placed under the 
throat, of a bright-red colour, and in its flaccid state putting on 
a granulated appearance : when distended it is smooth, and en- 
larges to the size of a hen's egg. The use of this appendage is 
somewhat difficult to be understood ; but the fact, that when the 
bird is at rest the bag is totally flaccid, and when it rises into the 
air is immediately distended, (which from the heaviness of its 
flight can be distinctly seen,) renders it most probable that it is 
then filled with air, and assists in supporting the upper parts of 


of the Pclecanus Aquilus of Linnccus. % 

the body in its long and arduous flights. From its situation it 
is particularly adapted to aid the muscles of the neck IB sup- 
porting the head, which, from the weight of the beak and bones 
of the cranium, and the length of the neck, are apparently in 
want of some such relief. The only fact which interferes with 
this opinion is the want of this sac in the female, in which it i>> 
never found : if, therefore, it be given to the bird for the pur- 
poses which have been mentioned, it is to be supposed that onI\ 
the male makes these prodigious flights, and that the female 
remains constantly near the land, to which the other returns 
during the breeding season. 

In considering the structure of this bird, its most striking pe- 
culiarity consists in the disproportion which exists between the 
wings and the other extremities ; a disproportion so enormous, as 
probably not to be found in any other, if we except the Ostrich 
and Cassowary, where it is reversed. It may readily be con- 
ceived that the habits of the bird render its immense expanse of 
wing necessary, as it is frequently seen many hundred miles 
from any resting-place ; but the posterior extremity is so dimi- 
nutive, in comparison with the size and weight of the body, as 
apparently to be nearly useless. It is totally inadequate to the 
process of walking, as when on the ground the bird can be taken 
by the hand without difficulty ; and the structure of the foot, the 
toes of which are webbed only to their second joint, (which is 
little more than what is found in land-birds,) together with some 
other points in its anatomy, prove that it never rests on the 
water, and is deficient in the great peculiarity of all water-birds, 
the power of swimming. But as this is perhaps the only one of 
all the sea-birds which is deprived of that power, it may be proper 
to examine into the fact before it is assumed. 

In the first place, when seizing the food which was thrown to 

b 2 them 

4 Mr. Bukton on the Natural History and Anatomy 

them on the water, these birds merely skimmed along the sur- 
face till they could reach it with the beak, without closing their 
wings or immersing any part of the body, or sitting on the wave, 
as all the Pelicans and Procellarice do when feeding. Secondly, 
the structure of the feet before mentioned prevents them from 
making any progress in the water, when alighted on it. And, 
lastly, the gland placed above the tail of all swimming-birds, 
which secretes the oil necessary for preventing the plumage from 
becoming wet, in this species is of so trifling a size (being not 
larger than a garden pea) as to be totally insufficient for that 
office in so large a bird ; in proof of which may be alleged the 
circumstance of the feathers of those which when shot fell into 
the sea being entirely wet. 

However useless the posterior extremity may be on the water, 
it is nearly equally so on land ; for the bird is unable to run or 
raise itself into the air from the level ground ; and preparatory 
to its flight is obliged to scramble with its legs and expanded 
wings to the edge of some rock or uneven surface, where the 
wing can be put into action so as to hold the air. 

As, then, the Frigate-bird is unable to swim on the surface of 
the water, or to dive into it, and as its food is furnished from 
that element, we must conclude that it is dependent on its power 
of darting through the air on its prey, for its preservation and 
existence. Nature has provided it with a tail, of a particular 
structure, adapted to this action, and to this organ it is indebted 
for the precision and velocity with which it is performed. The 
tail consists of twelve proper tail-feathers, varying in length from 
seven and a half to sixteen inches, the smallest being placed in 
the centre, and the longest externally. When closed, it consists 
of a solid mass of plumage, and when spread, forms a large sur- 
face, and is forked like that of a swallow. It is capable of all 


of the Pelecanus Aqmlus of Linnn us, ,5 

the intermediate degrees of expansion. By spreading or con- 
tracting, raising or depressing these feathers, the bird is enabled 
to throw itself with the greatest velocity towards the surface of 
the water, and to seize substances on or near it, by the help of 
its long neck and beak, with the utmost precision, without im- 
mersing its body. The mechanism by which this action is per- 
formed will be explained when I speak of some of the most im- 
portant points of its anatomy. 

It has also another mode of supplying itself with food. Jt is 
seen accompanying flocks of sea-birds, chiefly the Pelecanus Pis- 
cator : as soon as these have dived after fish, and begin to ascend 
with their prey in the beak, it attacks them, and seizes what they 
have taken. Wherever a number of these birds are collected 
on or near the water, they are invariably accompanied by some 
Frigate-birds, which hover directly over them, or follow them 
in their flight. Their food consists almost entirely of fish, and 
chiefly of the Exocoetus volitans, or flying-fish, which are the most 
accessible to them ; though they probably occasionally feed on 
such of the Mollusca as come within their reach ; and will also 
seize pieces of pork, fowl's entrails, or any animal substance 
thrown to them. A young one, covered with down, without 
any appearance of feathers, except the primores of the wings, 
and unable to move, when taken vomited seven flying-fish; and 
the stomach and intestines of all those opened were full of the 
bones of small fish. 

The female deposits one egg, of a white colour, nearly re- 
sembling a hen's egg, though somewhat larger. The male bird 
sits, — a fact clearly established, as one was absolutely taken by 
the hand when sitting. At this time the female is employed in 
searching for food : at least this appears probable, from the cir- 
cumstance of all the male birds being taken on shore, while the 
females were shot at sea ; besides the great proportion of the lat- 

6 Mr. Burton on the Natural History and Anatomy 

ter which were constantly on the wing, as ascertained by the 
whiteness of the abdomen. 

This bird makes no nest ; it merely finds out some slight con- 
cavity among the rocks, where there is a little sand, on which it 
lays its egg. The young one after it is hatched is fed on fish 
brought to it by the parent birds. 


I shall only dwell on those parts of the anatomical structure 
of this bird which appear most essentially to differ from that of 
others of the same Linnaean genus ; and this is particularly the 
case in its osteology. The bones of the head in general are thick 
and heavy, and the cavity of the cranium extremely small in com- 
parison with the size of the head ; so much so, that this cavity of 
one of the genus Psittacus, of equal or even of inferior size, con- 
tains not less than three times the quantity of brain. The ver- 
tebrae of the neck are very numerous, and have great flexibility 
on each other. The number of the ribs on each side is seven ; 
the upper one is false, or unattached to the sternum ; the other 
six are true. The process given off by the second, third, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth, is situated about one-fourth of their length from 
the sternum, and just before the termination of the first division 
or joint ; it is of nearly similar breadth and thickness with the 
rib itself, of more than half an inch in length, and descends 
directly towards the next, lapping over its outer side. The 
inferior rib wants this process. These appendages serve to 
strengthen the parietes of the chest generally, to enable the ribs 
better to support the action of the muscles, and particularly to 
afford a more extensive surface for the attachment of the great 
pectoral muscles, the size of which accords with the magnitude 
of the wing. Each rib is divided into three separate portions, 
or bones, connected to each other and to the sternum by in- 

of the Pelecanus Aquilus of Linnceus. 7 

termediate cartilages. Of these the vertebral portion is tl , 
largest and strongest, and forms in the lower ribs about one half 
of the whole. The sternum, clavicles, and particularly the 
bones of the upper extremities, are of a size and strength out of 
all proportion with the other parts of the skeleton. The pecto- 
ral process of the sternum is very deep, to assist as much as pos- 
sible in giving an adequate surface of attachment to the pectoral 
muscles. The relative proportions of the bones of the anterior 
and posterior extremities are so extraordinary as to merit parti- 
cular observation ; on which account I shall mention some of 

The length of the Os humeri is ... 7^ inches. 



hat of the os humeri as 

Finn . . . 
Os femoris 
Tibia . . . 

The length of the os femoris then is to 

one to three and five-eighths ; and to that of the ulna or radius 

as one to four and three-fourths. 

The proportions of weight are yet more extraordinary. 

The weight of the Os humeri is . . . 175 grains. 

Ulna 140 ' 

Radius . ► . . - 64 
Os femoris . . » . 11 

Tibia 22 

The weight of the os femoris is to that of the os humeri as about 
one to fourteen ; and to that of the ulna as about one to eleven. 

The bones of the pelvis are so light as to be in many parts 
transparent ; and further to obviate the effect of weight, there is 
a double row of foramina running down each side of the os sa- 
crum,, which in the fresh state are filled with a thin ligament, to 


8 Mr. Burton on the Natural History and Anatomy 

which the muscles are attached, serving to lighten these parts 
still more. The acetabulum is also a large foramen, with the 
circumference a little raised and thickened ; and the head of the 
os femoris is so irregular, that its motion in the acetabulum must 
be very limited and imperfect ; forming an additional proof how 
useless this extremity is to the bird. 

The structure of the bones of the tail forms one of the most 
remarkable parts of the skeleton. They are adapted to give 
support to the great mass of tail-feathers, and form a surface of 
attachment for the numerous muscles necessary to the various 
and extensive motions of the tail. They are seven in number, 
six of which are vertebras, totally distinct from, and having a 
great degree of motion in every direction, on each other. A large 
and strong spinous process arises from every bone nearly per- 
pendicularly, and two long and thick lateral processes, varying 
in length from half to three quarters of an inch, and connected 
to each other by lateral ligaments. Every bone, between the 
spinous process and its body, is perforated for lodging the con- 
tinuation of the spinal marrow. The upper vertebra is the 
smallest, the size progressively increasing to the last, which is the 
largest of the six. The lateral processes of the upper vertebra 
have a bony union with the pelvis, as well as the inner surface 
of the body. Each vertebra has small obtuse articulating pro- 
cesses, the inferior being most conspicuous. The two last ver- 
tebrae are furnished with additional processes, no appearance of 
which is to be found in the others : these have a common ori- 
gin from the inner surface of the body of the bone, immediately 
become forked, and are turned obliquely towards the vertebra 
above, over which thdy lap, serving to give additional attach- 
ment to muscles. The structure of the seventh bone is altogether 
different from any of the preceding : in shape it has some ana- 
logy to the vomer of the human cranium, but is less in size, its 


of the Pelecanus Aquilus of Linnams. & 

longest dimension being about an inch. Its body is thin and 
transparent, consisting of two lamellae ; towards the root, where 
it is attached to the vertebra?, it becomes thicker, and has seve- 
ral perforations ; on the lower edge it has two depressions, which 
receive the spinous processes of the fifth and six vertebrae. This 
bone intervenes between, and serves to support two fatly masses 
or cushions, of a firm consistence and having almost a elan- 
dular appearance, into which the roots of the great tail-feathers 
are inserted ; these lie on the outer surface of the lateral pro- 
cesses of the vertebrae. To various parts of these masses and 
to the lateral processes of the vertebra? are attached seven di- 
stinct pairs of muscles for regulating the action of the tail, which, 
as has before been observed, appear to be of vital importance 
to the bird. The upper and largest pair arises fleshy from the 
dorsum of the pelvis, and tendinous from the back of the lateral 
processes of the vertebrae, and is inserted into the fatty Glasses 
before mentioned: four pairs of muscles of less size also arise 
from the lower edge of the pelvis, and from the ends of the up- 
per lateral processes, and have their attachment to the same 
parts : and two pairs have their origin from the inner surface ol 
the bodies of the vertebrae and the lower edge of the pelvis, and 
are attached close to the termination of the tail-feathers. It is 
apparent that the action of these muscles, either separately or in 
their different combinations, is equal to that variety of action, 
which it has been one of the objects of this paper to prove to be 
indispensably necessary to the bird's existence. 

The muscles of the upper extremities are large in proportion 
to the bones. The two great pectoral muscles alone are of so 
enormous a size as to weigh nearly one-fourth as much as the 
whole body of the bird. 

The liver occupies the greater part of the abdomen, and is 
divided into two lobes of nearly equal magnitude, of much 

vol. xui. c greater 

10 Mr. Burton on the Natural History and Anatomy 

greater length than breadth ; they run down through the whole 
cavity on each side of the spine. The gall-bladder is attached 
to the inferior surface of the right lobe, is very large, and in the 
birds dissected was found full of bile, in colour and consistence 
exactly resembling that found in the human gall-bladder. 

The oesophagus, as in all these birds, is extremely capacious, 
and very little inferior to the stomach in its dimensions ; a struc- 
ture well adapted to the precarious mode of feeding to which 
they are subject, as they are sometimes for a long time desti- 
tute of food, and at others gorge to such a degree as to fill not 
only the stomach, but the oesophagus and even the mouth with 
entire fish, which are left there to be digested at leisure. I have 
seen one of the Sulce, when taken, so full of flying-fish as to be 
unable to close its beak. The parietes of the oesophagus are 
nearly half an inch in thickness, and the longitudinal bands of 
muscular fibres are very large and distinct through the whole 
canal. The convolutions of the intestines are not numerous, 
and soon terminate in the cloacae. 

The volume of the brain, as has before been remarked, is par- 
ticularly small, considering the largeness of the head and body : 
indeed the same remark will hold good with regard to the gene- 
rality of sea-birds. 

The sac situated under the throat of the male is composed of a 
thin carunculous membrane, highly vascular, and in structure 
precisely similar to the gills of the common cock : when flaccid 
it is thrown up into rugae, but when distended it is smooth, and 
the appearance of follicles is lost. On the inside of this sac is 
placed a thin muscle, which, arising in the lower part of it, 
forms a loose expansion towards the centre, and sending off se- 
veral small tendinous chords, is attached by them to different 
parts of the superior parietes of the sac, exactly in the same 
manner as the chorda tendinece are attached in the ventricles of 


of the Pelecauus Aquilus of LimtUtm. 1 1 

the human heart. The use of this muscle is evidently to dimi- 
nish the cavity of the sac, and to expel the air which it contains 
when the bird is on the wing. I could not, however, discover 
by what aperture the air is admitted into, or expelled from it : 
no connexion between it and the mouth or trachea could be 
discovered either by the eye, the probe, or the blow-pipe, though 
the trachea is distinctly seen running behind it through its whole 
length. But as it becomes inflated as soon as the bird rises into 
the air, and remains flaccid while it is on the ground, little doubt 
can be entertained that it is a receptacle for air, and affords an 
additional facility to its flight. 

In conclusion it may be remarked, that the bird which ap- 
proaches nearest in its habits and general structure to the Fri- 
gate-bird, is the Phaeton athcrcus, or Tropic-bird. Both are 
seen at immense distances from the land, enveloped in clouds, 
and scarcely perceptible to the eye. Both seize on their food 
by darting through the air with inconceivable velocity. Neither, 
when placed on the level ground, can raise itself into the air. 
But the great peculiarities of the Frigate-bird are wanting in 
the Tropic-bird. No air-bag is found under its throat : the 
lower extremities, though very ill proportioned to the wings, are 
less so than in the Frigate-bird ; and the feet being webbed, it 
is able to swim, and to feed itself in that position : the plumage 
is also defended against the action of the water : the structure of 
the tail is less complicated, and the flight of the bird is chiefly 
guided by two feathers in it of extraordinary length : nor do the 
pectoral muscles bear so large a proportion to the size of the 

[!. The 

( 12 ) 

II. The Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia, two new Genera 
of Hemipterous Insects belonging to the Family of Cicadiada : 
with a Description of several Species. By the Rev, William 
Kirby, M.A. F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read March 2, 1819- 

1 ii e extensive family of Cicadiada, consisting of the two Lin- 
nean Hemipterous genera of Fulgora and Cicada, although my 
learned friend M. Latreille has done much towards reducing 
it to order, is by no means in a state of arrangement so perfect 
as to preclude further improvement. Considering the great 
beauty of some species, the almost incredibly singular and gro- 
tesque form of others*, and the celebrity which, from the earliest 
ages, has been attached to a third tribe of them+, it is wonder- 
ful that this family has not been more attentively studied, and 
its genera more accurately distinguished and defined. 

The characters afforded by these animals for such distinction 
are numerous and striking. Not to mention the promuscis J ; the 
situation, length, and composition of the antennee ; the presence 
or absence of the stemmata or ocelli, and their number and posi- 
tion ; the shape and place of the eyes ; the gence ; the front and 
ckfpeus, or rather nasus ; the shape of the thorax ; the figure, vein- 
ing, and substance of the elytra and wings ; and, to name no 
more, the anal apparatus of the sexes, furnish a variety of excel- 

* See Stoll's Cigales, Plate XXI. fig. 115; and XXV1IF. fig. 163, Ki4, Jt>9. 
t The 7Ym£ of the Greeks, and Cicada of the Latins. 

| By this name the rostrum of Hemiptera will be distinguished in the Introduction 
to Entomology of Kirby and Spenee. 


Rev. W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia. 13 

lent diagnostic marks by which the natural genera may be readily 
ascertained. Amongst the insects of this family, which I pur- 
chased at the sale of the late Mr. Francillon's Museum, 1 found 
seyeral that would not well arrange under any of M. Latreilles 
present genera ; but I was particularly struck by a set collected 
in Georgia, and admirably displayed by that expert collector, 
accurate delineator and painter, and most intelligent observer of 
natural objects, Mr. Abbot. Upon examining these attentively, 
I found that they clearly formed two nondescript and very distinct 
genera belonging to the subfamily of FnlgorelUc of the great en- 
tomologist before alluded to. 

1 now beg leave to lay before the Linnean Society the charac- 
ters of these two genera, with a description of the species in my 



Antenna, suboculares, elongata\ basi appendicular/^. 


Antenna suboculares, elongatae, exarticulata\ multiannulata. 

apice setigenv, basi appendiculatie : appendiculis antenni- 

formibus, elongatis, tortuosis. 
Oculi reniformes. 
Ocelli obsoleti aut nulli. 
Caput compressum, subtriangulare, supra et infra bicarinatum : 

fronte subrostrata ; rostro saepius subascendenti. 


CORPUS oblongum, immarginatum, parvum, agile : cute sub- 
Caput magnum, valde compressum, subtriangulare*, supra 

* Tab. I. fig. 1. 


14 Rev. W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia. 

et infra bicarinatum * : carinis approximates, inferiori- 
bus praecipue, plus minus ascendentibus, superioribus 
interdum rectis. Promnscis infiexa, filiformis, biarti- 
culata : articulo extimo brevissimo, ad basin pedum 
posticorum attingens. Labrum dimidiato-conicum a 
naso subdistinctum, promuscidis basin obtegens. Na~ 
5i/5 1 elevatus, compressus. Gena angustse, lineares, 
ad nasum adjacentes. Oculi\ laterales, postici, reni- 
formes. Stemmata, s. Ocelli, obsoleta vix cernenda. 
Antenn<£% inter nasum, ex processu oblongo 
tympaniformi membrana obtecta||, prodeuntes, fili- 
formes aut subclavatae, elongatae, subflexuosae, exarti- 
culatae, multiannulatse : apice umbilicato setigero; seta 
tenuissima, basi appendiculatae : appendiculis unica vel 
duabus, antennarum fere longitudine et forma, multi- 
annulatis, tortuosis, apice muticis. 
Truncus subglobosus. Thorax brevissimus, postice bifi- 
dus : lobis** divergentibus, utrinque deflexus : lateri- 
bus dilatatis rotundatis. Scut ell um cum dorsolo^, a 
quo vix distinctum, subrhomboidale. Post scut ellum^ 
triangulare. Lumbale^ utrinque spiraculo pertusum. 
Pedes longitudinaliter angulati : posticis saltatoriis. 
Coxce quatuor anteriores elongatae, lineares : posticis 
brevioribus, magnis, incrassatis. Trochanteres anteri- 
ores parvi climidiato-ovati femorum basi subtus ad- 
nexi : posticis duobus magnis femorum basin exci- 
pientibus. Femora filiformia. Tibice filiformes, apice 
calcarata? : calcaribus minutissimis. Tarsi triarticu- 

* Tab. 1. fig. Q,.aa,bb. f Ibid. fig. I. & % Ibid. fig. J. c. 

§ Ibid. fig. 1. d; and fig. 8. b. j| Ibid. fig. 1./; and fig. 8. a. ** Ibid. fig. 3. 
f1 J Dortolum, Post scut ell um, Lumbale. The reader will find these terms explained 
in the 1 1th volume of these Transactions, part i. p. 10.5. 

lati : 

Rev. \V. Kirby's Characters of Otioctrus and Anotia. 15 

lati : anterioribus quatuor articulo extimo brcvi^simo ; 
posticis articulo primo sequentibus longiori, secundo 
extimo breviori, omnibus spinulis semicoronatis, quod 
non in tarsis anterioribus obtinet. Tarsi omnes biun- 
guiculati : unguiculis simplicibus. Eli/Ira cuneiformia. 
corpore duplo longiora, membranaceo-pergamenoa*, 
neurosa^ ; areolis plurimis ; basalibus lmearibus, api- 
calibus parallelogrammicis. A lie dimidiato-eordata\ 
pergameno-membranacea^, elytris breviores et lati- 
Abdomen subtrigonum : carina dorsali ; segmentis dorsa- 
libus sex, ventralibus quinque ultimo reliquia majori in 
medio lobato : lobo rotunda to J ; imo fern inco apparatu 
sextuplici : laminis duabus inferioribus sinu magno su- 
pra excisis^, lateralibus oblongis|(, superioribus trian- 
gularibus basi intus rectangulis**"; ano masculo supra 
stylo elongato lineari basi incrassatott, subtus ibrcipe 
c laminis duabus foliiformibus oblongis concavis sur- 
sum arcuatis intus inferius sinuatis £$ instructo. 

Tliis genus is related both to Fulgora and Delphax ; from the 
former it borrows its rostrated front, and from the latter its reni- 
form eyes and elongate antennae. It is however distinguished 
by many peculiar characters, some of which are very singular. 
Of this description are its compressed head with a double edge 
both above and below, and its exarticulate multiannular an- 
tennae, furnished at their base with one or two long tortuous 

• The term pergameneus, in The Introduction to Entomology, is used to signify a 
substance between coriaceus and membranacem, somewhat resembling parchment. 
t For the explanation of this term, see Introduction to Entomology, 2d ed. ii. 347. 
% Tab. I. fig. 7. c. § Ibid. aa. || Ibid, b b. 

** Ibid. fig. <3. a a. ft Ibid. fig. 4. a. & Ibid, bb ; and fig. 5. on. 


16 Bev. W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia. 

appendages or auricles. Circumstances to be met with in none of 
the present genera of this or the other tribes of the Cicadiada. 
The absence of the ocelli, which are very visible in Fulgora and 
Delphai\ and the different composition of the anal apparatus of 
the sexes, furnish further striking distinctions that satisfactorily 
establish the claim of Otiocerus to stand per se as a genus. 

I possess no less than eight species, all from Georgia, belong- 
in o- to this o-enus, which I shall now describe. 

Degeerii. 1. O. rubescens, elytris virescente-punctatis : vasis 
roseis; apice summo pollinoso-niveo. 

Long. corp. lin, 3% 3. 
Expans. alar. lin. 10^ 8£. 

Corpus rubrum, supra dilutius. Caput longius rostratum : cari- 
nis niveis ; superioribus undulatis immaculatis, inferioribus 
nigro transverse striatulis. Antenna, in nostris speciminibus 
desunt. Elytra apice dilatata, albida : neuris roseis ; inter- 
stitiis punctis rotundis nigro- virescentibus irroratis. Elytri 
summus apex in medio ex pulvere niveus. A he albae : vasis 
roseis. Pedes pallidi. 

Mas femina minor : stylo ani inflexo, foliolis intus sinubus tri- 

Stollii. 2. O. rufescens, elytris alisque nigricantibus : vasis ro- 
seis, illis apice macula albida. 


Long. corp. lin. 3. 
Expans. alar. lin. 85. 

Corpus pallide rufum. Caput magnum, pallidum. Antenna, sen- 
sim paulo crassiores, capite breviores, fuscescentes, basi ap- 


Rev. W. Kirby's Characters ofOtioccrus and Anotia. 17 

pendiculis duabus antenna brevioribus. Elytra cum alls ni- 
gricantia: vasis rubescentibus, apice macula rotundata alW- 
da. Apicem versus margine anteriori elytra rosea sunt : punc- 
tis sex nigricantibus. Pedes albidi. 

Abbotii. 3. O. rufescens, alis lacteis, elytris pallidis nigro punc- 

Long. corp. lin. 2. 
Expans. alar. lin. 7- 

Corpus pallide rufum. Caput carinis niveis. Antenna breves, 
subclavatae, rufescentes, basi appendicula unica antenna lon- 
sjiori. Elytra luteo-alba, nigro sparse punctata, sed basis 
ipsa immaculata est. Alee lacteae, iricolores. Vcdes pall id i 

Mas vix femina minor, an tennis capitis fere longitudine : ap pen- 
diculis duabus antenna longioribus valde tortuosis. 

Var. /S. Elytris magis luteis. 

Francilloni. 4. 0. pallidus, alis lacteis, elytris nigro punctatis 

et fasciatis, abdomine utrinque punctis ni- 



Long. corp. lin. 3J. 
Expans. alar. lin. 8^-. 

Simillimus prsecedenti, sed major : corpore pallido, nullo modo 
rufescente ; capite nigro nebuloso : carinis inferioribus nigro 
punctatis, antennis nigricantibus : appendicula alba : Elytris 
totis nigro punctatis, nee basi immaculatis : fascia insuper 
obliqua, indistincta, interrupta, ex punctis et maculis nigrts 
contlata, maculis item tribus nigricantibus in margine postico. 
Ala prope basin intus puncto nigricanti notatae. Abdomen seg- 
ments ventralibus utrinque puncto nigro. 

vol. xiii. d Cogue- 

18 Rev. W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia. 

Coquebertii. 5. O. pallidus, elytris vitta apice furcata, puncto- 

que sanguineis. 

Tab. I. Fig. 14. 

Long. corp. lin. 3. 
Expans. alar. lin. 8|. 

Corpus pallidum. Caput utrinque vitta lata sanguinea. An- 
tenna; breves, clavatae, cum appendicula antenna paulo Ion- 
giori, rufescentes. Elytra pallida : vitta ante apicem fur- 
cata ; furca magna, lineolaque intermedia, pallide sanguineis. 
Alee lacteas. 

Reaumurii. 6. O. rufescente-pallidus, elytris vitta abbreviata 

apice dilatata punctisque quinque nigrican- 

Long. corp. lin. 2£. 
Expans. alar. lin. 7. 

Corpus pallidum rufo dilutius tinctum. Caput carinis superiori- 
bus rectis niveis. Oculi subaurati. Antenna? in nostro spe- 
cimine desunt. Elytra vitta lata subarcuata apice dilatata, 
punctisque insuper quinque, tribus in ipsa vitta, nigricanti- 
bus. Neurai rufescentes. Alat sublacteae, iricolores. 

Schellenbergii. 7. O. pallidus, capite sanguineo, elytris absque 

vasis roseis. 

Long. corp. lin. 2. 
Expans. alar. lin. 7i- 

Corpus pallidum. Caput oblongum, sanguineum : rostro obtu- 
sion vix ascendenti ; carinis superioribus approximatis niveis, 


Rev. W. Ktrby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia. If) 

inferioribus fere coalitis albis. Antenna cum appendicula 
sanguinea?. Elytra lutescentia : neuris, costaque apud api- 
cem, roseis. Ala lacteal : neuris roseis. 

JVolfii. 8. 0. pallidus, elytris luteolis: vitta fracta punctisque 
sparsis nigricantibus. 

? 6 
Long. corp. lin. 2|. 2 } 2 . 
> Expans. alar. lin. 8*. 7j« 

Corpus pallidum. Caput vitta obscuriuscula sanguinea lineola 
nigra in rostri apice terminate : carinis superioribus rectis. 
Antenna; clavata?, rufescentes : appendicula pallida antenna 
tenuiori longiori. Elytra luteola : vitta obscuriuscula in me- 
dio fracta, vel primum a basi ad marginem posticum et dein 
ad marginem anticum oblique ducta, punctisque quibusdain 
sparsis nigricantibus. Ala lactea?. 

Mas femina minor : antennis appendicula item unica sed lon- 
giori. Oculi subaurati. 

Two of the other males above described, viz. of 0. Stollii 
and Abbot ii, have two appendages at the base of their anten- 
na?, but in 0. JVolfii they have only one ; so that the genus 
seems divisible into two sections, * Antennis mascnlis appendi- 
culis duabus, **Antennis mascnlis appendicula unica. I would 
not thus arrange the species here described, because I possess 
the males of only three of them, and in one of these (0. T)e&eerii) 
the antennae and appendages are broken off. 

d i 


20 Rev, W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Anotia, 



Antenna suboculares, biarticulatae : articulo primo brevissiroo* 
extimo elongato infra apicem setigero. 


Antenna suboculares, biarticulatae: articulo primo brevissimo, 

extimo elongato paulo infra apicem setigero. 
Oculi prominuli, semilunati. 
Ocelli obsoleti aut nulli. 
Caput compressum, subtriangulare, supra et infra bicarinatum : 

fronte subrostrata ; rostro recto. 

Obi. Character Naturalis fere ut in genere prsecedenti : seel 
Caput rostro haud ascendenti : carinis superioribus thoracem 
versus divergentibus, inferioribus approximatis pectus versus 
convergentibus et demum coalitis. Promuscis brevissima vix 
basin pedum intermediorum attingens. Nasus capitis fere 
longitudine*. Oculi prominentes, semilunati t. Antenna ca- 
pite longiores, biarticulatae : articulo primo brevissimo et vix 
ulloj, secundo elongato, sublineari, compresso, subannulato, 
sursum apice oblique truncato et subemarginato, ex emar^i- 
natura paulo infra apicem summum setigero §. Thorax lobis 
subfractis, apice subemarginatis||. Elytra basi antice dente 
prominulo reflexo, neurosa : areolis intermediis difformibus, 
apicalibus triangularibus. Ala dimidiato-ellipticae. 

This genus is intermediate between Otiocerus and Delpliax, 
but distinguished from both by peculiar characters. From the 

* Tab. I. fig. 9- b. t Ibid. c. % Ibid. e. 

% Ibid. d. and fig, JO. ah | Ibid. fig. 11. 


Rev. W. Kirby's Character's of Otiocerus and Anotia. 21 

former, by wanting the appendages at the base of the antenna* ; 
by the comparative shortness of its promuscis; by its very \>k- 
minent semilunar eyes ; by the greater length of its nasus ; by 
the difference observable in the veining of its elytra ; and tin- 
angular tooth at their anterior base : — and from the latter, by its 
compressed, bicarinate, subrostrated head ; by the comparative 
length of the joints of its antennae, the first joint in Delpkax 
being very long* ; by the absence of the remarkable spur which 
arms the posterior tibiae of the latter genus ; by its differently- 
shaped and veined elytra ; by the absence of ocelli ; and by its 
anal appendages, which in Dclphax come nearer to those of 
Cicada Latr.t I possess only a single individual of this genus, 
which is a female, with an anal apparatus similar to that of Otio- 

Bonnetii. 1. A. 

Tab. I. Fig. 15. 

Long. corp. lin. \\. 

Expans. alar. lin. 5J. 
Corpus pallidum. Caput triangulare : linea aurantiaca ab ocu- 
lis ad rostri apicem ducta. Oculi pallidi. Atitenna capite 
longiores. JLlytra lutescentia : maculis hyalinis; neura ob« 
liqua in disco apici propiori, nigra ; costa apicem versus san- 
guineo transverse lineatula. In apice ipso puncta quatuor 
nigricantia notanda. Ala subhyalinae : neura disci transversa 
anteriori nigricanti. 

In my specimen of this insect the head is in the vertical posi- 
tion represented in the sketch J; but this is most likely the di- 
rection the animal gives it, when it prepares to use its promuscis : 
w "hen at rest and unemployed, the head probably assumes a ho- 
rizontal direction. 

* Tab. I. fig. n.a. f Ibid. fig. 13. % Ibid. fig. 9. 


22 .Ret'. W. Kirby's Characters of Otiocerus and Aiwtia, 

These two genera, though they belong to the sub-family of 
Fulgorella Latr., distinguished by subocular antennae, require 
to be placed in a subdivision of it by themselves, on account of 
their want of ocelli. 


Details of Otiocerus. 

Fig. 1. The Head. a. The Rostrum, bl The Nasus. c. The 
Eye. d. The Antenna, ee. The Appendages. /'.The 
Process from which the Antenna and Appendages pro- 

2. A lateral view of part of the Head to show the Carina?. 

a a. The upper Carina?, bb. The lower Ditto. 

3. Part of the Thorax, a. One of the Lobes of Ditto. 

4. Lateral view of the Anus of the Male. a. The styliform 

Process, bb. The foliiform Ditto. 

5. Under view of Ditto, a a. The foliiform Processes. 

b. The Male Organ ? 

6. The upper side of the Anal Apparatus of the Female. 

a a. The upper pair of Lamina?, bb. Part of the late- 
ral Ditto. 

7- The under side of the same Apparatus, a a. The lower 
pair of Lamina?, bb. The lateral Ditto, c. The last 
ventral Segment of the Abdomen. 

8. Part of the Head of another Species, the Antenna cf which 
has only one Appendage, a. The Process from which 
the Antennae, &c. proceed, b. The Antenna, c. The 


Tr,i*.< luu 

-.r ».-./* 




Rev. W. Kirby'z . Characters.^ OUocerus and Anotia. 23 

Details of Anotia. ' > .. - 

Fig. 9. The Head. a. The Rostrum, b. The Xasus. c. The 
Eye. de . The Antenna. . \ 

10.. Part of the Antenna, a. The emarginate Apex) b. The 

, • < .*< Oeld.. , ., ■ », 

', , 11. Part of the Thorax, a. One of the Lobes of Ditto. 
S@me" Details of Delphax Fabr. 

Fio;. 12,, The Antennae, a. The first Joint. , b. The! second 

Ditto, c. The Seta. • ■* 

.. - - . . j i. . •. . . 

> 13. Its Anus. a. Ovipositor? answering to or a in fig. 7. 

bb. Lateral Laminae, answering to bh in figs; fraud 7- 

v. ' 

14. Otiocerus Coquebcrtii. 

j'j ' -15. Anotia Bon?ietii. 


. . , . , .• -■ ... 

j. .. , 

■ . - ■ r 

. . . ■ 

. i 


i ■ ■ ■ • 

,- . HI. Ob- 

( 24 ) 

III. Observations on the Germination of Mosses : in a Letter th 

William 3 ackson Hooker, Esq. F.L.S. By Mr. James Dru\fi- 

jnond, A.L.Sr 

Read March 2, 1819- 
Dear Sir, 

If you think the following account of some experiments made 
in the Cork Botanic Garden, by sowing the powder found in the 
ripe capsules of Funaria hygrometrica, and their results, would 
throw any light on this hitherto obscure part of the physiology 
of Mosses, I should feel much obliged if you would forward it 
to the Linnean Society. 

The way in which young mosses are produced from the seeds 
being nearly the same in more than thirty different kinds which 
I have had an opportunity of observing, I select the Funaria 
hygrometrica, on account of its being one of the most common 
and best adapted for experiments. 

In the month of May 1817 I sowed the powder found in the 
ripe capsules of this moss on pots of earth, previously prepared 
by baking in a metal oven. I plunged the pots in a basket 
amongst moist Sphagnum palustre, and the whole I kept covered 
with a large cap-glass, and shaded occasionally from the sun. 

My object being to ascertain by different means the form of 
the young plants, I sowed at the same time some seeds of the 
moss in rain-water, in which I found them readily germinate ; 
and by daily examining with a compound microscope the seeds 
sown in water, and comparing them with the young plants pro- 

Mr. DnrMMoyn on the Germination of }fosses. 

duced in pots of earth, I had an opportunity of observing their 
true structure, which I found to agree in many particulars with 
Hedwig's account and figures of tin- same muss, as given in vol.i. 
part ii. of the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britanmca; but 
I was not able, by the most careful examination, to discover the 
roots which Hedwig figures and describes, 

The seeds of mosses in germinating produce only one kind of 
appendages, which Hedwig describes as cotyledons ; but to me 
they appear to differ essentially from ;my of the parts ire are 
acquainted with in the seeds of phrcnogamous plants. 

In Funaria hifgromctvica they make their appearance 1 on the se- 
cond day after sowing, in the form of pellucid points, evidently 
growing out of the substance of the seed. On die fourth day 
each minute plant had from one to three of these appendages, 
each appendage growing out of a different part of the brown 
covering of the seed, which sometimes appeared torn, as de- 
scribed by Hedwig, from the bursting out of these filaments. 
On the seventh day they appeared, when magnified with the 
highest power of a compound microscope, to be about two lines 
in length, obtuse, jointed ; and when growing in water, having 
some green-coloured particles appearing within them, similar to 
what we find deposited in the cells of the leaves in a more ad- 
vanced state of the plant. But I observed that some of the 
articulated filaments in the pots of earth penetrated the soil in 
every direction and formed the roots, those filaments only being 
of a green colour which were growing on the surface. On 
the tenth day I found these filaments beginning to throw out 
branches. In a fortnight the surface of the pots appeared as if 
covered with green velvet, from the numerous branched fila- 
ments that covered every part of the soil. About the end of the 
third week the true leaves of the moss began to make their ap- 
pearance, shooting up amongst the green articulated filaments, 
vol. xin. e and 

26 Mr. Drummond on the Germination of Mosses. 

and attached to them in the same way that we see the serrated 
leaves and capsules produced in Phascum serration. 

That the articulated filaments, supposed by Hedwig to be the 
cotyledons of mosses, are essentially different from the seed- 
leaves of phamogamous plants, will appear from the following 
experiment : — I removed a portion of the surface from the pots 
in which I had mosses growing from seeds, and I found (pro- 
vided I did not go deeper than the conferva-like substance had 
penetrated) that the green part of the conferva, and ultimately 
the moss itself, was reproduced. And I have since found, that the 
small creeping roots of Folytrichum commune and other mosses, 
when the soil in which they grow is exposed to the air, throw 
out green articulated filaments, and produce young plants in a 
much shorter time than what it takes to produce them from 
seed. I find the time which mosses remain in the conferva 
state, before they produce their true leaves, to vary considerably 
in different species, and even in the same species under different 
circumstances. When regularly supplied with moisture, Funaria 
hygrometrica, Gymnostomum pyriforme, Didymodon purpureum, 
Bryum hornum % and some others produce their true leaves in 
about three weeks from the time of sowing; Folytrichum undula- 
tum requires two months ; and Folytrichum aloides sometimes 
continues four months in the conferva state ; the last mentioned 
in that state is the well-known Byssus vehttina, an excellent draw- 
ing of which is given in Dillwyn's British Cojifervce, Plate 77. 

The duration of the green part of the conferva-like filaments 
on the surface, after the mosses produce their true leaves, 
depends much upon the soil and situation in which they grow ; 
in Phascum serratum and Folytrichum aloides they are almost 
always present; and in some mosses, supposed to be annual, I 
have found them remain and throw up plants in succession 
for several years. 


Mr. Dbummond on the Germination of Mosses. 27 

In collecting the seeds of Funaria hygromeirica and other 
mosses for sowing, I selected the most mature and perfect 
capsules I could get ; but I did not find it necessary for the suc- 
cess of my experiments that the seeds should be discharged from 
the mouth of the capsule. And it is easy to ascertain, by sowing 
Funaria hygromeirica in water, that every grain of powder found 
in perfect capsules will germinate. 

Cork Botanic Garden, I am, &C. 

May 4, 1818. 

James Diiummond. 


E 2 IV. Ob- 

( 28 ) 

IV. Observations on some Animals of America allied to the Genus 
Antilope. By Charles Hamilton Smith, Esq. A.L.S. 

Read May 4, 1819- 

Antilope Furcifer. 

Prong-horned Antelope. Travels of Lewis and Clarke. 
Le Cabrit or Cabree of the Canadian Voyageurs ? 

Tab. II. 
The specimen from which the annexed drawing was taken is 
in the museum of Mr. Peel at Philadelphia ; it is the only one 
preserved of those which Messrs. Lewis and Clarke sent to the 
President of the United States during their exploratory travels 
up the Missouri. It is a complete skin of an adult male, stuffed 
with great skill, although in a very indifferent state of preserva- 
tion. Through the liberality of Mr. Peel I was enabled to make 
the drawing, and to take the following dimensions : 

Total length from nose to tail ... 5 feet 8 inches. 
Height from the top of the shoulders to 

the soles of the fore-feet ... 3 1 

Length of the head 1 o 

From the base to top of the horns in a 

straight line 9 

Ditto ditto along the curve . . 11 

Distance from tip to tip 10J 

Circumference of the body behind the 

fore-legs 3 4 

"Length of the tail fy 


^fc-?^££ tow* 

/'//<»« Swit/i ,/?/ 

. f /tt///n/tc /A/rr/^ /. 

Mr. C. II. Smith's Observations on some Animals, §c. 29 

In the general aspect this animal resembles the chamois, 
though considerably larger in all its dimensions : the nose is 
small, and the nostrils are formed like those of a sheep ; the 
forehead broad, with the edges of the orbits of the eyes strong 
and prominent ; above and somewhat within the posterior part 
of the orbits are placed the horns, which in form and character 
differ from every known animal of the ruminating order ; they 
are about five inches in circumference at the base, laterally com- 
pressed, nearly flat on the inside and roundish on the outside ; 
obscurely wrinkled and striated, and marked, principally on the 
inside, with small horny pearls resembling those on the horns 
of the stag. From the base they carry the same thickness up- 
wards about seven inches, where the anterior part terminates in 
a compressed and striated snag, pointing forwards and upwards, 
and forming a fork with the posterior part, which becomes sud- 
denly round and taper, and curves backwards and inwards, end- 
ing in an obtuse point : their position on the head is nearly two 
inches asunder, hanging slightly forwards and outwards over the 
eyes ; the colour brown-black ; the horny substance is thin at 
the base and a little translucent, and the hollow within sufficient 
to fit the two forefingers of a man's hand. The teeth, as far as 
they were visible, appeared similar to those of other antelopes 
of equal size. No lachrymary sinus was distinguishable, nor 
could I detect the existence of similar cavities behind the horns, 
as are observed in the chamois. The ears are about six inches 
long, narrow, pointed, fawn-coloured, and lined inside with 
long white hairs. The forehead, nose, temples, neck, back 
and hams are of a foxy dun-colour, with the sides paler : the 
lips, chin, throat, a spot below the ears, one under the throat, 
breast and belly yellowish-white : the croup, and the long hairs 
which form a tuft on the stump of the tail, clear white. All 
the legs are bright ochre-colour, slender, yet firm. The pasterns 


30 Mr. C. H. Smith's Observations on some Animals 

remarkably long, and the hoofs small, pointed and black, mea- 
suring scarcely half an inch from the crown to the sole : there 
are no tufts on the knees. The texture of the hair is soft and 
straight, falling off readily : from between the shoulders it points 
forward on the ridge of the neck, and from the horns, where it 
is longer, it turns backwards, meeting at the occiput, where it 
forms a kind of tuft. The eye, according to a memorandum, 
is hazel-colour ; and the whole animal presents a character unit- 
ing vigour with considerable beauty. 

Having had an opportunity of showing the drawing to a very 
intelligent Indian of the Kluche nation*, inhabiting the western 
branches of the Stony Mountains, he recognised the figure im- 
mediately, and stated its name to be Kistu-he, or, as he translated 
it, Little Elk. He observed that during winter, when enormous 
heaps of snow cover the mountains, these animals come down 
into the plains, and that they are at that time covered with long 
whitish hairs. 

The species is found over a vast extent of country in central 
North America, ranging in small herds, or rather families, along 
the middle regions of the Stony Mountains, where they seem to 
fill the station which the chamois does in the Alps ; mixing occa- 
sionally with the American Argali, which occupies the summits. 
They spread to the eastward along the banks of the Upper Mis- 
souri, and are remarkable for prodigious fleetness : to this capa- 
city Messrs. Lewis and Clarke bear ample testimony ; yet the 
Indians hunt them with success. In the memoranda of a journal 
written by Mr. Charles Le Rey, a Canadian trader, who passed 
several years of captivity among the Siour Indians, it is stated 
that, being with the hunters on the river Jaime in pursuit of these 

* This man had come from Nootka-Sound, and had been for some years a servant 
to an English fur-merchant : he spoke English, and bore a singular resemblance to a 
Chinese Tartar. 


7hau LiruuStrc. VblJEZTa& 




w « 


f S//.J f 

>/ - r //////,/,, Aa/ma/iz 

I.lurti.\ sculp 

of America allied to the Ge?ius Antilopi . 31 

animals, the party selected for the sport a hill the ascent of which 
was gradual, but the opposite side precipitous : at the bottom of 
the slope they formed a chain of hunters, and crawled gradually 
and simultaneously towards the summit, inducing the gaitie to 
approach the precipice. When arrived at a convenient height, 
they all suddenly rose and gave a loud yell, which terrified the 
timid creatures so completely, that most of them sprang over the 
brink and were dashed to death in their fall. Upwards of sixty 
cabrits and big-horned sheep were thus slain in a single beat * 


Mctzame ? Hernandes. 

Tab. III. 

I have adopted the trivial appellation of Palmated .Antelope 
merely to distinguish an animal the horns of which are preserved 
in the museum of Surgeons'-college, Lincoln's-Inn Fields. I 
am indebted to Sir Joseph Banks for the knowledge of the exig- 
ence of this highly interesting specimen, and to the liberality of 
the Curators of that splendid establishment for permission to 
make a drawing, of which the annexed is a copy. All I could 
learn of their history is, that they were presented to Mr. Hunter 
without a memorandum ; consequently without giving any idea 
of the animal, or of the country from which they were brought. 
By some persons they were considered as a monstrous produc- 
tion : in their appearance, however, they bear so great a resem- 
blance to the horns of the animal before described, that they 
are either of a species immediately allied to it, or possibly only 
a variety. 

Part of their base is wanting ; what remains is about eleven 
inches and a half long, measured upon the curve. At their pre- 

* There is an imperfect copy of this journal printed at the end of A Topographical 
Description of the State of Ohio, 8vo. Boston, 1812. — I have seen a manuscript. 


32 Mr, C. II. Smith's Observations on some Animals 

sent base they are two inches and a half in their greater diame- 
ter, by one across. The anterior and posterior parts are com- 
pressed into a sharp edge, exhibiting the appearance of a hard, 
black and brittle horny scabbard, with the surface strongly 
pearled and striated for about seven inches towards the summit : 
here the anterior part of each horn terminates in a compressed, 
leaf-like, obtuse, deflected, striated and pearled point ; the pos- 
terior part assuming a round, taper, and regularly uncinated 
form, much larger and more pointed than the preceding. Upon 
or near the ridge which unites the leaf-like part to the after- 
horn, are one or two small knobs or button-like horny pearls, 
somewhat resembling the buds of incipient ramification. 

In the museum these horns are placed together upon a bit of 
wood ; but I apprehend their relative situation to be trans- 
posed : that is, that the right horn is fixed on the left side. This 
I judge from the analogy they bear to those of the Prong-horned 
Antelope ; and because, if the hooks bent outwards, they would 
arrest the progress of the animal. I have therefore ventured to 
place them in the drawing in what I presume to be their true 
position. The reasons which induce an opinion that these horns 
belong not to a variety, but to a species distinct from the Prong- 
horned Antelope, are, that the section of the base of the Palma- 
ted Antelope's horn is lozenge-shaped ( -=cr=- ) ; whereas that 
of the Prong-horned Antelope is a compressed oval ( <ZZ> ) : 
that the former is on both sides striated and pearled to the bottom, 
or at least as far as the present base ; while the latter is only stria- 
ted on the surface next the forehead, and wrinkled on the outer 
side : — that these are not sexual differences, is evident from the 
horns of thePalmatediintelope being more bulky than the others, 
which belong to an adult male. Hence it may be concluded that 
they belong to a new and as yet undescribed species, the habitat 
of which will probably be found to be in some mountainous 


of America allied to the Genus Antilopc. :):) 

part of America. It is perhaps proper to observe that the ( < r- 
vus pygargus of Pallas, as figured in Schreber's plates, bear> a 
strong resemblance in many particulars to the first-described 
species. I am ignorant whether Professor Pallas had opportu- 
nities to examine this species of deer with his usual accuracy , 

It appears that the early writers who noticed the natural his- 
tory of the new hemisphere were acquainted with one, and pro- 
bably the Palmated species of these animals. 1 had an oppor- 
tunity of comparing the figure of the Mazame in ilernaudrv 
with the stuffed specimen at Philadelphia; and though the i u- 
graving is clumsily executed, there can be no doubt that it was 
done from one of these animals, and the description distinctly 
points out the most prominent characters. " Ma/ames," it u 
observed, " caprarum mediocrium, paulove majori, constant 
magnitudine ; pilo teguntur cano et qui facile avellatur, fulvo- 

que ; sed lateribus et ventre candentibus Cornua gestant 

juxta exortum lata,ac inpaucos parvosque teretes ac praacutos 
ramos divisa et sub eis oculos." Recchus justly viewed this and 
another species which I shall presently notice, as Antelopes., or, 
in the language of his time, as Capreae. lie says, " Hos (Te- 
lethcalmacame et Temamacame) ego potius computaverim in 
Capreos quam inter Cervos*." 

Antilope Mazama. 
Antelope of Honduras ? Anderson's Hist, of Honduras, 8vo. 
Mazame seu Cervus cornutus. Seba, tab. xlii. fig. 3. 

Count de Buffon, in his article Des Mazames*, assumes that 
there were neither musks, antelopes, nor goats, nor any analo- 

* Nard. Ant. Recchus apud Hernandesium, lib. ix. cap. xiv. p. 324 et 325. figure 
ad ipsas paginas. 

t The word Mazame or Macame is derived from the Mexican Macatl, which 1 
apprehend Baron Humboldt has affixed without sufficient reflection to the Virginian 

VOL. XIII. F * U & 

34 Mr. C. II. Smith's Observations on some Animals 

gous animals in America at the time of the discovery of that conti- 
nent. This opinion, for which he certainly could not have suffi- 
cient grounds, led him into the error of ascribing the animals men- 
tioned by Recchi in Hernandes, to the deer or roebuck kind. In- 
deed, the singular form of the horns in one species, rudely figured 
in the work, sufficiently justified a doubt, if he had not persisted 
in describing the other and the two figures in Seba as deer or as 
African animals, notwithstanding that the last-mentioned au- 
thor, who obtained many of his specimens from Dutch Guiana, 
positively asserted that they were both from New Spain. The 
existence however of one, if not of both the species, in the 
warmer parts of America, is established in my own mind from 
the following circumstance. 

Some years ago, while I was on the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico, under circumstances peculiarly unfavourable to research 
in natural history, the canoe in which I was having anchored 
within the river St. Juan, the Musquito Indians who were with 
me brought an animal on board, inferior in bulk to a domestic 
goat, but higher on the legs ; in aspect resembling a small lean 
sheep, with soft hair instead of wool : the horns about six inches 
long, obscurely annulated, dark-coloured, bent back and pointed : 
general colour pale-rufous brown : belly, inside of legs, breast 
and chin yellowish-white : grey about the eyes and nostrils : tail 
thick and short : legs more stout than those of African ante- 
lopes : hoofs black : and the whole animal somewhat heavy in 
make. . I was then unacquainted with the figure in Seba, and it 
appeared an undescribed species. Having, however, no mate- 
stag. As far as my own inquiries have gone, the word is generic for the deer, ante- 
lopes and musks of America. Tetlelcal Ma fame, Temma Madame, Mafatl Chichiltic, 
Yziac Macame, Tlamacaz que Macatl, Quauht Madame, and Tlahuica Ma fame, all 
denote different animals, some of which are certainly not deer. I shall perhaps resume 
this subject, if opportunities should offer, to notice several species of deer of America, 
some of which are new, and the others imperfectly known. 


of America allied to ike Genus Ant Hope. .,."; 

rials for making memoranda, I was obliged to defer it ; and m\ 
hungry companions soon disposed of it. I wrote to (lie lata 
Dr. Brown* upon the subject, and lie consulted Dr. Dancer of 
Jamaica, who pointed out the figure in Seba ; but as there 
was no copy of this work within my reach, I was obliged t<> 
defer my inquiries until my return to Europe. The figure \\i 
Seba is incorrect in expression; but when compared with his 
description to my own memorandum, the identity appears to 
me fully established. He observes, " Mazame seu Cervus cor- 
nutus. Haec species omnino ditl'ert ab ilia quam Guinea pro- 
fert. Capite et collo, crassis curtisque est, et bina gcrit tornata 
quasi cornicula, in acutum recurvumque apicein ConveTgentia, 
retrorsum reclinata. Auricula grandes, flaccid® ; at oculi \e- 
nusti. Cauda crassa, obtusa. Pilus totius corporis subrufus 
est, paulo tamen dilutior, qui caput et ventrem tegit. Femora 
cum pedibus admodum habiliaV Button, who confounds his 
Cariacou with the Mazames, did not observe that the Cariacou 
or female of the Bajeu deer of Guiana has a small moist muz/Ie 
like the rest of the deer kind ; while the Mazames or antelopes 
of the same country have the nose of a sheep ; at least as far 
as they have come under my observation. In the History of 
Honduras by Mr. Anderson, the antelope is noticed ; but (I 
quote from memory) he represents it as perfectly similar to 
A . Dorcas. The specimen which I saw, appeared however to 
bear a greater resemblance to the figure of the Chinese ante- 
lope about the head, or even to A. Saiga, than to the Dorcas: 

* Surgeon of the Royal Artillery at Port Royal, and known as a botanist. 

t As I have not drawn the figure from the animal, but rather from recollection and 
the sight of Seba's, I refer to that author for it. His collection was purchased by the 
Prince of Orange, and passed along with it into the Museum of Paris. It is to be 
hoped, that, should the specimen still exist, a better figure will be published there. I 
cannot help observing, that the horns of this animal have a singular resemblance to those 
of the A. lanigera and the A. Sumatremis. 

f 2 but 

36 Mr. C. H. Smith's Observations on some Animals 

but as I am not positive as to the sex or age of mine, his judge- 
ment may be more correct. 

Antilope Temamazama. 

Cervus Macatl chichiltic seu Temamazame ? Seba. 

Capra Pudu. Molina ? 

Ovis Pudu. Linn. Syst. Gmel. 

Spring-back of New Jersey ? 

I now come to a fourth species of American Antelope, the 
existence of which is more doubtful ; but which, in the opinion 
of the natives of the United States, formerly abounded and is 
still occasionally found in the state of New Jersey, where it is 
known by the name of the Spring-back. This denomination is 
a corruption from the Dutch spring-bock ; and these people 
being the first settlers in that colony makes the term bock (male 
of the goat) the more remarkable, because their forests abounded 
with the American roebuck and Virginian deer : they must 
therefore have been acquainted with the appearance of cervine 
horns in all their varieties of age and species ; consequently the 
animal so named must have borne a character which justified in 
some measure the term applied. This character, it is asserted, is 
that of the antelope, though it is possible that it refers in reality 
to a species of deer whose horns are alwa} r s single shoots. In 
the Museum of Philadelphia there is a part of a skull with the 
horns attached to it brought out of the Jerseys, and said to be 
those of the spring-back : they are however decidedly cervine, 
and the production of a young deer, or of an undescribed species. 
But the misapplication of a name does not destroy the probabi- 
lity of the existence of an analogous animal to the antelope, if not 
any longer in New Jersey, at least in the hills and sandy plains 
along the frontier of New Mexico and the province of Santa Fe. 

I pos- 

of America allied to the Genus Ant Hope. \] 

I possess a copy of a drawing obtained from an American 

gentleman, who stated it to have been taken from an animal shot 
near the sources of the Red River. Jt> form is light and Ren- 
der; the nose small and ovine; ears long, narrow, and rounded 
at the tips ; the tail several inches in length, and carried erect 
like that of a goat. In the memorandum accompanying the 
drawing, the size was stated "to equal a large kid ; die horns to 
be above five inches and a half long, black, slender, and wrinkled 
at the base, lying straight along the prolongation of the fore- 
head, diverging and then bending back at a slight angle." The 
colour resembles that of a roebuck, but is somewhat more rufous : 
the mouth, a patch on the throat, belly, and inside of the le$rs 
and underpart of the tail, white ; the eves dark and lull. 

This description will hardly admit the supposition of the ani- 
mal's being a modification of the domestic goal run wild. It 
agrees with the Ovis Puclii of Molina : but the figure in Seba, 
and still more his description, coincide. lie says, in the expla- 
nation of Tab. xlii. no. 4 : " Cervus Macatl chichiltic seu Tem- 
mamacame dictus. Horum ingens numerus per alia montium 
Novae Hispaniae divagatur, qui gramine, foliis, herbisque victi- 
tantes, cursu saltuque velocissimi sunt. Europaeos cervos habitu 
referunt, sed instar hinnulorum valde parvi. Cornua tornata, 
recurvatum in acumen convergunt, quae singulis annis, nova 
spira aucta, eetatem animalis produnt. Cornuum color eora- 
cinus. Oculi auresque magni et agiles. Dentes pnegrandes et 
lati. Cauda pilis longis obsita ; brevioribus et dilute spadiceis 
universum corpus vestitur." Referring to ITernandes, we find 
a similar animal figured, but with very heavy proportions. Hi* 
specimen is perhaps a variety ; for the " brevissimis cornibus 
acutissimisque, coloris fulvi, fusci et inferne albi" differs from the 
above, but resembles in the colour of the belly the figure in my 
collection. See Hernandes, p. 325. 


38 Mr, C. H. Smith's Observations on some Animals 

Antilope lanigera. 

Rupicapra Americana. Blainville. 

Ovis montana. Ord. 

Tab. IV. 

This species, which Mr. Ord has noticed, in a Memoir read to 
the Society of Philadelphia, under the denomination of Ovis 
montana, exhibits a compound character sufficiently anomalous 
to render a precise classification very questionable. Dr. Blain- 
ville, in his newly proposed subdivision of the genus Antilope, 
has arranged it next to and in the family of Chamois or Rupi- 
capra?, under the appellation of Rupicapra Americana. There 
is, however, no coincidence of characters to justify this arrange- 
ment ; unless it be that this animal like the chamois inhabits 
mountainous regions. The Prong-horned Antelope has a better 
claim to the denomination of chamois; and the epithet Ameri- 
cana is of too vague a nature, as several congeners are already 
known to exist in America : I have therefore ventured to propose 
the trivial appellation of lanigera, which, as far as we know, is 
exclusively the character of this species of antelope. The speci- 
men from which Dr. Blainville took his short notice is that in 
the Museum of this Society, and the same from which the an- 
nexed drawing was taken*. Mr. Ord had still scantier materials 
for description, there being in the Philadelphian Museum only 
the scalp with one of the horns attached to it, and the skin with- 
out head or legs ; it having served an Indian for a cloak. While 
I was at Philadelphia I examined this skin, and found it small, 
nearly destitute of the long hairs, but covered with very fine 
downy wool. I took it for that of a young animal, and was 
confirmed in this conjecture upon viewing another in Canada, 

* The specimen here described and figured, was presented to the Linnean Society 
by the late Lieut. General Thomas Davies, F.Il.S. and L.S. 


Cff.SnuA dd 

t S //////,"//< _ It 

',//////< //f 

of America allied to the Genus Antilope. :)]) 

which was much more hair}', but said to have been without 
horns : the head and feet were wanting when I saw it. 

As the specimen preserved in the Museum of this Society is 
the only one (at least as far as I have been able to discover) 
existing in a stuffed form in any museum, and as Dr. Blain- 
ville has merely noticed it, I presume that the figure, with a 
more detailed account of an animal extremelv interest in g in 
several points of view, will prove not unacceptable to those at 
least who have no opportunity of examining the original. 

The specimen being inclosed in a glass case, I am not enabled 
to give the dimensions. In bulk it exceeds the largest sheep : 
the nostrils, ridge of the nose and position of the eyes, resemble 
a ram's : the ears are rather long and pointed, filled inside with 
long hair: the neck appears short, the body long, the tail 
stumpy, the legs short, and the whole structure of the animal 
exceedingly robust. The colour is wholly white : the bulk of 
the body is considerably increased by a thick coat of long straight 
hair, of a yellowish tinge, but softer to the touch than that of a 
goat : this hair is particularly abundant under the throat, about 
the shoulders, the neck, back and tail : it covers the upper 
arms and hocks of the animal : below lies a close downy wool of 
a clear white colour, and in young animals feeling like unspun 
cotton : on the face and legs the hair is short and close, similar 
to that of sheep : the eye-lashes are white. The horns, which are 
not placed on the head in the specimen, are about five inches 
long : above an inch in diameter at the base, bending slightly 
back, having two or three annuli, and terminating in an obtuse 
point : the females have probably none. The horns at Phila- 
delphia are not above three inches long, the base forming a kind 
of pedestal half an inch high, and the points subarcuate and 
sharp : they are black. The legs exceed in thickness those of 
a large calf : the fetlocks are short and perpendicular, and the 


40 Mr. C. H. Smith's Observations on some Animals, fyc. 

hoofs of a jet black, high, broad, and with deep grooves in the 

If I am not mistaken, Captain Vancouver first noticed this 
animal at Nootka in his voyage round the world. I was assured 
that it. was found as far to the south-east as the Lake of the Woods 
near Lake Superior ; from thence it inhabits the regions west of 
Hudson's-bay to the shores of the northern Pacific. 

In the present state of our knowledge, it is probable that this 
and the two preceding species form a small natural family ; and 
the two first described another : and that eventually they will all 
require a distinct classification from the Antelopes of the old con- 
tinent ; — but this question must be left to the decision of future 
anatomical investigation. 


V. C/m- 

( 41 ) 

V. Characters of a new Genus of Coleopterous Insects of the 
Family Byrrhida. By William Elford Leach, M.D. F.R.S. 
and L.S. 

Read May 4, 1819. 


Genus novum. 

Antenna 10-articulatae : articulus 1 crassus maximus: 2 iikilt- 
nus angustior : articuli 3 — 9 angustiores filiformes (articu- 
lis 3 — 8 subglobosis ; 9 elongato) : articulus 10 clavam ab- 
ruptam ovato-globosam efformans. 

Palpi maxillares et labiales filiformes ; articulus ultimus apicem 
versus paulo angustior. 

Corpus orbiculato-ovatum. 

Tibia compressae, ultra medium gradatim latiores, apice abrup- 
tissime acuminata^ : tarsi filiformes. 

Spec. 1. Murmidius ferrugineus. 

M. ferrugineus, antennis pedibusque (illis prassertim) dilutiori- 

bus, elytris fortiter punctato-striatis : punctis impressis. 
Long. corp. i lin. 

I am indebted to Sir Joseph Banks for this highly interesting 
genus : it was found in a box of seeds and fruits received from 
China, in considerable plenty, attaching itself more especially to 
such as contained saccharine matter. 

vol. xin. g V *- D c ' 

( M ) 

VI. Description of some Shells found in Canada. By the Rev 
Thomas Rackett, F.R.S. A.S.and L.S. 

Read June 1, 1819. 


H. testa imperforata utrinque concava, anfractu primo utrin- 

que angulato. 

Tab. V. Fig. 1. 

Habitat juxta Lacum Huron. Testa diametri £ pollicis, trans- 
versaliter striata, lutea, anfractibus 3 vel 4 contiguis. Aper- 
tura ampla margin ata. 

HELIX monodon. 
H. testa convexiuscula striata umbilicata, dente transversali, 

apertura lunata. 

Tab. V. Fig. 2. 

Testa diametro vix J pollicis cornea, anfractibus 6 rotundioribus. 
Margo aperturse alba. Dens unicus transversalis, in anfrac- 

With these shells were likewise found Turbo fontinalis, Helix 
palustris, a single valve of a thick Mya> the size of Mya picto- 
rum, and two Bullas ; but being single specimens and much 
worn and. bleached, I will not venture to pronounce them new 


The Rev. T, Rackett on some Shells found in Canada. 43 

These testacea were found by Edmund Sheppard, Esq. of the 
Royal Artillery, in Canada in the year 1816; the My a at El- 
liott's Point, a mile below the town of Maiden, on the shore of 
Lake Erie : the remaining shells on the shore of Lake Huron, a 
little above Thunder Bay, where the beach is formed entirely of 


c 2 VII. On 

( 44 ) 


VII. On the Indian Species of Menispermum. By Henri/ Thomas 
Colebrookpi Esq. F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read November 2, 1819- 

Among doubtful or imperfect fruits described under barbaric 
names by the elder Gaertner in the concluding section of his work, 
the very last which is noticed by him* is one denominated JVal- 
tiedde and Kcipisan Zeylonens. ; concerning which he expresses a 
doubt whether the seeds be naked or were included in a peri- 

On this subject Du Petit-Thouars, followed by Richard t and 
Decandolle, has conjectured that the plant in question is " a spe- 
cies of Cissampelos, of which the seed only has been hitherto de- 
scribed %." This guess has undoubtedly approached to the truth ; 
as the seed certainly appertains to a plant of the same natural order, 
but perhaps of a different genus, being not improbably a variety 
of Decandolle's Cocculus villosus ; or at least very nearly allied to 
Menispermum hirsutum Linn., which (therein following Lamarck) 
he considers to be but a variety of this author's M. villosum. 

I herewith submit to the inspection of the Society the deli- 
neations of two kindred plants, from which any one, who will 
take the trouble of comparing them with Gaertner's figure of 
his JVal-tiedde, will be satisfied of the near agreement of the 

When the similarity was first remarked by me, I was unaware 

* Tab. 180, fig. 12. f Anal, du Fruit, 47. 1 Regn. Veg. i. 532. 


Mr, Cole brook e on the Indian Species of Mtnisptrmum. 15 

that a like observation had been previously made l>\ Roiburffe 
but unpublished ; and, in corroboration of mine, 1 now tran- 
scribe from his manuscript the description of his Memitpertmm 
hirsutum, and add my own of a plant denominated by him 
M. villosum ; — a name pre-occupied, and for which 1 have there- 
fore substituted another (M. incanum). 

Roxburgh's M. hirsutum, which he considered to he the iam 
with M. hirsutum of Linmrus and of Willdenow, and for which 
he cites a figure from Plukenet's Phytographia (/. .'584. f. 5.) as 
agreeing better with it than the figure quoted by them for the 
plant so named, has cordate leaves (broad-cordate to linear- 
cordate) and emarginate neetarial scales, witli racemes on th»- 
male plant, and solitary axillary flowers on the female. 

Lamarck's M. villosum, identified by him with AT. hirsutum and 
M. myosotoides of Linmeus, and for which he cites three figures 
from Plukenet (t. 384. /. 3, 5 and 7), is described witli leaves 
ovate or lanceolate-ovate, and ramose sub-corymbose peduncles, 
from one to three in an axil*. 

Roxburgh's M. villosum (my M. incanum) has broad-cordate 
mucronate leaves, entire neetarial scales, and panicles on both 
male and female plants. 

Willdenow's M. hirsutum, described from a figure of Plukenet's 
(/. 384. /. 7) and Houttuyn's Compilation (iv. p. 6\6), has ovate- 
oblong mucronate leaves, with corymbs on the male plant and 
racemes on the female. He probably considered Lamarck's 
M. villosum the same with M. myosotoides Linn., which is de- 
scribed from Plukenet's third figure (t. 384. /. 3), and Burmann's 
Indian Flora (316), as having linear-lanceolate leaves. 

Roxburgh's M. hirsutum, said by him to be common in hedges 
in India, is the only plant which he found that he could compare 

* Diet. iv. 97. 


46 Mr. Colebkooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

with Mi myosotoides. He asks, " Can they be the same?" He 
first described it on the coast of Coromandel ; and, re-examinin o- 
it in Bengal, delineated anew the fruit, and identified it with 
Gaertner's Wal-tiedde. 

I cannot but deem it distinct from Willdenow's M. hirsutum, 
as well as Lamarck's M. villosum, on account of the difference of 
the inflorescence joined to that of the leaves ; and I therefore 
insert the whole of Roxburgh's description for the purpose of 

We have thus four species nearly allied, yet sufficiently discri- 
minated by their leaves, inflorescence, and other specific marks : 
two of them hitherto unpublished. A third unpublished species 
with downy leaves may be added from Roxburgh. It is his 
M. tomentosum, described with leaves anteriorly three-lobed, 
racemes axillary, and nectarial scales entire. 

M. fenestratum of Gaertner has been noticed by Decandolle, 
as by earlier writers, among " species not sufficiently known ;" 
remarking, that the fruit alone has been examined*." He was 
unapprised that t4 the plant had been figured and described by 
Roxburgh, from whose manuscript I subjoin a description of the 
female plant. 

It will be observed, that Roxburgh testifies the accuracy of 
Gaertner in his representation of the seed. He has also cited 
that eminent carpologist's figure and description of M. Coccuhis 
as a correct representation t. His testimony, though not pointed, 
must seem to extend to the peculiar character so particularly 
noticed by Gaertner, and affirmed by him to belong to all the 
species of the genus, however much these vary in the number of 
floral parts, yet all agreeing in the singular position o( the coty- 

* Reg. reg. i. 541. Vide Lam. Dict.'iv. 101 ; and Martyn, Diet. vol. ii. 
f FL Lid. Mss. cit. Dec. Reg. Veg. \. 520. 


Jir.CoLEBROOKE on the Indian Species of Me *Up e rk u$ki< 17 

ledons described as segregate, and occupying distinct cells in tin 

That character is not however found in M. b fium (1/. hirsu- 
tum Roxb.) nor in the M. crispum Linn, (identified with M . tu- 
berculatum Lam. and 71/. verrucosum lloxb. 1 ) In reaped of 
the first mentioned, the delineation before exhibited has, as I 
trust, established the fact; and in Support of the same position, 
regarding the last mentioned, I herewith offer to the inspection 
of the Society a complete delineation of it, subjoining Rox- 
burgh's description of the fruit in corroboration of niv nun. 
The inflorescence of the female plant and its immature fruct iiica- 
tion had not been seen and described by him, nor by any enrlidf 
botanist, though the species has been so long known and 80 fre- 
quently noticed ; and it is chiefly for the sake of the female 
tlower that I now offer a specific description at large. 

I may be allowed to adventure a surmise, that the segregate 
position of the cotyledons is alike wanting in many, perhaps 
most, other species of this family or genus, notwithstanding the 
sweeping affirmation of the venerable Gartner. Indeed his own 
description of the seed, identified by Roxburgh with M. hirsu- 
turn, shows it in that instance. 

Nor does this disagreement in the characteristic situation of 
the cotyledons appear to concur with a co-ordinate difference of 
the flower, to assist the much needed reform of the genus. The 
nectarial scales are indeed wanting in M. fenestration ; and on 
that ground I wish to propose the construction of a new genus, of 
which the character may be built upon that plant. But the 
flower of M. Cocculus Gaert. (Cocculus suberosus Dec.) has not 
been yet examined and made public ; and it is uncertain whether 
this plant will accompany Gaertner's M.fenestratum, or travel 
apart into another subdivision of the group. 

* Gaert. Fr. et Sem. i. 220. t Dec. Reg. Veg. i. 521. 


48 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Mcnispermum. 

Before I proceed to propose a generic character for Gaertner's 
Ceylonese plant, I must premise a few observations on the parts 
of the flower in that whole group. 

The Linnaean genus Menispermwn, constructed on the Cana- 
dian species, assumes for a calyx two short linear exterior leaf- 
lets ; for an outer corol, six (4 — 8) ovate, spreading, equal pe- 
tals ; for an inner corol, eight smaller, concave, obcordate scales 
ranged in a double series : it notices sixteen fertile stamina in the 
male, and half as many sterile in the female ; and 2 — 3 (rather 
2 — 4) pistils, whence two monospermous berries arrive at matu- 
rity. Here the quaternary order, in a simple or double series, 
or a multiple of it, is apparent. 

The defect of a fourth part throughout the fructification would 
seemingly connect with that character numerous Indian species, 
in which likewise two small exterior floral leaflets are observed 
in some, but wanting in others ; and rows of calycine leaflets, 
petals and scales in ternary order ; and the ternary proportion 
single, or a multiple, prevails among stamina and pistils. 

The two exterior leaflets do not seem in all, nor in most, of 
these plants to be a calycine envelope of the flower, but in some 
are wanting ; and in others, again, are evidently mere bractes or 
floral leaflets, closely appressed to the true perianth in some in- 
stances, separate and distant in others, and reduced even to a 
single bracteal leaflet in certain examples. 

The first ternary series of leaflets, or in some specimens a 
double ternary series of equal leaflets, I take to be in general 
the true perianth. They are smaller than the next row within. 
This, which is likewise ternary, and consisting of larger, ten- 
derer, and, in short, petal-like leaflets, appears properly to be 
the corol. 

The innermost row, comprising six scales at the foot of the 
filaments, commonly much smaller than the ternary range which 


Mr. Coledhook f, on the Tndirm Specie of Menispermum. I 1 » 

encompasses it, seems to be nectarial. Tin? term of inner corol 
may however be retainedfor it, if judged preferable. It is waul- 
ing in some plants of this family. 

The number of fertile stamens is commonly six : but in one 
instance three; in another many. The sterile filaments arc in 
general equally numerous in the female tlower. 

The number of pistils is commonly three ; but in one instance 
twelve ; in another six. Their germs contain solitary (ft ula at- 
tached to the middle of the inside of the cell. They ripen into 
as many drupes or monospermous berries : but in one instance 
the nut is described by Roxburgh as two-celled. 

The seeds are lunulate or spheroidal. In the fatter case they 
contain a chamber or cavity ; and their form is, as it wen. ge- 
nerated by a semi-revolution or expansion of the more natural 

The quaternary proportion of the American species, con- 
trasted with the ternary of the Indian, furnishes a ready and 
obvious ground for a first subdivision of the genus, whether into 
sections or distinct genera. That ground has been taken by 
Decandolle, who leaves to the Canadian moon-plant and its con- 
geners the name of Menispermum ; and severs the rest under the 
ancient denomination of the most noted Indian sorts (Cocculus*). 

This nevertheless requires revision, with a view to further se- 
parations ; as it yet constitutes but a heterogeneous group. Ma- 
terials, however, are wanting for the complete reformation of it. 
Of some plants comprehended in it, the male flower only has 
been examined ; of others, the female ; of several, neither of 
them, but the fruit alone, or merely the climbing shrub without 
fructification. It would be premature, then, to attempt the en- 
tire rectification of it at present ; though it may be meantime 
suggested, that the Menispermum heteroclitum of Roxburgh, 

* Reg. Veg. i. 51 1, 515, and 540. 

vol. xiii. ii which 




50 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

which is monadelphous, should found a new genus : not to say 
as much for his triandrous and his hexagynous and dodecagynous 
species. The task of constructing genera upon the type of the 
most distinct among these will be here attempted, after a few 
further observations on the fructification. 

The fruit, and particularly the segregate situation of the coty- 
ledons in separate cells of the perisperm, may contribute to the 
discrimination of genera in this family, and consequent reform, 
as before hinted : but the shape of the nuciform seed, though 
various, does not promise to serve for a distinctive character, 
unless for sections of genera. The four species first noticed in 
this Essay, Menispermum septum, hirsutum, incanum, and villo- 
sum (Cocculus villosus), cannot in a generic distribution be dis- 
joined from M. crispum, verrucosum s. tuberculatum [Cocculus 
crispus), as will be evident, if the complete delineations of the 
plants are compared together : and, on the other hand, the sin- 
gular structure of the nut with a central chamber, which is so 
remarkable in the last-mentioned species, recurs in M . fenestra- 
tum as well as in Menispermum Cocculus of Gaertner. 

The lunulate or uncinate and almost cyclical shape of the one, 
will be found more strictly analogous to the sub-globular but 
hollow or excavated form of the other, than may be at the first 
view apparent. For, as before intimated, the one form is but an 
expansion of the other, being enlarged to afford room for broader 
seminal leaves of the embryo ; and its solid figure is to be con- 
sidered as generated by an incomplete revolution of the lunula 
on its axis : and thus the uncinate shape, laterally expanded, 
produces a cavity or chamber in the solid of revolution. The 
kidney-shaped seed of Menispermum tomentosum of Roxburgh, 
with a pit on the inner side, is the link to connect the two forms. 

Upon these considerations, I shall not pretend to deduce any 
character from the fruit or seed for the genus proposed to be 


Mr. Colebrooke 07i the Indian Specks of Menispermum. 51 

constituted upon the type of Gartner's M. fenestratum, but rely 
chiefly upon the total absence of an inner corol or nectarial scales. 
It may seem a premature attempt to construct a generic cha- 
racter upon the type of a dioicous plant, the male of which is 
yet unexamined ; and in some measure it assuredly is so. But 
in this family of plants the floral integuments or exterior parts 
are usually quite alike in both flowers : and the female exhibits 
sterile filaments, which in general are equally numerous with 
the fertile stamina of the male : and for this reason the charac- 
teristic features of both may, with a considerable degree of con- 
fidence, be concluded from inspection of the female singly. 


Dioicous. Cal. 3-leaved. Petals 3. Nect. (int. cor.) none. 

Stam. 6 ! Pist. 3. Drupes (berries) 1 — 3, 1-seeded. 
Menispermum fenestratum. Gart. i. 219. t. 46. f. 5. 
Yeni-vell gettah. Ceyl. 

The absence of an inner corol or nectarial scales occurs like- 
wise as a discriminative mark in another plant, which has been 
described as a Menispermum : but the stamina, being there nu- 
merous and monadelphous, furnish, as I think, a sufficient cha- 
racter on which to erect a distinct genus. Though the fruit 
appear to be that of a Menispermum , the calyx and corol are not 
like the other Indian species of that comprehensive genus. 

The plant to which I refer is the Menispermum heteroditum of 
Roxburgh ; from whose manuscript I subjoin a description of it. 
Presuming the correctness of the association of the ripe fruit 
with the male plant described, there can be little hesitation on 
the subject. But, as the female flower has not been examined, 
nor the plant itself figured nor described, together with the ma- 
ture fruit, a lurking suspicion may exist that some error has 

h 2 possibly 

52 Mr. C o l k b rooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum . 

possibly crept in, to be corrected by future examination when 
opportunity shall offer. 

Meantime, trusting to the usual accuracy of the observer, the 
following essential character of a new genus is proposed on the 
foundation of his description. Its denomination is assumed from 
an Indian term contrasting it with a name of a common Meni- 


Dioicous. Cal. ext. 2-leavecl ; int. 3-leaved. Petals 3, equal. 

Nect. (int. cor.) none. Stam. many, monadelphous. Fist. 3! 

Drupes (berries) 1 — 3, 1-seeded. 
Menispermum heteroclitum. Roxb. Mss. 

Proceeding with the task of examining Roxburgh's description 
of plants referred by him to Alenispermum, I come to one which 
he appears to have intended, when delineating it, to erect into a 
genus ; a design which he abandoned when composing his Flora 
Indica. As the plant is polygynous, and the nut affirmed to be 
bilocular, I apprehend a doubt could scarcely exist (presuming 
accuracy in regard to the cells of the fruit) as to the propriety of 
pursuing his earlier view, and severing this plant, which bears 
but a family likeness to Menispermum, and instituting a new 
genus for its reception. 

Yet Decandolle, who identifies this plant with M. acumina- 
tum of Lamarck, described* from a specimen communicated 
by Sonnerat, refers it to his comprehensive genus Coccuhis; not, 
however, without a hint for its transfer to another genus t. 

The description of the plant in question will be quoted at laro-e 
from Roxburgh's manuscript : and the following is the essential 
character proposed for the genus, retaining for it a vernacular 
name, which is sufficiently sonorous, notwithstanding its barbaric 

* Did. iv. 101. f Reg. Veg. i. 528. 


Mr. Colebkooke on the Indian Species ofMmupmmti. 


Dioicous. CaL twice 3-leaved. Petals 3. Ntet. (int. cor.) 
6-leaved. Start. (>': alternate ones shorter. Drupes (berries) 
many. Nut f 2-celled? 

T. racemosa. 

Menispermum polycarpon. Roxb. Mss. 

To complete a review of the Menisperma collected by Rox- 
burgh, and more or less perfectly described by him, several yet 
remain to be spoken of, which are sufficiently remarkable to 
deserve particular notice ; besides If. glabra in of Koenig, iden- 
tified with M. cordifolium of Willdenow (Cocculus cordifolius 
Dec), and M. Columba, which is the same with 1/. paknatMM 
Lam. (Cocculus palmatus Dec.) ; and exclusive of one named but 
not described by him, M. megaspermum. 

The first to be here mentioned is M. hexagynum, to which 
allusion has been before made. The male flower and mature 
fruit have not been seen and described. But the section of the 
germ in Roxburgh's figure of the female blossom indicates a 
genuine member of the family group, to which Decandolle ap- 
propriates the name of Cocculus ; and so do the nectarial scales 
(or inner corol), and the other parts of the flower, consisting of 
a three-leaved calyx with a pair of bractes closely appressed to 
it ; three petals twice as large ; and six barren filaments. 

Another, to which likewise allusion was before made, is M. tri- 
andrum. The male flower, without either female blossom or ripe 
fruit, has been figured and described. It has nectarial scales 
(or inner corol) ; and in other respects also affords no indication 
of a fit subject for separation from the larger group in this 
family, notwithstanding the paucity of its stamina. Its calyx is 
three-leaved, minute. Its corol urceolate, three-petalled. 


54 Mr. Colebkooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum 

One more plant is to be mentioned, which is remarkable for 
its peculiar habit ; differing from the whole of the natural order 
to which it belongs, as it is arboreous, while all the rest are 
twining shrubs. I mean M. laurifolium of Roxburgh: seen like- 
wise by Dr. Buchanan Hamilton and General Hardwicke. The 
male plant alone has been figured and fully described ; the in- 
florescence only of the female : but notwithstanding its singular 
habit, which might give occasion to surmise that it has not found 
its proper place, there is nothing in the fructification, as deli- 
neated, which affords any support to such a surmise. It has a 
three-leaved calyx, a much larger three-petalled corol, six nec- 
tarial scales (inner corol), and as many stamina. Probably, 
therefore, it will remain where it has been put, or rather will pass 
with its congeners into the genus Cocculus. 

A singular vivaciousness has been remarked in three or four, 
and probably holds in more, species of this genus. Wherever 
the climbing and rambling stem is divided, whether cut or 
broken, it roots afresh by sending down from the upper portion 
a thread-shaped root to the ground, and thus continues to derive 
nourishment from the soil, however distant. Such radicant 
fibres have been measured thirty feet long, and no thicker than 
a packthread. This character of vivaciousness appertains to 
Cocculus tomentosus, crispus, and cordifolius ; as also C. Malabo- 
ricus, a plant figured in the Hortus Malabaricus*, but which has 
not been re-examined since the days of Van Rheede. 

Without any design of undertaking to treat the subject fully, 
or of attempting to exhaust the topic, a few observations may be 
here added, tending to clear the way in some measure towards a 
future reform. 

The generic character of Decandolle's Cocculus, as it will be 
here taken, is confined within more restricted limits than as given 

* Vol. vii. t. 19 and 20. 


Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

by that author. He has made it comprehend certain monoicous 
plants and hermaphrodite flowers, and sweep several distinct ge- 
nera established by Willdenow and other writers. I shall briefly 
notice some of them. 

Lamarck, upon specimens communicated to him by Sonnerat. 
described a species of Menispermum, to which he gave the name 
of radiation ; and cited a tigure of the Hortus Malabaricut(v6l. vii. 
t.3.) as representing the same species. Willdenow, quoting th< 
same figure, and intimating also his own inspection of a dry speci- 
men, instituted a distinct genus, under the name of Braunea, for 
a plant which he identified with Koenig's Menispermum glubrum. 
Kcenig's plant of that name is however identified by Roxburgh 
with Menispermum cordifolium of Willdenow, who cites for this 
species Klein's communication of it by the name of If. glubrum ; 
intimating likewise his own inspection of a dry specimen in this 
instance also. Roxburgh, it is to be observed, is a great autho- 
rity in regard to Kcenig's botanical researches in India, having 
been his fellow-labourer in those researches. 

The concurrence of two eminent botanists in quoting the same 
figure from the Hortus Malabaricus, is the only ground for pre- 
suming the identity of the two plants ; their descriptions of which 
are by no means parallel. It is to be remembered too, that 
Willdenow had Lamarck's work before him, and made constant 
use of it when he was employed on the genus Menispermum. It 
appears, therefore, that he was dissatisfied with Lamarck's de- 
scription, as he has made no reference to it. Indeed, if Willde- 
now's accuracy may be implicitly trusted in regard to a minutely 
small flower examined by him in a very dry state, he had good 
cause for constructing a new genus for a plant, of which the 
female blossom not only wants the nectarial scales, or inner corol, 
but exhibits a solitary germ, and in the mature state a tricoc- 
cous berry. 


56 Mr. Cole brooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum, 

In truth, Decandolle suspects that it does not properly come 
into his genus Cocculus : but his hint for re-establishing it as a 
distinct genus is accompanied with a suggestion for associating 
it with his Cocculus acuminatus {Menispermum acuminatum), iden- 
tified by him with Roxburgh's Menispermum polyearpon (Tilia- 
cora racemosa). That suggestion is seemingly countenanced b\ 
the multitude of berries in the mature fruit, stated as from three 
to six* : but on what authority that number is given does not 
appear. For Willdenow assigns to his plant {Braunea menisper- 
moides) a single tricoccous berry ; Lamarck (M. radiatum) spe- 
cifies but one berry ; and Van Rheede describes seven to eight 
ripe fruits on a raceme, not explaining in the text or by the figure 
the greatest number ripened from one flower, nor the number of 
germs comprised in the blossom. 

Upon the whole, the identity of the plants appears question- 
able ; and Willdenow's generic character of the plant examined 
by him may be retained until an opportunity occur for examining 
a more recent specimen ; when it will probably be found that 
his description needs material correction. 

The Fibraurea tinctoria of Loureiro, described as having a 
naked flower, and his Limacia scandens, having a quadruple in- 
tegument of the female flower, and a triple of the male, are 
scarcely to be reconciled with the generic characters of either 
DecandoUVs Cocculus or the Linnaean Menispermum. They re- 
quire no doubt a careful re-examination : but in the mean time 
must continue unassociated with the genuine species of either 

* Res:. Fez. i. 528. 


Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. ~>7 

Dioicous. Calyx 3-leaved. Petals 3. Nect. (int. cor.) 6 iCales. 
Stamina 6 or 3. Pistils 3 or 6. Drupes 1—3 (or 1—6), 

Cocculus i?wa?ius. C. 

Menispermum villosum. Roxb. Mss. 

Leaves cordate, entire, villous, mucronate. Panicles axillary, 

shorter than the leaves. 

A large perennial climber, native of Chitagong and Silhet in 
Bengal ; named in last-mentioned province Sundi-lat. It twines 
over trees to a great extent, and is in flower and fruit at divers 
seasons of the year. 

Stem perennial, twining, round. The whole plant villous and 
soft like velvet. Pubescence white. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
broad-cordate to deltoid and ovate, terminated by a minute 
dagger point, five-nerved, sub- entire ; posterior lobes of the 
cordate leaves round in some, and straight in others. Length 
2 — 4 inches. Breadth somewhat less. Petioles round, half 
as long as the leaf. Stipules lanceolate, acuminate, caducous. 
Panicles axillary, solitary or in pairs, shorter than the leaves, 
subglobular. Flowers yellowish-green, inodorous. Bractes at 
the ramifications of the panicle and base of the pedicel, su- 
bulate ; a minute one appressed to the calyx. Perianth three- 
leaved. Leaflets obovate, coloured, villous. Petals three, 
scarcely longer, spreading, alternate with the calycine leaf- 
lets. Nectary or interior corol, six scales, small, oval, with in- 
curved margins. AFilamen ts six, capillary, erect. Anthers 
two-lobed. Lobes round, opening by circular pores at the 
summit. Pistil none. ? Filaments six, clavate. Anthersnone, 
but barren knobs terminating the filaments. Germs three, sub- 
globular, flattened on the contiguous sides. Style*, from the 

vol. xin. i ^ner 

58 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispernium. 

inner side of the apex, short. Stigmas reflex. Drupes one 
or two, rarely three ; lenticular, dark-purple, size of a lentil, 
succulent, sessile on the scarcely-enlarged summit of the pe- 
dicel. Nut lapideous, discoid; disk flat, smooth, thinnest 
towards the base ; margin thick, broad, echinate with elevated 
tubercles, and lobed with deepened furrows ; one-celled, one- 
seeded ; with an anterior depressed chamber between the ap- 
proximated plates of the disk. Seed solitary, uncinate, many- 
lobed, as pitted by the ample furrows of the putamen. Peri- 
sperm conform to the seed ; amygdaline, milk-white : one- 
celled. Embryo inverse, uncinate, almost cyclical, occupying 
the middle of the perisperm nearly in its whole length ; milk- 
white. Cotyledons linear, curved. Radicle curved, opposite 
the point of adhesion of the fruit on its receptacle. C. 

Cocculus sepium. C. 

Menispernium hirsutum. Roxb. citing Willd. iv. 829- 

Wal-tiedde and Keipisan. Gcert. ii. p. 488. t. 180? 

Leaves broad-cordate to linear-cordate, downy. Male flowers 
racemed. Female axillary, solitary. R. Fl. Ind. Germs three, 
semi-ovate, one-celled, containing solitary ovules attached to 
the middle of the inside of the cell. Drupes 1 — 3, nearly round, 
size of a small pea, marked on the inside near the base with 
the remaining stigma, smooth, dark purple, full of purple juice. 
Nut solitary, forming nearly a complete ring, with the joining 
on the inner and underside between the persistent stigma and 
insertion of the peduncle. Integuments three : exterior rugose, 
consisting of four valves, which fall off spontaneously , exposing 
the mediate, white, rugose, two-valved, nuciform tunic, perfo- 
rated in the middle : inner very thin, adhering to the peri- 
sperm. Perisperm conform to the seed, of a light brown co- 
lour. Embryo inverse, annular (as in the Celosice). Cotyle- 

Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 59 

dons two, lanceolate. Radicle curved, with its apex opposite 
to the stigma. II. Carp. 

A common twining species, found in most hedges. Flow* i a 
during the wet season. 

Calyx three-leaved. Corol three-petalled. Sectary six-leaved: 
leaflets linear, emarginate. cf Filaments six, clubbed, spread- 
ing, shorter than the leaves of the nectary. Anthers twin, im- 
mersed in the fleshy extremities of the filaments. ? Germs 
three, seemingly united. Berries three, kidney-form, black, 
very juicy, size of a small pea. Nut one-celled. R. Delin. 

Cocculus tomentosus. C. 
Menispermum tomentosum. Roxb. Mss. 

Leaves anteriorly three-lobed, tomentose. Racemes axillary. 
Corols expanding. Nectarial scales entire. R. Fl. Ind. 

It is a native of hedges and thickets over Bengal ; but by no 
means common. Flowering-time February and March. Seed 
ripe in May and June. 

Stem twining up and over trees to a great extent (radicantwhen 
broken). Bark of the older parts ash-coloured, with small sca- 
brous specks ; of the young shoots, downy. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, of a roundish cordate shape ; anterior margin gene- 
rally three-lobed ; soft and tomentose on both sides, particu- 
larly underneath. Length 3 — 5 or 6 inches, and nearly the 
same breadth. Petioles round, tomentose, nearly as long as 
the leaves. Racemes generally simple, one, two, or more to- 
gether, from the germs of the axils of the fallen leaves. Bractes 
minute, caducous, many-flowered. Calyx three-leaved. Leaf- 
lets lanceolate, very small. Corol three-petalled. Petals round- 
ish ; first expanding, then recurved ; many times larger than 
the calyx. Nectary six-leaved. Leaflets or scales obovate, 
oblong, entire : posterior margins incurved over the base of 

i 2 the 

60 Mr, Cole brooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

the filaments. <? Filaments six, clavate. Anthers two-JobecL 
Pistil none. ? Stamina none, but six fleshy filaments half as 
long as the nectarial scales. Germs three, elevated on a he- 
mispheric receptacle. Styles scarce any. Stigmas enlarged, 
ragged. Drapes one to three, nearly round, smooth, size of a 
marrow-fat pea ; deep orange. Seed solitary, rough, reniform, 
with a pit on the inside, and a furrowed belt round the exte- 
rior or convex side. R. Delin. 

Cocculus crispus. 

Menispermum crispum, Linn.', tuberculatum var. a, Lam.; ver- 

rucosum, Roxb. 
Funis felleus (nee quadrangularis, JVilld.) Rumph. Amb. v. t. 44. 

/• i. 

Native of Sumatra, as well as Java and the Moluccas ; and 
Silhet in Bengal. It is employed in medicine, being a powerful 
tonic : and is most valued for medical purposes by the natives 
of Bengal, when found a climber on mango-trees ; whence its 
vernacular name Am-guruch (qu. Cocculus mangifera). 

Like Cocculus tomentosus and cordifolius^ as well as malabari- 
cus 9 and perhaps other species of the same family, whenever a 
stem or large branch is divided, being cut or broken, the upper 
portion sends down a long filiform root to the ground, however 
distant, and continues to vegetate. The economy of these plants 
bears in that respect an analogy to the Indian Ficus. 

Stem perennial, scandent, twining, round, radicantwhen broken, 
spongy, with warts scattered over the surface : young shoots 
smooth. Bark yellowish-green. Cuticle thin, easily detached. 
Leaves alternate, remote, iong-petioled, round-cordate, acu- 
minate, finely pointed, entire, smooth on both surfaces: 7 — 9- 
n erred : lobes large and rounded. Length 4 — 6 inches : breadth 
:> — 5. Petiole round, smooth, hardly shorter than the leaves. 


Mr. Cole Brooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. (il 

Male flower: Racemes lateral, 1 — 4 together, simple, round. 
smooth. Flowers in pairs, or three-flowered fascicles, scat- 
tered on the raceme ; green, inodorous. Pedicels slender, 
divergent. Bractes minute, ovate, fleshy, concave ; numerous 
at the base of the raceme, and solitary at the foot of the fas- 
cicle. Perianth three-leaved : leaflets ovate, minute. Petals 
three, oval, spreading. Nectary six-leaved. Leaflets cuneate, 
reflex, inserted on the outside of the filaments near the base. 
Filaments six, filiform, spreading. Anthers four-sided. 

Female flower on a different plant, llacemes lateral, solitary : 
girt at the base by intricate scales of the germ as bractes. 
Flozcers single. Calyx and corol as in die male. Nectary six- 
leaved : leaflets ovate, inserted at the foot of the rudiments of 
stamina. Filaments six, short, sterile, embracing the receptacle 
of the germs. Germs three, ovate, elevated on a hemispheri- 
cal receptacle. Styles scarce any. Stigmas torn. Drupes one 
to three : ovate-globular, smooth, pale-orange, size of an olive, 
sessile on a fleshy receptacle ; one-celled. Rind thin, leathery ; 
with the nut attached by a process from within, penetrating 
the umbilical pit of the putamen. Pulp gelatinous, transpa- 
rent, easily detached from the rind, but closely investing the 
putamen. Nut unequally reniform : the inferior extremity 
more pointed, long, thin, externally rugged, smooth, white, 
two-valved ; girt by a longitudinal ridge along the suture ; 
with an umbilical pit opening into a reniform pervious recess 
formed by a duplicature or continuation of a bony putamen. 
Seed solitary, reniform, externally smooth, with an ample ori- 
fice opening into a furrowed cavity. Perisperm conform to the 
seed, almond-fleshy, milk-white, one-celled, composed of pto 
concentric lamina? : the inner one excavated, and internally 
furrowed. Embryo shorter than the perisperm, interposed 
between its lamina?, inverse, curved. Cotyledons oval, three- 

6 C 2 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermnm. 

nerved, leafy, thin, concave according to the curvature of the 
perisperm. Radicle columnar, short, superior. C. 
Berries 1 — 3, size of a common grape, oval, smooth, yellow, 
succulent, marked with the remains of the style on the apex 
(whereas on most other species it is on one side); one-celled. 
Seed solitary, reniform ; a deep pit on the inside. Exterior 
integument subreniform, white, two-valved ; inner membrana- 
ceous. Perisperm conform to the seed, amygdaline. Embryo 
curved, inverse. Cotyledons oval, three-nerved, very thin. 
Radicle superior. R. Carp. 

Cocculus cordifolius. 

Menispermum cordifolium. Roxb. cit.Willd. iv. 826. 

M. glabrum. Kazn. Mss. 

Amrita-valli (Cit-amerdu.) Rheed. Mai. vii. t. 21. 

Guduchi s. Guruchi. Sans. Gulanch. Hind. 

Leaves round-cordate, smooth. Racemes axillary and lateral. 

Most common throughout India. 

Root large, soft, spongy. Stem twining, perennial, very succu- 
lent, extending over the highest trees. Rark thick, corky, 
with many elevated scabrous specks. From the branches 
frequently drop filiform fibres, which continue lengthening till 
they reach the ground, where they root. Such have been 
measured thirty feet long, no thicker than a packthread. 
Leaves alternate, petioled, broad-cordate, five-nerved, entire, 
waved, smooth : about four inches each way. Petioles round, 
smooth, swoln at the base. Racemes axillary, terminal or la- 
teral, with a few scattered tlowers in separate axils. Flowers 
numerous, small, yellow. Calyx three-leaved : leaflets oval. 
Corol three-petalled. Petals obovate, many times larger than 
the caljx. Nectary six-leaved. Leaflets wedge-form, half 
the length of the petals ; margin inflated, and embracing the 


Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 6ti 

filaments. 6* Filaments six, clubbed, spreading, rather longer 
than the leaflets of the nectary. Anther* twin, immersed in 
the fleshy extremities of the filaments. ? lllamt *nts six, feshy, 
sterile. Germs three, resting on a tumid receptacle. Styles 
very short. Stigmas torn. Drupes one., two, or rarely three; 
size of a small cherry, smooth, rod, succulent : pulp very glu- 
tinous. Seed single, kidney-form : on the inside there is a 
deep pit, which receives its ligamen. EL Delin. 

Cocculus palmatus. 

Menispermum Colomba. Berry As. Res. x. 385. 

M. palmatum. Lam. 

Herbaceous, twining, hairy. Leaves subrotund, five-lobed : lobes 

acuminate. Racemes axillary, compound. 

Cocculus suberosus. Decandolle. 

Menispermum Cocculus. Gcert. t. lxx. f. 7. 

Perennial, twining, scandent. Leaves cordate, base truncate, firm 
and lucid. R. Ft. Ind. Stem lioneous, thick as a man's wrist. 
hark deeply cracked, spongy, ash-coloured : of young shoots, 
smooth and green. Leaves alternate, cordate, entire, smooth 
on both surfaces ; obtuse, emarginate ; texture hard ; lucid 
above, paler underneath ; four to twelve inches long, three to 
four broad. R. Msi.* 

Cocculus hexagyniis. C. 

Menispermum hexagynum. Roxb. Mss. 

Twining, villous. Leaves parabolic. Panicles axillary and ter- 
minal. R. Fl. Ind. 
Native of China, near Canton. 

* Since this essay was communicated to the Society, I have leamt that plants have 
recently flowered in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta ; and a description and figure by 
Dr. Wailich will appear in the Asiatic Researches. 



64 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

Stem and branches twining to the extent of some fathoms ; peren- 
nial : tender parts round, and clothed with soft pubescence. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, from cordate on the old plants 
to parabolic on the young ; all entire, obtuse, with a minute 
point ; smooth above, somewhat hairy underneath : about an 
inch and a half long, and one broad. Panicles axillary, and 
terminal on short axillary branchlets composed of alternate, 
expanding, three-flowered pedicels ; villous. Flowers small, 
white. Bractes small, ovate, woolly ; two larger and smoother 
press on the calyx. Calyx three-leaved. Leaflets cordate. 
Petals three, ovate, cordate, twice longer than the calyx. Nec- 
tarial scales six, nearly linear, shorter than the petals ; apices 
divided into two very acute lobes. Filaments six, between the 
nectarial scales and germs : barren. Germs six; singly reni- 
form, one-celled, one-seeded. Styles undivided, recurvate, 
Stigmas simple. R. Delin. <$ unknown. 

Cocculus triandrus. C. 
Menispermum triandrum. Roxb. Mss. 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves ovate-oblong, pointed, smooth. Ra- 
cemes axillary. 

Native of the Malay islands. 

Stem consisting of many twining or spreading branches, with 
smaller flower-bearing branchlets from the base ; smooth, 
deep-green in every part. Leaves alternate, short-petioled, 
ovate-oblong, pointed, entire, smooth on both sides : two to 
three inches long. Racemes axillary, one or more together, 
rather longer than the petioles. Flowers numerous, very mi- 
nute, yellow. Calyx three-leaved, minute. Corol urceolate, 
three-petalled. Petals ovate, many times larger than the ca- 
lyx. Nectary six-leaved. Leaflets linear-lanceolate, entire, 
shorter than the petals. Filaments three, wedge-shaped, thick 


Mr. Colejjrooke on the Indian Specks of Menispermum. M 

and fleshy, erect, converging. Anthers two pits in the Bpei 
of each filament. ? Yet unknown. 

Cocculus laur if alius. C. 
Menispermum laurifolium, Roib. Mss. 

Arboreous. Leaves lanceolar, lucid, entire, three-ner\ r ed. Ra- 
cemes '"axillary and lateral, compound. 

Indigenous in Nepal and Srinagar. 

Trunk short, soon dividing into many divaricate branches, with 
extreme branchlets drooping. Leaves alternate, short-pe- 
tioled, lanceolar, entire, firm, polished, three-nerved : 3— () 
inches long, 1— 1£ broad. Stipules none, but a tuft of down 
in the axils. Racemes axillary and lateral, as well as termi- 
nal : short, scarcely longer than the petioles. Calyx three- 
leaved. Leaflets small, lanceolar. Petals three, oval ; greatly 
larger than the calyx. Nectarial scales six, obcordate. Fila- 
ments six, shorter than the petals. II. Delin. ? Not de- 


Cqscin iv u fenestraium^ 

Menispermum fenestratum, Gart. t. xlvi. f. 5. 

Native of Ceylon, where it blossoms during November and 
December. Seed ripe in May and June. 

Trunk and large branches seandent, stout, thick, ligneous. Wood 
yellow, bitter. Leaves alternate, petioled, cordate, entire, 
5 — 7 -nerved, smooth and shining above, very hoary under- 
neath, sometimes acuminate, sometimes obtuse. Length 3 — 9 
inches, breadth 2 — 6. In young plants frequently peltate. 
Petioles shorter than the leaves, round, downy. Umbellets or 
heads from the stout, naked, ligneous branches ; several from 
the same bud ; on thick, round, downy peduncles of about an 

vol. xiii. k inch 

66 Mr, Colebrooke on the Indian Specks of Menispermum . 

inch in length. Flowers numerous, subsessile, villous, obscure- 
green. Bractes of the umbellets obscure; of the flowers, 
three to four, reniform, villous, pressed close to the calyx. 
Perianth three-leaved : leaflets oval, small, very downy on the 
outside, persistent. Petals three, ovate-oblong, acute, downy 
on the outside, much longer than the calyx, persistent. Fila- 
ments six, small, short, sterile, embracing the base of the 
pistil. Germs three, very downy. Styles slender, recurved. 
Perries (Drupes) one to three, nearly round, villous, size of a 
large filbert, one-seeded. Seed as represented by Gaertner. 
c?Yet unknown. 

The foregoing description was taken from specimens sent by 
General Hay Macdowal. R. Delin. 

It is called by the Singalese Veni-vell-gettah or Bang-well-get- 
tah : in English, the Knotted-plant. It is in repute among the 
inhabitants of Colombo, who slice it in thin pieces and swallow 
it, with the liquid, after steeping it in water several hours. They 
commend it as an excellent stomachic. Macdowal. 

The General conjectured that it might be the true Colomba- 
root. In that guess he was mistaken : but it may not improba- 
bly possess like medicinal qualities in a less eminent degree. 
His Singalese name of it is evidently the same with Gsertner's 
lV<eni wal. C. 

Anamirta paniculata. 
Menispennum heteroclitum. Roxb. Mss. 

Stem thick, woody, twining or climbing. Bark cracked, ash- 
colour. Leaves alternate, petioled, cordate, entire, smooth, 
deep shining green above, whitish below, 3 — 5-nerved ; with 
many small distinct tufts of hair upon the nerves on the under- 
side : 4 — 6 inches each way. Petioles round, smooth, length 


Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 0) 

of the leaves. Panicles from the naked, woody parts of the 
stem and large branches beautifully bowing. Bractes three- 
fold, one-flowered, small, caducous. 

Calyx two-leaved : leaflets opposite, oval. Petals six ; three in- 
terior and three exterior, equal, oval. 'Nectary none. Sta- 
mens, a short, thick, central column, supporting an infinite 
number of anthers in form of a globe. 

The female flowers have not been found. 

Berries as in the genus Menispermum : about the size of a ripe 
black-heart cherry ; and, as they are collected in very large 
pendulous branches, their appearance is most inviting, but 
their taste is most abominable. EL. Delin. 

Tiliacora racemosa. 
Menispermum polycarpon. Roxb. Mss. 
Bagha-lata. Hind. Tilia-kora. Beng. Tiga-mashadi. Teling. 

A large, twining, woody shrub, found on the coast of Coro- 
mandel in hedges, and in places overrun with bushes. Flowers 
most part of the year. 

Stem woody, twining to great extent. Bark ash-colour. Leaves 
alternate, petioled, cordate, pointed, smooth, shining, and fre- 
quently scolloped ; about five inches long and three broad. 
Racemes axillary, erect : in the male, frequently compound ; 
in the female, simple, few-flowered. Bractes minute, cadu- 
cous. Flowers small, yellow. Calyx six-leaved; the three 
exterior leaflets small. Petals three, oblong, many times 
larger than the calyx, spreading. Nectary six-leaved : leaf- 
lets obcordate, clawed, about the size of the calyx. <? Fila- 
ments six, subulate, erect, alternately shorter, nearly the length 

k 2 of 

68 Mr. Colebrooke on the Indian Species of Menispermum. 

of the corol. Anthers ovate. ? Germs above, about twelve 
in a circle, each ending in a short, subulate style. Stigma 
simple. Drupes or Berries many, short-pedicelled, clubbed, 
smooth, red, about the size of a French-bean. Nut one- or 
two-celled. R. Delin. 

From the figure as well as the description, it appears that the 
female flowers exhibit no rudiments of stamina or barren fila- 


Ftg. 1. Cocculus incanus. 

2. sepium. 

3. — crispus. 

VIII. The 

•. . Vol XI /! -v.'/ 




© # 



T.Curtu saiif 

( 69 ) 

VIII. The Characters of three new Genera of Bats without folia- 
ceous Appendages to the Nose. By William Elford Leach, M. D. 
F.R.S. andL.S. 

Read February 22, 1820. 


Rhinophyllis nullis. 

Synopsis Generum. 

Gen. 1. CELiENO. 

Dentes incisores f- : superior es acuminati, simplices. 

inferiores e quatuor columnis elformati. 
— „ — molar es f : anterior in utraque mandibula acuminatus ; 

tres postici acute tuberculati. 

Gen. 2. AELLO. 

Dentes incisores -j-: superior es bifidi. 

inferiores aequales, trifidi. 

molares ^s_ ; superiores duo antici acuminati ; tertius biii- 

dus ; quartus trifidus. 
inferiores tres antici acuminati ; tres postici 

Dentes incisores % : superiores insequales : lateralibus brevioribus 

inferiores subtrifidi. 

molares -§-, processibus acuminatis armati. 


70 Dr. Leach's Characters of three new Genera of Bats 

Gen. 1. CELJENO. 
Dentes incisores -§-: superiores acuminati, simplices. 

inferiores aequales, quasi e quatuor colum- 
nis aggregatis efformati. 
— - — lanarii | : superiores longiores.' 

molares £ : antici in utraque mandibula acuminati, sim- 
plices ; tres postici processibus acutis ar- 
Pedes antici indice 1-articulato : digito medio et quarto triarti- 
culatis ; digito quinto 2-articulato. 

postici digitis elongatis subaequalibus : Ungues compressi, 

arcuati, ad basin multo latiores : Membrana pos- 
tica ultra digitorum apices paululum producta : 
Suspensorium unum, rectum, marginale. 
Aures distantes : Auricula minima? . 

Cauda* 0. 

Celjeno Brooksiana. 

Habitat . 

Mus. D. Brookes. <j. 

Dorsum ferrugineum. Venter et Humeri luteo-ferruginei. Au- 
res acuminata? ; margine antico rotundato, postico recto. 
Membranae omnes nigrae. 

Gen. 2. AELLO. 
Dentes incisores \- : superiores compressi, lati, bifidi ; laciniis ro- 

inferiores aequales, trifidi; laciniis rotundatis. 

1 — lanarii \ : superiores longiores, acutissimi, antice et pos- 

tice ad basin processu instruct!. 
inferiores gradatim acuminati, simplices, te- 

* Membrana postica linea subcartilaginea, media notatur. An Caudae rudimen- 


without foliaceous Appendages to the 71 

Dailies molar >es - 8 T : supcriorum duo antici triangulatim-acunii- 

nati, secundo longiore ; tertius externe bi- 
fidus ; quartus externa trifidus. 
inferiorum tres anteriores acuminati, simpli- 
ces, secundo breviore ; tres postici externe 
Pedes antici indice 1-articulato : digito medio 4-artieulato ; di- 
gitis quarto et quinto 3-articulatis. 

postici digitis mediocribus, rcqualibus : Ungues compressi, 

arcuati : Membrana ad suspensorii apices pro- 
ducta, recta ; hinc ad apicem quasi truncate : Sus- 
pensorium rectum marginale. 
Aurcs approximator, breves, latissimae : Auricula nulla 1 . 
Cauda ossea ; articulis quinque exsertis, ad membranae apicem 
non productis. 

Aello Cuvieri. 

Habitat . 

Mus. D. Brookes. 

Color isabellino-ferrugineus ; alae fuscescente-brunneoe. Aures 

ad apices excavato-truncata?. 
Amico meo, CI. G. Cuvier, sit haec species sacra. 


Dentes incisores f : superiores inaequales, acuminati : intermedii 

longiores, simplices; laterales aequaliter 
infer iores obsolete trifidi. 

lanarii \ : superiores longiores, ad latus postice processu 

inferiores ad latus antice processu armati. 

molar es ■§-, processibus acuminatis armati. 


72 Dr. Leach's Characters of three new Genera of Bats, §c. 

Pedes antici indice 1-articulato : digito medio 3-articulato ; digi- 

tis quarto et quinto 3-articulatis. 
postici digitis mediocribus, suba^qualibus : Ungues com- 

pressi, arcuati : Membrana ad caudae apicem pro- 

ducta, hinc postice acuminata : Suspemorium rlex- 

uosum, in membrana inclusum. 
Aures distantes : Auricula parvse. 

Cauda ad membrana; apicem producta : articulis quinque osseis 


S. ferrugineus, auribus, naso alisque fuscescentibus. 

Habitat . 

Mus. D. Brookes. 

Amico meo Henrico Kuhl, M.D. sacra. 

IX. The 

( 73 ) 

IX. The Characters of seven Genera of Bats with foUaccous 
Appendages to the Nose. By William El ford Leach, M.D. 
F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read March 7, 1820. 

I have the pleasure of communicating to the Linnean Society 
the characters of five genera of the Datura] family of H.its which 
have not hitherto been observed by naturalists ; and I add tin- 
distinguishing marks of Vampyrus, a genus lately indicated, 
but no where characterized, by my friend the Chevalier Geoffrey 
St. Hillaire, who in a former paper, to which he has referred, had 
neither described nor figured the posterior molaris of the upper 

The details of Megaderma Geoff, are also given, not only 
for the purpose of showing the characters of its grinding teeth 
and its affinity with Nyctophilus, but to prove that the cha- 
racters which Cuvier has attributed to that genus, with some de- 
gree of doubt, are perfectly correct (Regne Anim. i. 127-)> 
namely, the absence of the superior incisors. 

On a future occasion it is my intention to lay before the So- 
ciety the details of all such new genera as may be discovered by 
my friends in different parts of the world, which shall be fol- 
lowed with descriptions of all the species. 

To further my purpose, I solicit the aid of travelling natu- 
ralists, and request them to have the goodness to send me speci- 
mens of Bats (preserved if possible in spirits) from every part of 
the world. 

* Annal. de Mus. xv. 184. pi 2. 

vol. xni. l VESPER- 

74 Dr. Leach's Characters of seven Genera of Bats 


lihinopliyllis instructs . 

Stirpium et Generum Synopsis. 

STIRPS 1, Pedes antici indice \-articulato; digito medio A-articulato ; digitis quarto 

et quinto triarticulatis. Aures dislantes, mediocres, auricula instructs. 
Gen. l. ARTIBEUS. 

Dentes incisores 4 •' superiores inasquales : duo medii longiores bifidi. 

inferiores subasquales, truncati : duo medii antice canalicular. 
molares ^: inferiorum posterior minutus. 

Dentes incisores ■£ : superiores inasquales : duo medii longiores bifidi ; exteriores ex- 
terne truncati. 

— • molares 44 : superiorum duo antici distantes, trifidi : reliqui tuberculati. 

inferiorum tres antici trifidi ; reliqui tuberculati. 

Stirps 2. Pedes antici indice bi articulator digito medio A-articulato; digitis quarto 
et quinto triarticulatis. Aures magna approximate, auricula instructs. 


Dentes incisores $ : superiores inaequales : medii lati emarginati ; exteriores minimi 
oblique acuminati, acuti. 
inferiores aequales, trifidi. 
molares -ff . 

Stirps 3. Pedes antici indice 1-articu/atu ; digitis medio, quarto et quinto 3-articu-* 
latis. Aures magna, coalita, auricula instructs. 


Dentes incisores |- : superiores conici. 

inferiores aequales, trifidi. 

molares -*-: superiorum primus acutus : secundus et tertius 4-fidi ; quartus 

inferiorum primus conicus ; secundus, tertius et quartus tuber- 


Dentes incisores %■ : inferiores aequales trifidi. 

— . molares -fe: superiorum primus acuminatus : casteri tuberculati. 

inferiorum primus et secundus acuminati ; caeteri acute tuber- 

Stirps 4. Pedes antici indice biarticulato; digito medio A-articulato \ digitis quarto 
et quinto triarticulatis. Aures distantes, auricula instructs. 

Gen. 6. VAMPYRUS. 

Dentes incisores $ : superiores medii longiores, externe truncati ; exteriores brevis- 
simi obtusi. 
inferiores aequales, obtusi. 
— - — molares -{-J. 

Gen. 7. MADAT#X T S. 

Denies incisores $ : superiores medii longiores, bifidi; exteriores brevissimi obtusi. 
inferiores aequales, acuti. 

molares tV 

Gen. I. 

with foliaceous Appendages to the Nose. 7j 

Gen. 1. ARTIBftUS. 

Dentes incisores^: superior es medii bifidi; exteriores truncati 

inferiores truncati ; duo medii sublongiores, 
antice canaliculati. 

lanarii\\ superiores majores ; ad basin interne margi- 
nal, postice dilatati. 

— - — molares-^-. superiores ad basin interne dilatati; primus 

minor ; tertius major. 
inferior um primus et secundus externe acu- 
minata secundo longiore; tertius ct quar- 
tus latiores, interne tuberculati ; quintus 

Rhinophylli 2 : uno horizontal ; altero verticali. 

Pedes postici suspensorio uno, brevi, recto, marginali. 

Cauda nulla. 

Artibeus Jamaicensis. 

Habitat in Jamaica. 
Mus. Brookes, nost. 
Supra fuscescenti-brunneus, subtus murinus. Aures, rhino- 

phylli et membranae omnes fuscescentes. 
Aures rotundatae. Rhinophyllus horizontalis subundulatus ; ver- 

ticalis acuminatus, antice utrinque linea impressa notatus. 

Membrana postica usque ad basin fere emarginata. 
Cranium latiusculum, facie vix latius. Fades obtusa. 


Denies incisores $ : superiores inaequales : duo medii longiores, 

bifidi ; exteriores teretes, externe truncati 
et ad basin dilatati. 
i L 2 Denies 

76 Dr. Leach's Characters of seven Genera of Bats 

Dentes lanarii j- : superiores ad basin antice et postice dilatati. 

inferiores interne ad basin marginati ; mar- 

gine postice dilatato. 
molares\%\ superiorum duo antici distantes, trifidi ; caeteri 

externe et interne tuberculati. 
superiorum tres antici trifidi (secundus et ter- 

tius distantes) ; caeteri externe et interne 

RhinophyUus 1 erectus. 
Pedes postici suspensorio uno marginali. 
Cauda brevis. 

Monopiiyllus Redman i. 

Habitat in Jamaica. 

Mus. nost. Communicavit Dom. R. S. Redman. 

Color supra fuscus, subtus murinus. Membranae omnes, Aures 

et RhinophyUus fuscus. 
RhinophyUus acutus albido-villosus. Aures rotundatae. Rarba 

Cranium facie paulo latius. Facies elongata. 

Gen. 3. MORMOOPS. 

Dentes incisor es±\ superiores inaequales : medii late-emargma- 

ti; laterales minimi, oblique acuminati, 
inferiores aequales trifidi ; laciniis rotundatis. 
, lanarii J- : superiores duplo longiores, subcompressi, an- 
tice canaliculati, ad basin interne dila- 
inferiores ad basin externe et interne dila- 


Ttwv /.inn Sac IWJ//f.r„A mp.77 

. ///"//// r /-//./ ■ 4 



with foliaceous Appendages to thz Isost. 77 

Dentes molares -J-J : kiperiorum anterior parvus, acutus, ad basin 

externe, et postice interne dilatatus ; ter- 
tius, quartus et quintus ad basin interne 
tuberculato-dilatati (tertio et quarto ex- 
terne 3-mammillatis, interne excavato-bi- 
dentatis); quintus externe 1-mammillatus, 
interne excavato-bidentatus. 
inferior um tres antici acuti, comprcssi, exter- 
na dilatati (secundo breviore ; primo et ter- 
tio sequalibus) ; quartus, quintus et sextus 
sublongiores, externe ad basin dilatati, su- 
perne excavato-5-dentati. 
Tvhinophyllus 1 erectus, cum auribus conrluens. 
Pedes postici suspensorio uno, recto, marginalia 
Cauda ad membrane posticae apicem non producta ; articulo ul- 
timo libero. 
Caput fronte abrupte elevato. Labium superius lobatum, me- 
dio crenatum; inferius in membranam triloba m productum, 
ad medium proc'essu carnoso, diadema referente, instruc- 
tum. Men turn utrinque in membranam dilatatum; mem- 
branis cum auribus connexis. Lingua papillis omnibus re- 
trorsum reflexis ; anterioribus bifidis ; posterioribus majo- 
ribus multifidis. Palatum transversim elevatum ; jugis pos- 
terioribus undatis. 
Cranium facie abrupte effiormata. Ossa nasalia inter maxillaria 
immersa. Os inter-parietale cum parietalibus lateralibus 
non coalitunu 

Mormoops Blainvillii. 
Tab. VII. 
Habitat in Jamaica. Dom. Lewis. 
ALus. D. Brookes. 


78 Dr. Leach's Characters of seven Genera of Bats 

Rhinophyllus plicatus. Aures superne bilobae. Processus labi- 

alis diadematiformis, et nasus irregulariter tuberculati. 
Amico meo Henrico de Blainville sit haec species sacra. 


Denies incisoresf: superiores elongati, conici, acuti. 

inferiores aequales, trifidi; laciniisrotundatis. 

— lanarii \ : elongati, conici. 

superior es simplices. 

inferiores postice processu acuto armati. 
- — — molares -§- : superiorum anticus acutus, postice 1-tuber- 

culatus ; secundus et tertius 4-tuberculati ; 
quartus 3-tuberculatus. 
inferiorum anticus acutus, simplex, conicus ; 
secundus, tertius et quartus tuberculati. 
Rhinophylli duo erecti ; posteriore longiore. 
Pedes postici suspensorio uno, recto, marginali. 
Cauda ossea (articulis quinque exsertis) ad membranae apicem 

Nyctophilus Geoffroyi. 

Habitat . 

Mus. D. Brookes. 

Dorsum lutescente-fuscum. Venter, Pectus et Gula sordide al- 

bidae. Aures latae, mediocres. Membrame fuscescente- 

nisrrae. Cauda acuminata. 
Amico meo GeofFroy St. Hillaire sacra. 

Gen. 5. MEGADERMA*. 

Megaderma, Geoffroy, Cuvier. 

Denies incisores \i inferiores trifidi, a?quales ; laciniis rotundatis. 

* Os intermaxillare cartilagineum, riiolle. 


with foliaceous Appendages to the Nose. 79 

Denies lanarii -§-: superiores longiores, ad basin untied et pos- 

ticti acuminato-produeti. 

molares^: superiorum anticus acuminatus. loQgior, id 

basin interne dilatat ua, marginatum; pseteri 
angulati, tubcrculati ; secundus et tertiu> 
ad basin postice dilatati. 
inferiorum duo antiri acuniinati, ad basin di- 
latati (primo breviore) ; reliqui acuminato- 
tuberculati, ad basin externe martnnati : 
tuberculis exterioribus. 
Rhinophylli duo confluentes ; uno horizontal^ altero verticali. 
Pedes postici suspensorio uno, recto, marginali. 
Cauda nulla. 

Megaderma Frons. 

M. rhinophyllo anteriore dilatato, aurieulis elongatis acuniina- 
tis, interne ad basin lobatis ; lobo simplici. 

Feuille. Daub. Acad, des Sc. (1759) 374. 

Megaderma Frons. Geoff. St. Hill. Ann. du Mus. xv. 192. 

Habitat in Africa, apud Senegal et Cape Coast. 

Mus. Brookes, nost. 

Membrana postica rotundato-emarginata. Caput parvum. Cra- 
nium rotundatum. Facies cranio angustior, obtusa. 

Gen. 6. VAMPYRUS. 

Vampire, Geoffroy St. Hillaire. 

Dentes incisores £i superiores meclii interne longiores; exteriores 

brevissimi obtusi. 
inferiores aequales, ad apicem excavati ; ex- 
teriores ante medios inserti. 

lanarii f- : superiores subtenuiores, paululum breviores, 

ad basin postice interne dilatati. 


80 Dr, Lkacii's Characters of seven Genera of Bats 

inferiores interne versus basin abrupte dila- 
tati ; parte dilatata usque ad molarem an- 
ticum producta. 

Denies molar es -\f: super iorum, anterior acuminatum postice de- 

clivis et paululum productus ; secundus 
■longior acuminatus, ad basin antice et in- 
terne postice dilatatus ; tertius et quartus 
externe excavati, interne laciniis duabus 
acuminatis (hoc antice processu obtuso) ; 
quintus angustissimus obtuse trifidus ; la- 
cinia interiore breviore. 

inferiorum anterior et secundus interne exca- 
vati ; hoc acutiore ; tertius acuminatus po- 
stice ad basin subproductus ; quartus et 
quintus majores longiores 5-fidi ; sextus 

Rhinophylli 2 confluentes ; uno erecto, altero horizontals 

Caput facie gradatim efformata. Labias implicia. Lingua pa- 
pillis omnibus retrorsum refiexis ; anterioribus mediis di- 
stincte, posterioribus nonnullis obsoletissime bifidis. 

Spec. 1. Vampyrus Spectrum. 
Phyllostoma Spectrum. Geoff. St. Hillaire Ann. du Mus. xv. 174. 

pi. 2. 
Vespertilio Spectrum. Linn. Syst. Nat. xii. i. 46. 
'Membrana postica postice ad medium rotundato-emarginata. 


with fol'wccous Appendages to the Note, 


Gen. 7. MADAIMAS. 

Denies incisor es | 

lanarii f : 
molarcs -f$ 

superiorcs inaequalea ; duo medii longiores 

bifidi, laciniisobtusis; laterals brcvissinii 
inferiores ipquales, simplices, aeuti. 
supcriores longiores et latiores. 
superiorcs dente antcriore parvo acuto postice 
declivi, ad basin interne subdilatato; se- 
cundo longiore acuto, ant ice acuto pos- 
tice subdeclivi ad basin interne dilatato, 
processu obtusiusculo arniato ; tertio et 
quarto externe bifidis, laciniis obtusiuscu- 
lis, ad bases interne, valde dilatatis, bitu- 
berculatis ; dente quarto tertio breviore, 
lacinia externa postica breviore. 

inferiores dente anteriore equaliter acumi- 

nato obtusiusculo ; secundo longiore in- 
terne canaliculato postice ad basin dila- 
tato ; tertio interne et externe laciniis qua- 
tuor obtusis ; quarto interne laciniis tribus, 
interne lacinia un& antica instructo; quinto 
minimo trituberculato. 
Rhinophylli 2 : uno verticali ; altero lunato horizontali. 
Pedes postici suspensoriis duobus brevissimis instructi: digiti 

aequales : ungues parvi compressi. 
Cauda 0. 

Labia papillis mollibus compressis flmbriata. Lingua antice fila- 
mentis compressis bifidis postice spectantibus instructa ; 
perpaucis ad apicem linguae majoribus : lingua pone me- 
dium tuberculis 2 — 5-fidis antrorsum spectantibus, et pos- 
tol. xiii. m tice 

82 Dr. Leach's Characters of seven Genera of Bats , $c, 

ticc tuberculis duobus ovatis in fossulis positis instructa. 
Palatum antice longitudinaliter elevatum, lateribus postice 
tuberculis antrorsum spectantibus armatis. 

Madatjeus Lewisii. 

Habitat in Jamaica. D. Lewis. 

Mus. D. Brookes. 

Rhinophyllus verticalis acuminatus, marginibus abrupte atte- 
nuatis integris ad apicem non attingentibus, hinc hastifor- 
mis. Aures acuminato-rotundatae, mediocres. 

Color nigricans. Dentes transversim striolati. Membrana pos- 
tica acute emarginata. 

Expansio alarum 17 pol. 

X. On 

( 83 ) 

X. On two new British Species of Mytilus, in a Letter to tin 
Rev. E. J. Burrow, F.R.S. and L.S. Bij the Pa,. Revett 
Sheppard, F.L.S. 

Read January 18, 1820. 
Dear Sir, 
The publication of the Transactions of the Linnean Society 
has been attended with great benefit to the concerns of natural 
history. Many important discoveries are there registered which 
would not otherwise have become generally known ; and every 
new discovery adds a fresh link to a chain of wonders, which 
ought to inspire us with admiration of Him, who by a word called 
them into existence. Nothing of this kind should be lost ; where- 
fore I am now desirous of transmitting, by your hands, to the 
Society an account of two new species of British Fresh-water 

So great has been the influx of new species within a few years, 
that the existence of a necessity for making alterations in the 
characters of such subjects as have been described by Linnaeus, 
must be readily allowed by all. Doubtless that great man would 
have done so himself, had he been in the vigour of life at this 
time ; or he would have had the mortification of seeing his works 
rendered of little utility, owing to the inconvenience of the cha- 
racters given to one species often answering to several others. 
Thus, Mytilus cygneus, M. incrassatus, M. anatinus, and M. Ma- 
cula, I consider as distinct species : yet Linnseus's specific cha- 
racter of M. anatinus will answer to them all. He adds indeed 
to his character of M. cygneus, " cardine lateralis which he does 

M 2 not 

84 The Rev. R. Sheppard on tzvo new 

not notice in that of M. anatinus ; but the hinge in the first spe- 
cies is scarcely more lateral than in the last, and not so much 
as in my M. incrassatus. In the M. anatinus, he speaks of the 
umbones as being decorticated ; but mentions not that circum- 
stance in his description of the M. ci/gneus ; thereby leading us 
to suppose that they are not so in that shell ; whereas, the four 
species have their umbones decorticated, — in a greater degree, 
indeed, in the M. anatinus than in the rest. 

With respect to the accompanying plate, indifferent as it is, 
it may be useful for determining the species by bringing them 
into one point of view. The outlines are the size of specimens 
in my collection ; and the shells having been laid on the paper 
and their circumferences taken, their exactness may be depended 

1. Mytilus cygsteus. 

M. testa ovata, anterius compressiuscula, fragilissima, margine 

membranaceo, umbonibus decorticatis, antica baseos adscen- 


Tab. V. Fig. 3. 

Habitat in rivis et stagnis. 
Long. 2 poll. 71 lin. Lat. 5 poll. 

On this species and M. anatinus I need not enlarge, they being 
so well described by Dr. Maton and Mr. Rackett in their admi- 
rable paper upon the British Testacea. I shall only observe, 
that what was omitted by Linnaeus has been unnoticed by them, 
viz. that the margin of M. cygneus is membranaceous, though 
not in so great a degree as that of M. anatinus ; and that its um- 
bones are decorticated. It arrives at a much greater size than 
the one figured, or than the largest specimens of M. anatinus. 

2. Mytilus 

British Species of Mytilus. ftf 

2. Mytilus incrassatus. 

M. testa ovali, anterius compressiuscula, margine membranaceo, 
umbonibus decorticatis, posterius ab umbonibus versus basin 
gradatim incrassata, ligamento \ aide exserto. 

Tab. V. Fig. 4. 
Habitat in rivis. 
Long. 2 poll. 5 lin. Lat. 4 poll. 9J lin. 

A very distinct species ; rough and dark-coloured on the out- 
side, thicker and stronger than the rest ; the hinge towards the 
posterior extremity. Remarkable for its large exserted ligament ; 
and posterior part, in a slope from the umbones to the base, 
being much incrassated, which gives that part in the inside 
a white milky appearance ; whereas the rest is of a fine pearly 

In the river Trent at Holme, near Newark, Nottinghamshire. 

The variety of M. cygneus, given by Dr. Maton and Mr. Rack* 
ett, ought perhaps to be considered a variety of this species . 

3. Mytilus anatinus. 

M. testa ovali, anterius compressiuscula, fragilissima, margine 

membranaceo, umbonibus decorticatis, area\ antica basique 


Tab. V. Fig. 5. 

Habitat in aquis dulcibus. 

Long. S poll, i lin. Lat. 6 poll. 7i lin. 

The shells of M. anatinus, when they grow to a large size, are 
proportionably as ventricose as those of M. cygneus. My spe- 
cimen, the outline of which accompanies this paper, I took many 
years since from the pond in the garden of my revered friend the 

Rev. William Kir by of Barham. 

4. Mytilus 

86 The Rev. R. Sheppard on two new 

4. Mytilus Macula. 

M. testa ovali, anterius compressiuscula, fragilissima, margine 

membranaceo, umbonibus decorticatis, are& antic& ad angUr 

lum adscendente. 

Tab. V. Fig. 6. 
Habitat in stagnis. 

Long. 1 poll. 5§ lin. Lat. 2 poll. 5J lin. 

A smooth, thin, fragile shell. The hinge towards the posterior 
extremity. Its particular character arises from the anterior area 
being sloped upwards, so as to form an angle with the forepart 
of the shell ; this, with the large purple blotch (which, however, 
may be removed by rubbing with a brush), and which in some 
specimens occupies two-thirds of the outer superficies (and 
whence its name), stamps it as a distinct species. In the inside 
the umbones and a small space around them are buff-colour ; the 
rest blue, mingled however with green at the forepart of the 

Some specimens exceed in size the one figured ; the largest 
[ have obtained is 1 inch 7J lines in length, by 2 inches 11 lines 
in breadth. 

They are in vast abundance in the canals in the garden at 
Campsey Ash, the seat of my eldest brother. 

As I have determined the characteristic of M. anatinus to be 
the anterior slope running parallel with the base, perhaps it would 
be as well to consider what is given as a variety of that species 
in the Linnean Transactions to be a variety of M . Macula. 

To bring the specific differences above enumerated into one 
point of view, Mytilus anatinus is distinguished from M.cygneus 
by its anterior area running parallel with its base ; and again, 
from M. Macula by the anterior area in the latter sloping up- 

British Species of My til us. 


wards, and forming an angle with the forepart of the shell. In 
M. cygneus the base slopes upwards ; and the M. incrassatus dif- 
fers from them all by its large exserted ligament, superior rough- 
ness on the outside, and in having the posterior part in a slope 
from the umbones to the base incrassated. 

I am, <xc. 

Wrabness Parsonage, Essex, 
Dec. 18, 1819- 

Revett Sheppard. 


XL Otoer- 

( 88 ) 


XI. Observations on the natural Group qf Plants called Pom ac e;e. 
By Mr. John LinHjey, F.L.S. 

Read April 4 and 18, 1820. 

The natural group of plants comprehended in the first section 
of Jussieu's Rosacece has, on account of its near affinity to Rosa, 
lately occupied much of my attention ; and as an apparent uni- 
formity in the structure of its genera has been the cause of much 
dispute respecting their limits, an attempt to ascertain these with 
something like precision may not perhaps be unacceptable to 
the Society. 

Linnaeus admitted but four genera, Crataegus, Sorbus, Mespi- 
lus, and Pyrus ; from which Jussieu distinguishes Malus and Cy- 
donia. Medicus, in his " Geschichte der Botanik nnserer zeiten," 
published in 1793, out of these formed eleven, in which he has 
been partially followed by Borkhausen and Monch. His genera 
are unfortunately by no means natural ; and the characters upon 
which they are founded have been considered unimportant by 
most botanists, who have therefore adopted the genera of either 
Jussieu or Linnaeus. Sir James Smith, aware of the uncertainty 
in number of styles by which those of the latter have been prin- 
cipally distinguished, has in Flora Britannica and Rees's Cyclo- 
pedia (article Mespilus) reduced all the genera to two ; charac- 
terizing Pyrus, to which he refers Cydonia and Sorbus, by the 
thin texture of its endocarp, and Mespilus, including Cratcegus, 
by the osseous substance of the same part, or, as he, following 

Linnaeus, expresses it, by its berry. 


Mr* J. Lixdley's Observations on Pomacccc, 89 

But in an order so strictly natural as this is, greater difficult) 
is always to be expected in Boding characters for genera, than 

in those of which our knowledge is more imperfect, and whose 
series of individuals may therefore be considered less complete. 
There also appear to be some important modifications of struc- 
ture to which the attention of botanists has not hitherto been di- 
rected ; and they promise to afford better distinctions than hai e 
yet been employed. 

The form of leaves has usually been considered a mark by 
which certain genera might be distinguished. Sir .James Smith 
has however justly pointed out the genera] insufficiency of these 
differences even in their most decided form. Thus Sotbm with 
pinnated leaves differs in scarcely any other respect from Pyrut, 
where they are simple. Nor can the Cratagi with angular leaves 
be distinguished from such as have a regular outline. Yet, en- 
tire and serrated leaves are almost certain indications of diffe- 
rent genera; P/iotinia integrifvliu offering the only instance to 
the contrary. And the fruit of this, which has not yet been 
seen, may determine it to be a genus distinct from that to which 
I have referred it. 

Bracteae are generally subulate, quickly withering and falling 
off. Jn Mespilus they adhere to the tube of the calyx ; and in 
Raphiokpis are persistent and leafy. 

Inflorescence can rarely be employed even as a secondary 
character ; for in Pi/rus we have all the gradations from a nearly 
simple to a very compound form. Nevertheless, the nearly ses- 
sile flowers of Mespilus distinguish it from Eriobotrija and Cra- 
taegus. The great terminal bunches of Photinia are very unlike 
the lateral flowers of the last genus. The scaly racemes of 
Raphiokpis and the naked axillary ones of Chamtemeles are pe- 
culiar to themselves. 

The limb of the calyx is usually cup-shaped and persistent ; 
vol. xiii. x but 

90 Mr, J, Ltndley's Observations on 

but not much thickened. In Raphiolepis it is infundibuliform 
and deciduous ; in Chanomeles campanulate and fleshy. It is 
generally five-toothed ; in Cijdonia and Mespilus five-parted and 
foliaceous ; in Chamameles as it were truncate, with five very 
small denticulations. 

The petals are roundish and spreading ; in Amelanchier long 
and narrow; in Cotoneaster short and erect; in Phot inia re- 

The fruit is usually closed by the thickened disk and conni- 
vent divisions of the calyx. But in Mespilus the top of the cells 
is absolutely naked ; and this is one of the distinctions between 
it and Cratcegus. In Ckcenomeles it splits into five valves, ac- 
cording to Thunberg. In its young state it is composed of from 
one to five ovaria, usually united into a single mass and adhering 
to the calyx, which then appears superior ; but in Cotoneaster 
the ovaria are absolutely distinct from each other, and only co- 
here with the calyx ; in Photinia they are united with each other, 
but not with the calyx, except by somewhat less than their lower 
half. As the fruit ripens, the calyx and ovaria increase simul- 
taneously in size. The substance of the latter, however, varies 
considerably. They become fleshy, and form with the calyx a 
five-celled fruit, with cartilaginous or chartaceous endocarp in 
Pyrus, and osseous endocarp in Mespilus; and to these the term 
pomnm may be strictly applied. Linnaeus and his followers have 
considered the fruit of Mespilus, Sec. as a bacca ; but if this is a 
term by which those fruits are distinguished whose seeds are 
lodged rn pulp, and usually lose their point of attachment when 
ripe, it can only have been used in this order through a very 
common mistake of the part containing for the part contained ; 
or, in other words, of the inner coat or putamen of the cells for 
the seeds themselves. In Cotoneaster I have already said, that 
the ovaria are parietal ; and the ripe fruit consists of five peri- 


the natural Group of Plants called Pomacea. Q\ 

carpia attached to the side of the fleshy calyx. Phot una has a 
little bilocular capsule inclosed in the fleshy cal\ \. 

The cells of the ovarium in Amelanckitr are completely divided 
in tw& by a dissepiment, which is quickly obliterated by the 
growth of the ovula ; so that the ripe fruit does not differ in this 
respect from the rest of the order. Nor indeed is the ovarium 
so materially dissimilar as would at first sight appear : since its 
cells are made bilocular by a spurious dissepiment, having a dif- 
ferent origin from that of plurilocular fruit iu general, inasmuch 
as it is opposite to the style and not alternate with it. It is not 
connected with any corresponding increase in the number of 
styles, either apparent or hypothetical ; nor can it be considered 
an extension of the placenta, as are the false septa of many 
fruits. On the contrary, it originates from the axis of the back 
of the cell, as is proved by Pyrus arbutifolia and Photinia integri- 
folia, in which it is rudimentary only. It, therefore, is probably 
analogous to the partial dissepiment of certain Malvaceee, such 
as Thespesia populnea. 

The direction of seeds is usually ascending. In Crataegus Oxy- 
acantha, and those species more immediately connected with it, 
the seeds are peltate ; and by this character I have formerly 
proposed to distinguish Cratcegus from Mespilus. But in some 
other species, such as C. glandulosa and pyrifolia, I have since 
observed the usual direction of the order to exist. In Chama- 
rneles, in which the ovarium is simple, the ovula are absolutely 

The number of seeds in the chief part of the order is two, or 
one by the abortion of the other. In Cydonia and Chcenomeles 
their number is indefinite. In Osteomeles they are solitary in 
their youngest state. 

The testa, in all the genera with osseous endocarp, is mem- 
branaceous ; but in Pyrus it is cartilaginous : and in Raphiolepix 

N 2 coriaceous : 

92 Mr, J. Li nd ley's Observations on 

coriaceous ; so that the thinner the lining of the cells is, the 
thicker becomes the coat of the seeds ; as if some sort of pow- 
erful covering were indispensable for the protection of the em- 
bryo, and therefore supplied by the testa when the pericarpium 
is insufficient. 

The chalaza is generally conspicuous, in the form of a some- 
what depressed areola, situated at that end of the seed which is 
next the hilum. Its presence proves the coriaceous envelope of 
the abortive seeds of Raphiolepis to be testa and not endocarp. 

The embryo has the same form as the seed, in consequence of 
the almost absolute absence of albumen, which only exists in the 
form of a very thin scale adhering to the testa in certain species 
of Pyrin. The cotyledons are flat, and parallel with the pla- 
centa ; the radicula small and conical, obliquely turned towards 
the hilum ; somewhat longer in the pinnated Pyri than in the 
rest of that genus. 

Three-fourths of the species are found in the temperate regions 
of Europe, North America, and Asia ; a few are peculiar to the 
north of India, and one species comes from the Sandwich islands. 
They would therefore have nearly the same geographical distri- 
bution as Roses. But two species have been found in Peru by 
Ruiz and Pavon ; and a Pyrus from Mexico, sent to this coun- 
try by M. Pavon, exists in the herbarium of Mr. Lambert. It is 
much to be regretted that we have no information of the altitude 
at which these southern species were observed. 

We have only now to consider whether the foregoing genera 
should be retained as a distinct natural order, as has been pro- 
posed by M. Richard (see Analyse du Fruit, Eng. edit. p. 23), 
or be understood only as a section of Rosacea, according to the 
decision of M. de Jussieu. 

The principal peculiarity by which M. Richard proposes to 
characterize Pomacece appears to be the ascending direction of 


the natural Group of Plants called Pomacea. 

their seeds, as opposed to the suspended seeds of most true 
Rosacea (Xestler's Potentillea). But whatever may be the \ able 
of this distinction in other instances, it must in the present 
family be considered of generic importance only: for Dry a*. 
JValdttcinia and Gcum, with all the habit and other characters of 
Rosacea', have seeds with the same direction as Pomacea; and 
certain Cratagi with angular leaves exhibit a passage from one 
to the other. Nor can the inferior fruit of Pombcete distinguish 
them from Rosacea with more certainty than the direction of 
their seeds, as is manifest from the structure of certain genera I 
shall presently have occasion to propose. It is true that Pyrtff, 
Mespilta, and some others*, have fruit absolutely interior, or co- 
hering with the calyx and each other l>\ their whole surface; 
but in Cotoncaster this cohesion is very partial, and in true Ph<>- 
tinia scarcely exists in any degree. There is however one cir- 
cumstance which is universal in Pomacea, and 1 believe does 
not exist in Rosacea ; namely, that the ovula of the former are 
collateral, and of the latter, when more than one, vertical, or 
placed one above the other. This character may therefore be 
employed to distinguish Pomacea as a section from Rosacea, but 
can scarcely be sufficient to separate it as an order; especially 
as the same disposition of ovula, when reduced to a single pair, 
exists in Spiraa. 

ROSACE ARUM sectio prima Juss. 

(Pomaces Richard Anal, du Fr. ed. Angl. 2.3.) 

I line Myrtaceis baccatis, median tibus Chnrnomele et Cydonia 
pariter polyspermis, affinis ; inde Rosaceis ceteris per Crata - 
gos semine peltato. 

O J. 

♦ Cll AH A CTER 

94 Mr. J. Li^dley's Observations on 

Character Naturalis. 

Arbores fruticesve. 

Rami alterni, glabri v. pubescentes, laterales saepe aphj^lli spi- 

Folia stipulata, alterna, simplicia v. composita, margine incisa 
v. integerrima, deciclua v. persistentia, glaberrima v. (saepius 
subtus) lanata. Stipule decidual libera?, v. paululum adnatae. 

hiflorescentia terminalis, in racemum v. cymam multifloram, 
quandoque abortu unirloram, congesta ; v. axillaris; nunc 
nuda, nunc bracteis noribus longioribus et persistentibus squa- 

■ mosa. Bractete saepius subulatae, sphacelatae, decidual. 

Flores hermaphroditi, rarissime polygami. Calyx campanulatus, 
maturitate carnosus ; limbo 5-partito v. dentato, saepius per 
sistente, modo deciduo ; tuba cum ovariis cohaerente v. semi- 
libero. Petala 5, unguiculata, aestivatione quinconciali, fauce 
calycis inserta, eoque plerumque longiora, decidua. 

Stamina definita v. indefinita, aestivatione inflexa, modo alterna- 
tim inaequalia, disco serie simplici raro duplici inserta, paten - 
tia v. erecta, raro dentibus calycinis breviora. Filament a 
subulata, v. rarius filiformia, distincta. Anthers subrotundae, 
antieae, incumbentes, 2-loculares, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. 

: Follen sphaericum. 

Discus saepius carnosus, mellirluus, raro tenuissimus ; nunc hy- 
popetalus, nunc per parietem limbi calycis extensus. 

Ovaria apice saepius villosa ; nunc parietalia, discreta, unilocu- 
laria, facie hirsuta, nunc villosa, connata, calyce semidiscreta; 
vel calyce et invicem coadunata, loculis turn quandoque septo 
spurio divisis ; ovula collateralia. 

Styli simplices, numero ovariorum, filiformes, staminum longi- 
tudine, v. rarius brevissimi lana ovarii obvoluti ; discreti v. 


the natural Group of Plants called Fomaceg. f)5 

partim connati, muli v. infra medium lanam gerentes. Stig- 
mata plerumque emarginata, nunc plana siniplicissima. 

Fructus calyce baceato inclusus ; nunc pomum 1 — j-loculare, 
eiidocarpio* cartilagineo ceu osseo, raro siccum ■ quinqueval- 
Ve ; nunc achenopses uniloculares, parietal^, lacir sicpius 
hirsute ; vel pericarpium pilosum, bilocularo. xniisuperum. 
Loculi quandoque dissepimento spurio ox axe dorsi enato di- 

Semina oblonga v. subglobosa, hinc planiuscula, basi acuta ; plu- 
rilocularibus ascendentia, collateralia, definita v. indeiinita , 

• uniloculari erecta. Testa inembranacea, endocarpio turn os- 
seo; v. cartilaginea, v. mucosa, v. coriacea. 11 Hum conspi- 
cuum lineare. Rapha simplex, rectilinea. Chalaza apicilaris, 
saepe obscure colorata, conspicua. 

Embryo albus, exalbuminosus, semini conformis, Cotyledones 
plana?, ovales, carnosae, placenta parallelie. Ha dicula infora, 
ad hilum versa, conica. 

* For the explanation of this and other carpological terms, vide Richard on the 
Structure of Fruits and Seeds, Eng. edition. 




; f ,. Mr. J. Lindley's Obserxfd.tiw9.\on , . i 

Generum Analyse 

JJndocarpium cartilagineum. 

Semina indefinite. 

■?' - • ■ •. 

Pomum 5-valve Cliamomeles (r.Y . 

Pomum clausum ■■.• . . Cydonia (n.) j 

, Semina definita. 

Ovula solitaria (ob loculos 2-partitos) : Amelanchier (vi .) 

Ovula-eemina. "•.,-.• 

Ovarium uniloculare Chamameks (x*) 

. , Ovarium bi- triloculare. 

Calycis limbus infundibuliformis, . ' -, ^ 

deciduus Raphiokpis (xi.) 

Calycis limbus altc divisus persi>- 

tens. • ■; •■■-. 

* ■ ■ • ■ . • • ■ • • • . 


* ••■•••' • --.-.- 

Seminis membrana propria 

chalaza insignita . . . Pyrits (in.) 
Seminis membrana propria 

obliterata ..... Eriobotrya (vii.i.J 
Pericarpium semisuperum, bilo- 

culare Photinia (ix.) 


Rndocarpium osseum. 
Pomum apertum. Sepala persistentia . . Mespilus (v.) 
Pomum clausum. 

Styli glabri . * • , • Cfatcegus (xjj.) 

Styli infra medium barbati exserti. Ovu- 
la solitaria , » Osteomeles (iv.) 

Achenopses parietales ■>;>" « . . S . . Cotoneaster (vn.) 


^ I. CHCENO-;. 

on the ntitural Group of Plants called P^murce. 

Pyri species Thunb. IVilld. 
GW. eanipanulatus. j-dentatus, cainosus. stamina erebtb, aerie. 

duplici inserta. Pomum quiriquei^e, pel} -ps-nnum. 
Frutex (Japonice). Folia lucida, coriacca, erenata. Mores tcr- 

minales, coccinei. 
Pyrus Japonic;) Thunb. 

The fruit is only knoun from TruHiBwg's description, whd 
says it splits into five valves. The insertion of die stamens in a 
double series, and the great tV>ii\ persistejxl liipb of the calyx. 
are alone sufficient to distinguish ii frqjD (Sydgnia'. 



Cydonia Tourn/, Juss. Pyrj Sp. Linn. 

. •■ ■ • \ * ■ ■ 

Cat. 5-partitus : laciniis foliaceis. Pomum dausuin, pol\spcr- 

mum. Semina testa mucikiginea. 
Arbor mediocr is (Eiiropaz et Japonice). Folia intcgcrrimu* sublux 

lanata. Flqres solitarii, subsessiles. BraGteafc so pins sMarits, 
-foliacecE. Calyx la nat its. Petala magna, eonspicuu. S\\\[ ui- 

fra medium lana densa, cohctrentes. 

Pyrus Cydonia Linn. 


Pyrus Tourn., Linn., Juss. Malus Juss. Lazarolus, Hahniaj 
Aucuparia, Medic. Morbus Linn. Aroma? pars -Pers. 

Cal. 5-dentatus. Petala subrotunda. Pomum clausum, 5-locu- 
lare, putamine cartilagineo. Loculi dispenui. Testa cartila- 


Arbores v. arbuscula? (Europa:. Asiceet America septentrionalis). 

Folia simplicia v. eomposita, serrata. Cyrmr pntcntcs^terminu- 

■ les, multiflorce. Practeae \ subulate, decidme. -Petala subrotunda, 

patent ia,v. erecta, turn concava, conniventia. ^txlighbriv. basi 

lanati, liberi c\ partim cohcercntcs. 

VOL. XI i I. ' >> ] - F° T [ \ 

98 Mr. J« Li.ndlev's Observations 

1. Folia simtlicia. 

Pyrus communis, pollveria, nivalis, Malus, dioica, speetabilis, 
prunifolia, baccata, coronaria, angustifolia, salicifolia, Aria, 
intermedia, -WiWt > elaeagrifolia, Pall. ; amygdaliformis, Jill; 
Malus acerba, Decand. Sorbus latifolia, Pers. 

Pyrus arbutifolia, melanocarpa, Willd. Aronia alnifolia ? Null. 

2. Folia pinxata v> alte pixnatifida. (Sorbus.) 

Pyrus hybrida Willd. Sorbus aucuparia, hybrida, domestiea, 
Willd. ; auriculata? Pers.; microcarpa? Pursh. 

3. Folia simplicia. Petala parva, erecta, concava, 
connive nti a. (Cham&mespilas.) 

Mespilus Chamsemespilus Willd. 

To the first section must be added several nndescribed species 
from India and China in the herbaria of Sir Joseph Banks and 
Mr. Lambert, with one from Mexico in the collection of the last 
gentleman. Malus of Tournefort and Jussieu has styles united 
towards their base. But this is scarcely of even specific import- 
ance ; for it occurs in Cratagus Oxyacantha, which has com- 
monly separate styles, and is variable in Chcenomeles and Ame- 
lanchier Botryapium. 

Pyrus arbutifolia, and perhaps those allied to it, has the rudi- 
ment of a spurious dissepiment. 

Pyri Sp. Smith. 

Cal. 5-dentatus. Petala oblonga, plana. Shjli exserti, infra me- 
dium barbati. Ovula solitaria. Pomtim clausum, (ianatum,) 
5-loculare, endocarpio osseo. 

Frutex,; V.-L.WI. Tab , 

// ,:<{ sic,-, del 

(' .i /(<>///(//. I f/ /////////// ///f>//r/ . 

I i ' urfl.t jcuh> 

on the natural Group of Plants called Pomacea. 99 

Frutex (Insularum Sandwich). Folia pinnata : foliolis intcgerri- 
mis. Bracteae subulatce, deciduce, sub cahjce opposite. Pomuni 
parvum, stylis et sepalis coronatum. 


Tab. VIII. 

Pyrus anthyllidifolia. Smith in Rees in I. 

Hab. in insula Owhyhee. Menzies (v. s. sp. Herb. Ba?ih). 

Foliola obovata apiculata, subtus sericea. 

This curious plant was gathered by Mr. Menzies near the sum- 
mit of the Wharrarai mountain of Owhyhee. Sir James Smith, 
who had not seen the fruit, from its resemblance to the pinnated 
Pyri, published it in Rees's Cyclopedia under the name of Pyrus 
anthyllidifolia. There is, however, no instance of leaves with an 
entire margin among Pyri ; and the fruit which is preserved in 
Sir Joseph Banks's herbarium proves it to be a very distinct 
genus, differing from Pyrus in having bony fruit, and from Cra- 
taegus in shape of petals, solitary ovula, persistent styles, which 
are woolly on their lower half, and whole habit. Nor do the 
filaments of Osteomeles spread, as is the case with Cratcegus. 

Eriobotrya is distinguishable by its very much shorter styles, 
which are slightly downy all over, twin ovula, bearded petals, 
and fleshy fruit. 


Tourn., Linn., Juss. 

Cal. 5-partitus, laciniis foliaceis. Discus magnus, melliiluus. 

Styli glabri. Pomum turbinatum, apertum, 5-loculare : endo- 

carpio osseo. 
Arbores mediocres (Europce). Folia lanceolata, serrulata, decidua. 

Flores magni, subsessiles, subsoUtarii. Bracteae persistentes. 

o 2 Petala 

1 00 Mr. J . Li ,nd l e y s Observations 

Petala orbiculata, patentia (margine crispa). Loculi cultarum 
sapissime vacui. 
1. Mespilus germanica Willcl. 2. M. grandiflora Smith Exot. 

To plants with these characters I propose to limit Mespilus. 
which will then include those species only with eatable fruit. It 
will be distinguishable from all the other genera with osseous 
endocarp by the foliaceous segments of its calyx, and fruit whose 
cells are naked at the top, and not covered over by the incras- 
sated disk and connivent segments, as in Crataegus, Sec. 

The remainder of the genus in Willdenow is a mass of species 
differing as much from each other as from true Mespili. Thus, 
M.japonica constitutes my genus Eriobotrya ; M. Pyracantha is 
not distinct from Cratcegus ; M. Chaincemespilus is a Pyrus ; and 
Cotoneaster and tomentosa belong to Medicus's genus Cotone- 


Amelanchier. Medicus. Aroniae pars. Per soon. 

Cat. 5-dentatus. Petala lanceolata. Ovarium decem-loculare. 
Ovula solitaria. Pomum 3 — 5-loculare endocarpio cartila- 

Arbuscula> (Enropa et America: sept entr 'ion alls). Folia simplicia, 
serrata, decidua. Flores racemosi, cojnpacti, terminates v. late- 
rales. Bracteoe lineari-lanceolatce, decidua. Stamina calyce 
scepius breviora. Styli glabri. Loculi angulo interiore (facie) 

1 . Pyrus Amelanchier Willd. 2 . Pyrus Botryapium Willd. 3 ? Py- 
rus ovalis Willd. 4. Pyrus cretica Willd. 


■Ihm.I.nm So, V,l XlKT,ilJXj' ici 


/ Curtti srulf 

( f>/r///'<'/.t/t /■ f/r// /////////</ . 

on the natural Group of Plants called Pomace a ■ 101 


Cotoneaster. Medicus. Mespili species. Linn., Willd. Pyri. 

Flores polygami. 
Cal. turbinatus, obtuse 5-dentatus. Pet. brevia, erecta. Sfa- 

mina dentium longitudine. Styli glabri, staminibus breviores 

Achenopses parietales, calyce inclusae. 
Arbusculae (F.uropce, America septentrionalis, et Indies). Folia 

simpticia, integcrrimq, infra lanata. Corymbi lateralcs, patentes. 

Bractese subulatce, decidua. Petala parva, persistentia. 

vulgaris. 1. C. foliis ovatis basi rotundatis, calycibus peduncu- 
lisque nudis. 
Mespilus Cotoneaster. Willd. 
Hab. in Europae alpestribus; Sibiriae Pallas (v. v. c. 
et s. sp. Herb. Ba?iks.). 
tomentosa. 2. C. foliis ellipticis utrinque obtusis, calycibus pe- 
dunculisque lanatis. 
Mespilus tomentosa. Willd. 

Hab. in alpibus Tyrolensibus, Von Born (v. v. c. et 
s. sp. Herb. Banks.), 
aflinis. 3. C. foliis ovatis basi attenuatis, calycibus pedun- 

culisque lanatis. 
Hab. Chittong, Buchanan (v.s. sp. Herb. Lambert.). 
Praecedenti similis, sed satis distincta. 
acuminata. 4. C. foliis ovatis acuminatis utrinque pilosiusculis, 
calycibus pedunculisque nudis. Tab. 9- 
Hab. in Nepalia, Wallich (v. s. sp. Herb. Banks.). 
Rami virgati. Folia non subtus lanata. Pedun- 
culi quam priorum breviores. 


102 Mr. J. Lindley's Observations 


Mespili species. Thunb., Willd. 

Cal. lanatus, obtuse 5-dentatus. Pet. barbata. Stam. ereeta, 
dentium longitudine. Styli 5, filiformes, inclusi, pilosi. Po- 
mum clausum, 3 — 5-loculare. Chalaza nulla. Radicula inter 
bases cotyledonum inclusa. 

Arbores mediocres ( Asia temper at ce et Peruvian). Ramuli tomen- 
tosi. Folia simplicia, serrata, infrci lanata. Racemi compositi, 
terminates, lanati. Bracteae subulatce, deciduce. 

japonica. 1. E. foliis lanceolatis serratis. 
Mespilus japonica. Thunb. 

Hab. in Japonia (Thunb.); China, Loureiro (v. v. c. 
et s. sp. Herb. Banks.), 
elliptica. 2. E. foliis planis ellipticis obscure denticulatis. 
Mespilus Cuila. Buck. Mss. 

Hab. ad Narainhetty, Buchanan (v. s. sp. Herb. Lam- 
Obs. Facies prioris. 
cordata? 3. E. foliis cordatis serratis. 

Mespilus lanuginosa. Fl. Peruv. t. 425. f. 1. hied. 
Hab. in Peruvia. Pavon (v. s. sp. Herb. Lambert). 
Rami villis ferrugineis strigosi. Folia petiolata cor- 
data obtusa serrata, supra plana pilosiuscula 
glaberrima rugosa, infra ferruginea villosa ve- 
nis prominentibus. Stipules hirsutae. Fructus 
(fide iconis) parvus rotundus non lanuginosus. 
4? Mespilus heterophylla. FL Peruv. t. 425. /. 2. ined. 

I am obliged to Mr. Brown for my knowledge of the structure 
of the fruit of this genus, which I have never been able to 


on the natural Group of 'Plants called Pomacerr. 103 


Cratapgi species. Thunb. 

Cal. 5-dentatus. Pctala reflexa. Ovarium semi-supcrum, vil- 
losum, biloculare. Styli 2, glabri. Pcricarpium biloctllare 
calyce carnoso inclusum. Testa cartilaginea. 

Arbores (Asia temper at a et Calif or nice). Folia rimplicia, coriacea. 
sempervirentia, serrata v. integerrima. Panicuhe compositce, co- 
rymbose, terminates. Fructus parvi, impubes,. 

serrulata. 1. P. foliis oblongis aeutis serrulatis, pedicellis ca- 
lyce Loogiortbtw. 

Crataegus glabra. Thunb. 

Hab. in Japonia (Thunb.) ; China, illustr. Staun- 
ton (v. v. c. et s. sp. Herb. Banks.), 
arbutifolia. 2. P. foliis oblongo-laneeolatis distanter dentalis. 

pedicellis calyce brevioribus. 

Crataegus arbutifolia. Ait. Kezc.ed. alt. in. 202. 

Hab. in California. Menzies (v.s.sp. Herb. Banks). 

Habitus praecedentis. Paniculae non corymbosa\ 
Folia margine revoluta. 
integrifolia. 3. P. foliis ovalibus integerrimis, ramis pustulatis. 

Hab. in Nepalia. Wallich (v. s. sp. Herb. Ba?iks 
et Lamb.). 

Ptami glabri angulati papillis crebris pustulifor- 
mibus scabrosi. Folia petiolata glaberrima 
integerrima ovalia, basin versus quandoque 
attenuata, reticulato-venosa. Paniculaz com- 
posite coiyiilbosae glaberrimac ebracteata*. 
Styli crassi patentes. Loculi dissepimento 
spurio semi- 2-partiti, ideoque ovula quasi 

solitaria. Fructus ignotus. 


101 Mr. J. Ltndley's Observations 

Charaeteribus priorum paulo recedit ob 
loculos ovarii semi- 2-partitos et folia inte- 
gerrima. Vix autem genus diversum. 
duhia. 4? P. foliis lanceolatis distanter serratis, panicula 

pilosa, Tab. 10. 

Crataegus Shicola. Buchan. Mss. 

Mespilus benghalensis. Roxb. Fl. hid. hied. 

Hab. in Nepalia, Wallich (v. s. sp. Herb. Banks et 

Obs. Species generis dubii. Forte PhotiniA di- 
stincta ob fructum inferum unilocularem et 
semen magnum solitarium testa laxa vesti- 
tum. Sed cum petala sint reflexa et ovarium 
semi-superum biloculare, hue referre quani 
genus alterum efformare malui. 

An hue referenda? Crataegus villosa et Icevis 
Thunbergii ? 


Cal. truncatus, 5-denticulatus. Petala parva, erecta, erosa. Fi- 
lamenta filiformia. Ovarium inferum, monostylum, uniloculare. 
Ovula bina, erecta. 

Frutex (Madera) . Folia simplicw, coriacea, niiida, obsolete crenata. 
Stipulae tnembranacea, deciduce. Racemi aocillares, basifoliosi. 


Tab. XI. 
Crataegus coriacea. Soland. Mss. 
Buxo Madefensibus. 

Hab. in Madera rupibus. Masson (v. s. sp. Herb. Banks). 
Inermis ? foliis cuneiformibus subaveniis. Raeemi pilosius- 



//. <o> 

_ 7//r/////rf tzavui 

Thau / a 



'/// /// 

/V./ i< //,ftf 


on the natural Group of Plants called Pomacea. 105 

Stamina 10 — 15 basi vix dilatata, erecto-patentia. Discus te- 
nuis. Ovarium nudum. Stylus crassus subclavatus, basi pu- 
bescens. (Fructus immaturus dispermus. Sol.) 

Variat foliis majoribus et minoribus. 

That variety of Crataegus Oxyacantha which has been called 
monogyna, can by no means affect the importance of the charac- 
ter by which I propose to distinguish this genus ; because in the 
former the unilocularity of fruit is not connected with a corre- 
sponding structure of ovarium, but arises from the abortion of 
one style. In the present plant the ovarium in its youngest 
state is absolutely unilocular. 


Crataegi species. Linn. 

Catycis limbus infundibuliformis deciduus. Filamenta filiformia. 
Ovarium biloculare. Pomum disco incrassato clausum, puta- 
mine chartaceo. Semina gibbosa. Testa coriacea crassissima. 

Frutex (Chinensis). Folia simplicia crenulata coriacea reticulata. 
Racemi terminates bract eis foliaceis persistentibus squamosi. 

1. Crataegus indica Linn. 

2 ? Crataegus rubra Lour. 

XII. CRATAEGUS Linn., Willd. 

Mespili pars. Smith, Willd. Pyri sp. Willd. Hahniae pars. 

Cat. 5-dentatus. Petala patentia orbiculata. Ovarium 2 — 5- 
loculare. Styli glabri. Pomum carnosum oblongum denti- 
bus calycinis v. disco incrassato clausum, putamine osseo. 

Frutices (America septentrionalis, Europce, Asia temperate et 
Africce borealis) spinosce. Folia angulatav. dentata, nunc sem- 
pervirentia. Cymae terminates plerumque multiflorce patentes. 
Bracteae subulatce decidua. 

vol. xin. p Crataegus 

106 On the natural Group of Plants called Pomacea. 

Crataegus cordata, coccinea, pyrifolia, elliptica, glandulosa, 
parvifolia, flava, punctata, Crusgalli, Oxyacantha (including 
monogyna), and Azarolus Jfilld.; crenulata, Roxb.; Mespilus 
Pyracantha, W. ; tanacetifolia, Smith ; Pyrus terminalis, W. 
And probably 

Crataegus viridis, maura, pentagyna, Willd. ; nigra, TV. et K. ; 
apiifolia, spathulata, Mich.; turbinata, Pursh; melanocarpa, 
orientalis, Bieberstein. 

CratcBgus thus limited is a strictly natural genus divisible into 
two sections, of which the first may contain the species with 
evergreen nearly entire leaves, and the other those with angular 
deciduous ones. Each will be increased with several unpublished 
plants in the Banksian herbarium ; and among the drawings of 
the Chinese is a species with quinate leaves. 

Mespilus Pyracantha L. is referable to the first section, not- 
withstanding it differs in some respects. 


a. Flos integer. 

«.* Idem petalis avulsis. 

b. Idem verticaliter sectus. 

c. Ovarii sectio transversa, 
c* Ovarium sejunctum. 

d. Fructus integ-er. 

e. Idem per axin divisus. 

/. Ejusdem sectio transversa. 
g. Pericarpium sejunctum. 
h. Semen. 

XII. Account 

( 107 ) 

XII. Account of some new Species of Birds of the Genera l l sif~ 
tacusand Columba, in the Museum of the Unncan Society* By 
M. C. J. Temminck, F.M.L.S. #c. 

Read December 21, 1819. 

En prcsentant ce premier Memoire sur quelques oiseaux de ia 
N'ouvelle Jfollande d6couverts dans lea deraieres ann6es, je sa- 
tisfais aux vues de cettc Soci6t6, (}ui a bien voulu me permettre 
de publier la description des especes oouvelles d'animaui de 
I'Austral-Asie, dont elle possrdc une riche el precieuse collec- 
tion ; d'autant plus intcressante qu'elle se borne aux productioni 
de ces contrees, abondantes en etres dont l'organisation et les 
formes exterieures sont uniquement propres a ce sol et a ces 
mers, pour ainsi dire encore vierges pour nos connoissances en 

II est certain que la Nouvelle Hollande et les nombreuses iles 
repandues dans l'immense Ocean pacifique, nourrissent une mul- 
titude d'animaux de toutes les classes, dont les formes presentent 
des traits extraordinaires qui les lient plus ou moins entre-eux, et 
dont plusieurs se trouvent separes de tous les etres qui vivent 
dans les autres parties du globe. Les decouvertes nouvelles, qui 
n'ont pu tendre jusqu'ici qu'a nous faire connoitre les cotes et 
un grand nombre d'iles ou d'archipels de ce singulier pays, ont 
mise deja cette verite au grand jour, et les tentatives faites tres 
recemment pour penetrer dans l'interieur en fourniront sans- 
doute de nouvelles preuves. 

p 2 C'est 

108 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

C'est surtout parmi les etres dont l'organisation est la plus 
compliquee ou la plus parfaite, que les differences avec les ani- 
maux des autres contrees sont les plus dignes d'etre remarquees ; 
temoins les genres Dasyurus Geoff. ; Perameles Geoff.; Balan- 
tia Illig. ; Phalangista Iliig. ; Uypsyprymnus Illig.* ; Halmaturus 
Illig.t; Phascohmys Geoff. J; Echidna Cuv.; OrnithorhynchuslSbi- 
menb.; tous genres parfaitement bien caracterises, qui n'ont point 
d analogues parmi les Mammiferes connus des autres contrees. 

Quoique parmi les oiseaux de la Nouvelle Hollande il sen 
trouve un plus grand nombre qui viennent se grouper tres natu- 
rellement dans les genres de Linne, ce singulier pays produit 
nonobstant des groupes entiers et des especes jusqu'ici iso- 
lees, qui ne laissent point que d'offrir des differences tres nota- 
bles dans leur organisation comparativement aux especes con- 
nues des autres parties du globe : tels sont particulierement les 
nouveaux genres Ptelenorhynchus\ Glaucopis Forst. ; Grallina 
Vieill. ; MenwraLath.; Ocypterus Cuv.; Malurus Vieill. ; Psit- 
tarostra\\ Scythrops Lath.; Orthonyv*, Anerpous^, Meliphaga 
LewinJ; Falcator% Pardalotus Vieill.; Chionis Forst.; Pachy- 

* M. Shaw range la seule espece connue avcc les autres Kanguros clans le genre 

+ C'est le genre Macropus dans Shaw. % C'est Didelphis ursina de Shaw. 

^ Dont je ferai connoitre les especes dans un autre Memoire. 
\\ La seule espece qui le compose est ce singulier oiseau indique par Latliam sous 
le nom de Loxia Psittacea. 

* Genre nouveau dont je ferai connoitre la seule espece inedite qui le compose. 
■f* Nouveau genre compose de trois especes inedites. 

t M. Cuvier, qui est si exact a rendre justice aux travaux de ceux qui ont ecrit 
avant lui, n'a sans-doute pas su que Lexv'm (Birds of New Holla/id) a nomme ainsi les 
oiseaux dont il forme son nouveau genre Philedon. Lewin en figure trois, mais le 
quatrieme sous le nom de Meliphaga chrysocepltala est un vrai Loriot (Oriolas). Je 
connois aujourd'hui plus de 40 especes de ce genre, dont 3*2 font p»rti de mon cabinet. 

^ Ce nouveau genre se compose des Certhia pacijica, obscura, coccinea, et falcata 
de Linn. GmeL 


of the Genera Psittacus and Columba. 109 

ptila Illig. Tous ces genres d'oiseaux n'ont point dYspeces sem- 
blables parmi celles des autres pays; les caracteres pria de la 
forme des pieds et du bee, et comme accessoires de la langue et 
des ailes, oftrent des disparites faciles a saisir et bien marquees 
dans tous; ils ne peuvent occuper une place dans les genres de 
Linnc ni dans ceux deja trop nombreux de quelques naturalistes. 
Bien loin d'etre de l'avis de certains novateurs, (jui pour les plus 
legeres differences observees, tantot dans la forme de la queue, 
dans celle des ailes, dans les ornemens extraordinaire^ et acces- 
soires, tels que huppes, caroncules, ou nudites; enfin dans cer- 
tains organes qui ne servient point aux principal's fonctions ani- 
males, etablissent sur des bases si peu solicits et settlement d'apres 
les depouilles d'animaux, une multitude de genres nouveaux ; 
loin de suivre une pareille methode, qui ne peut mener qua la 
confusion de noms, et bientot entrainera celle des choses, je me 
suis particulierement occupc en etablissant le systeme auquel je 
travaille depuis plus de dix ans, a reduire autant (pie possible 
au plus petit nombre les genres nouveaux, que les decouv ertes 
faites depuis Linne, d'un immense pays et de nombreux archi- 
pels peuples d'une multitude d'animaux, rendent absolument 
indispensable. Je me suis egalement applique dans mon tra- 
vail sur Vornithologie d'Europe*, a diminuer le nombre des 
especes nominales dont presque toutes les methodes sont en- 

Dans le present memoire je ne ferai mention que de ces especes 
de Perroquets et de Pigeons dont aucun auteur jusquici n'a fait 
mention, ou qui ont ete confondues avec des especes deja indi- 

* La nouvelle edition du Manuel (VOrmthologie, ou Tableau Systematique des 
Oiseaux (V Europe, paroitra dans le courant de 1'annee 18 C 20. E!le sera precedee d'un 
appercu general de classification methodique, qui servira de base a mon index genera], 
dont les especes ont ete soigneusement examinees dans tous les cabinets marquants <n 


110 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

quees. Le plus grand nombre de ces oiseaux inconnus ont ete 
rapportes des cotes sud, est et nord de la Nouvelle Hollande, par 
Mr. Robert Brown, botaniste celebre, qui a bien voulu me com- 
muniquer, pour ce memoire, des renseignemens tires de ces notes, 
qui m'ont ete d'une grande utilite. J'aurais pu aj outer encore 
plusieurs especes de Perroquets et de Pigeons nouveaux de mon 
cabinet, et dont fai vu des individus dans d'autres collections ; 
mais je me suis borne ici aux seules especes nouvelles qui font 
partie du cabinet de cette Societe. 

Le grand genre Psittacus, vu les especes dont il se compose, 
qui toutes ont la meme charpente osseuse, les memes organes, 
les memes muscles, les memes mceurs, et approchant les memes 
appetits, ne peut etre subdivise qu'en sections de sous ordre, mais 
point en genres distincts ; car celui de Pezoporus, etabli par 
Illiger d'apres le Psittacus j'ormosus de Latham ou la Perruche 
ingambe de Vaillant, ne peut etre adopte vu que plusieurs Per- 
ruches a queue longue et etagee de la Nouvelle Hollande, ont des 
tarses un peu plus longs que leurs congeneres ; et cette longueur 
du tarse, des doigts et meme des ongles variant dans les especes, 
sans qu'il soit possible d'assigner une limite fixe et certaine. Sem- 
blable cas existe aussi dans la forme plus ou moins bombee des 
deux mandibules dans certains Cacatoes et Perroquets*, corarae 
Psittacus Banksii et galeatus de Latham et Psittacus Cookii et 

* II est difficile, pour ne pas dire impossible, d'etablir une ligne de demarcation entre 
les Cacatoes et les Perroquets, car les Psittacus accipitrinus et mascarinus de Linne 
forment le passage des Cacatoes de l'lnde aux Perroquets des trois parties du monde ; 
tandis que Psittacus galeatus de Latham forme celui de ces derniers aux Cacatoes a 
bee bombe de Nouvelle Hollande. 

Je crois etre a meme de prouver par mon Index General, que les divisions geogra- 
phiques, employees comme premier moyen de classification methodique, facilitent et 
simplifient beaucoup les recherches, qui deviennent de plus en plus difficiles et fasti- 
dieuses par cette multitude de divisions et de noms de tribus et de families dont on a 
encombre les systemes nouveaux. 


of the Genera Psittacus and Coiumba. Ill 

Solandri du present memoire ; dans la forme plus ou moins 
comprimee de la mandibule superieure, comme Psittacus funt- 
reus et Nestor ; la nudite ophtalmique plus ou nioins etendue sur 
les joues dans les Aras, les Perruchts aras et les Perrichcs iiuli- 
quees par les naturalistes. Mais tous ces caracteres. asses tran- 
ches pour ceux qui n'ont qu'un nombre tres borne d'etres comme 
moyen de comparaison, se reduisent a rien, ou dumoins a bien 
peu d'importance pour ceux, qui, par le moyen de comparaisom 
multipliers faites sur toutes les especes connues de nos jours, out 
pu embrasser une plus grande portion des etres crees. Alors 
tous ces caracteres, dont la valeur paroit aux yeux du naturaliste 
sedentaire et de cabinet comme moyens propres a sen ir a leurs 
divisions strictement methodiques, deviennent mils comme lium 
de demarcation entre de tels troupes, et ne peuvent plus servir 
qua etablir une serie naturelle, sans intervalle assignable, dans 
les especes d'un meme genre. 

Le genre Psittacus dont nous nous occupons, si on voulait le 
diviser rigoureusement selon les vues neuves de certains natu- 
ralistes, pourroit former une vingtaine de genres, tous aussi peu 
caracterises que celui des Pezoporus d'llliger. 

Psittacus Cookii. Cacatoe de Cook. 

Diagnose. Bee couleur de plomb ; tres elargi et bombe sur les 
cotes, presque rond; arete de la mandibule superieure com- 
primee tranchante ; mandibule inferieure de la meme lar- 
geur a sa pointe qu'a sa base ; front et tete ornes dune 
longue huppe comprimee, pennes laterales de la queue 
noires; un grand espace de couleur vermilion, sans aucune 
raie, sur le milieu de ces pennes ; tout le plumage d'un noir 
Cette espece est indiquee par Latham, dans son Index Orni- 

thologicus, vol. i. p. 107, sp. 76..var. y. sous le nom de Bankian 


112 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

Cockatoo, d'apres Phillip Voy. a Bot. Bay, p. 267 cum tab. ; mais 
cette pretendue variete forme une espece bien caracterisee par la 
forme du bee, et par ses couleurs, toujours les memes* ; les voya- 
geurs assurent qu'elle habite des lieux differens que le Bankian 
Cockatoo (Psittacus Banksii); dont les caracteres essentiels sont 
— Bee blanc, arete de la mandibule superieure obtuse et depri- 
meet; base des deux mandibules tres-bombee sur les c6tes, 
l'inferieure devenant graduellement plus etroite vers la pointe ; 
front et tete ornes d'une longue huppe comprimee ; pennes late- 
rales de la queue noires, ra3^ees de larges zigzags rouges et jau- 
natres. — Tout le plumage, ainsi que la huppe, d'un noir lustre, 
varie sur les parties inferieures de bandes jaunatres, et sur les 
parties superieures de petites taches triangulaires de la meme 
couleur. Longueur totale 2 pieds trois pouces^. 

Le Psittacus Cookii, que nous distinguons du Psittacus Bank- 
sii par les caracteres essentiels indiques dans la diagnose, se re- 
connoit encore a son plumage totalement noir, sans aucune tache 
ni raie ; ce noir est mele de teintes d'un cendre brun mat, dans 
le jeun age, et prend chez les adultes un ton de noir lustre, tres 
prononce ; on ne voit chez ceux dont le plumage est moins par- 
fait comme dans les adultes, d'autres couleurs que le beau rouge 

* M. Kuhl de Hanau, naturalistc plein de zele et de connoissances, m'a le premier 
rendu attentif aux differences qui distinguent cette espece du Psittacus Banksii de 
Lath, que je supposais avec Latham variete du Cacatoe de Banks. Ce jeune natu- 
raliste vient d'etre charge par le Gouvernement des Pays-bas d'une mission tendant a 
explorer, dans le but des decouvertes en histoire naturelle, ses possessions dans les mers 
de l'lndc. Le noble devouement dont M. Kuhl est anime promet a cette science des 
decouvertes interessantes. 

•f Absolument comme dans le Cacatoe carrot (Psittacus funereus Lath. Supp.) et 
comme chez tous les autres Cacatoes des Moluques. Le bee au Psittacus funereus n'est 
point bombe ni renfle sur les cotes; et la mandibule inferieure de cette espece qui se 
trouve a la IVouvelle Hollande, n'est point extraordinairement 61argie comme dans les 
trois autres especes de ce meme pays. 

^ La mesure est suivant le pied de Paris. 


vf the Genera Psittacus and Columba. 1 13 

vermilion, dont la partie intermcdiaire, entre la base et la point* 
des pennes laterales de la queue. m( ornee; le bee de Psitticut 
Banksii est toujours d'un blanc jaunatre: celui de Psittacus 
Cookii est toujours d'un bleu couleur de plomb. 

Cette espece, ainsi que tous les Cacatoes de la Now elle I lol- 
lande, se nourrit de racines des plantes bulbeuses I i de fruits; on 
la trouve a la cote orientale, dans les em Irons i\r Port Jackson, 

Psittacus Sola?idri*l Cacatoe dc Soltmder, 

Diagnose. Beccouleurde plomb, tres bombe, tres&argi sur 

les cotes, presque rond ; ante de la mandibule superieure 
comprimee, tranchante, mandibule inferienre dc la menu 

largeur a sa pointe qua sa base ; point dc huppe comprimee 
sur le front, mais les plumes un pen longnes sur le sommef dc 

la tete. Plumage de la tete, du con ct des parties infericures 
dun brunterreux, nuance de jaunatre, particulicremcnt a la 
region des yeux et des oreilles ; ailes et d<>s dim noir a re- 
flets verdatres ; queue noire ; vers le milieu de toutes les 
pennes laterales est un grand espace d'un rouge vermilion 
tres vif, raye de cinq bandes noires en zigzag. Le bee est 
tres large et tres bombe a sa base, surtout a la mandibule 
inferieure dont les bords lateraux depassent, de beaucoup, 
ceux de la mandibule superieure, qui est egalement tres 
renrlee et bom bee a sa base ; mais qui se termine vers 1 'arete 
et vers la pointe en lame un peu tranchante. Longueur 
totale 1 pied 8 pouces. 

Je ne decide point sur la question de l'identite ou de la diffe- 
rence de l'oiseau indique avec Psittacus Cookii de l'article pre- 
cedent, dont celui-ci pourroitbien etre le jeune de l'annee; ceux 

* Je place un signe de doute a cet article, vu qu'il me paroit probable que e'est ici 
le jeune de l'annee de Psittacus Cookii. 

VOL. XIII. Q ( l ul 

114 Mr.'TEMMiNCK/s A.ccount of some new Species of Birch 

qui ont vu les deux oiseaux vivant et en liberte peuvent seuls en 
juger avec pleine connoissance de cause ; je vais indiquer suc- 
cinctement les rapports et les differences essentielles que j'ai ete 
a meme d'observer sur sept individus du Psittacus Solandri et 
sur huit individvis du Psittacus Cookii ; espece qui differe essen- 
tiellement de Psittacus Banksii, dont j'ai examine plus de douze 

Tous les individus de Psittacus Cookii, que j'ai vu, se ressem- 
bloient presque sous tous les rapports entre-eux : les uns se trou- 
voient d un noir plus profond et plus lustre que les autres ; deux, 
que je presume plus jeunes, avoient les teintes generales plus 
sales et tirant au cendre brun, mais toujours meme caractere de 
huppe, et la couleur vermilion des pennes caudales bien pro- 
noncee, sans aucune raie noire ; comme aussi tout le plumage 
sans aucune tache ; leurs dimensions toujours les memes, et ap- 
prochant de 2 pieds 2 ou 3 pouces en longueur totale. 

Lespece douteuse de Psittacus Solandri presentoit quelques 
varietes dans les differens individus. Ces differences residoient 
toujours dans le brim plus ou moins olivatre de la tete et du cou, 
et dans le plus ou le moins de jaunatre irr6gulierement dispose a 
la tete, aux joues, au front ou aux oreilles* ; dans les plumes 
du milieu de la tete plus ou moins longues et plus ou moins fon- 
cees, mais jamais aucun indice de huppe frontale. Je n'ai vu 
sur aucun des individus d'autres couleurs a la queue que le rouge 
pur et vif, traverse par cinq bandes etroites et noires ; je n'ai ja- 
mais observe aucune tache ou raie coloree sur le plumage tres 
uniforme des ailes et du corps : les plus fortes dimensions ne de- 
passent point 1 pied 8 ou 9 pouces en longueur totale. 

* On rloit cependant avertir ici, que le caractere prononce de Psittacus funereus de 
Lath. Suppl. ou du Cacatoe carrat, est d'avoirle meat audi tif cou vert deplumes jaunes. 
Du reste ce Cacatoe k bee non bombt forme une espece parfaitement caracterisee, soit 
par le bee, comme par la forme et par la couleur de la queue. 


of the Genera Psittacus and Cotumba, 1 i.*> 

J'ai trouve une ressemblance, si non parfaite, du moins in a 
rapprochee entre les formes et la couleur du bee de Psittacus 
Cookii et de Psittacus Solandri: ajouter, (jue ees deux oiseajux 
habitent les memes lieux, et qu'on les trouve sou vent ivuiih 
plusieurs dans une meme bande. Les individus rapportes par 
les naturalistes Francois de ('expedition du Capitaine Baudin, 
eomme ceux qui ont ete envoyes en Angleterre, riennenl fcoua 
des environs du Port Jackson. 

Psittacus nasicus. Cacatoe nasiqut. 

La couleur blanche du plumage des Perroqueta designes sous 

le nom de Cacatoe, n'est point nmquemenJ propre au\ especea 
qui habitent les iles de la Sonde, aux Moluques e1 aux IMiilij)- 
pines; la Nouvelle Ilollande en nourrit aussi une espece, dont le 
genre de vie, suivantles rapports des voyageurs, oe differe point 
de ceux des Caeatoes noirs qu'on trouve dans It 1 meme pa) 

Cette espece se distingue de tous les Perroquets comma, par 
la longueur presque disproportionate de la mandibule supe- 
rieure, dont la pointe, quoique moins courbee que ne Test d'(\r- 
dinaire cette partie chez les oiseaux du genre, est beaucoup plus 
allongee et plus effilee en proportion de la mandibule inferieure, 
qui est petite et arrondie. 

Une tres petite huppe frontale distingue encore cet oiseau, qui 
se rapproche par ce caractere de Psittacus Philippinarum de 
Lath., espece dun quart plus petite que notre nasique, mais 
dont la huppe, quoique plus longue, ressemble parfaitement a 
celle de ce dernier. 

Les couleurs de cette nouvelle espece sont, un blanc pur, re- 
pandu sur presque tout le plumage excepte la face, dont les 
teintes rosees se nuancent jusques pres des yeux ; 1 anus et les 
couvertures inferieures de la queue sont d'un jaune rougeatre, et 

q2 la 

116 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

la base des pennes caudales est jaunatre ; le bee et les pieds sont 
cendres ; la longueur totale est de 15 pouces 3 ou 4 lignes. 

M. Brown a rapporte cette espece du Port Phillip a la cote sud 
de la Nouvelle Hollande. 

Psittacus favigaster. Perruche a ventre jaune. 

Je commence la description des Perruches de la Nouvelle 
Hollande a queue large et longue et a joues colorees de couleurs 
tranches, par une espece que M. Le Vaillant confond avec sa 
Perruche d large queue (ou Psittacus Pennant ii de Lath.) comme 
une variete dont il donne une figure tres exacte pi. 80 de ses 
Perroquets, probablement prise sur un individu un peu deco- 

M. Le Vaillant conjecture que cette variete pourroit bien etre 
la femelle adulte de sa Perruche a large queue, pi. 78 ; mais 
cette supposition n'a point ete confirmee. 

M. Brown, qui a rapporte notre Perruche de cet article, m'a 
assure quelle forme une espece distincte bien connue comme 
telle a la Nouvelle Hollande. L'examen que j'ai fait moi-meme 
de neuf individus en plumage parfait de l'adulte, de deux indi- 
vidus dans le passage, et de trois jeunes oiseaux, ma convaincu 
de la difference tres marquee qui existe entre ma Perruche d, 
ventre jaune et la Perruche d, large queue de Vaillant, qui est le 
Psittacus Pennantii de Lath. Le male et la femelle de la Per- 
ruche ct large queue different tres peu, par les couleurs du plu- 
mage, qui sont moins pures dans la femelle. 

Le sommet de la tete, la partie superieure de la nuque, et gene- 
ralement toutes celles inferieures depuis la gorge jusqu^ Tanus, 
sont d'un jaune citron ; un large bandeau rouge ceint le front ; 
la partie inferieure de la nuque, le dos et les ailes sont d un brun 
noiratre nuance dun leger ton verdatre : toutes les plumes de 


of the Genera Psittacus and Columba. 1 17 

ces parties etant bordees de vert: les remiges et le bord c\te- 
rieur des ailes presentent difterentes teintes de bleu trfes vil"; le 
croupion est dun vert jaunatre; les pennes du milieu de la 
queue sont vertes, les laterales ont du bleu tres fonce depuis leur 
origine, ensuite elles sont d'un bleu clair, et leur bout est blanc : 
le bee est d'un jaune blanchatre, et les pieds sont bruns. La 
longueur totale est de 13 pouces 6 lignes ; le male et la femeile 
ont a peu-pres les memes couleurs, mais differens dans les nu- 
ances, moins pures, chez la femeile. 

Les parties du plumage qui chez les individus adultes sont 
d'un beau jaune, se trouvent dans les jeunes dan vert totale- 
ment nuance de jaunatre ; toutes les plumes du dos et des ailes 
sont chez les vieux d'un brun noiratre avec de tres etroites 
bandes vertes, tandis que les jeunes ont le milieu de ces plumes 
d'un brun clair entoure de larges bords verts ; ce qui les fait 
paroitre presque entitlement vertes. 

La principale difference entre les jeunes de Psittacus flaviven- 
tris et Psittacus Pennantii est, que les premiers se distinguent 
toujours par du vert tres clair, passant au vert jaunatre et pre- 
nant successivement plus de cette couleur. Les jeunes de la 
seconde espece sont d'un vert fonce, et ce vert fonce ne change, 
par la mue, qu'en rouge ecarlate ou ponceau, qui est la couleur 
de la plus grande partie du plumage chez les adultes. Chez les 
jeunes de Psittacus Pennantii on remarque aussi la bande fron- 
tale rouge, qui est propre aux jeunes et aux vieux de Psittacus 
flaviventris; mais les premieres plumes de l'etat parfait, qui pa- 
roissent pres de ce bandeau, sont jaunes dans l'espece de cet ar- 
ticle et ponceau dans l'autre. 

Le seul synonyme de cette espece est la planche enluniinee 
no. 80 du second volume des Perroquets par M. Le Vaillant. 

Les synonymes de Psittacus Pennantii sont, Lath. Ind. Om. 
0. i. p. 90. sp. 29. Psittacus elegans, Lath. Ind. p. 89- sp. 23, 


118 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

description cTun jeune individu passant a l'etat adulte; Psittacus 
gloriosus, Shaw Nat. Miscell. v. i. pi. 53. — Cet ouvrage est rem- 
pli d'animaux connus, mais indiques sous des noms nouveaux. — 
La Perruche d large queue Vaill. Perroq. v. ii. pi. 78, un oiseau 
adulte, etpl. 79> un individu passant du jeune-age a l'adulte. 

Psittacus Bauer i. Perruche de Bauer. 

Une calotte d'un brun pur couvre la tete, s'etend sur les yeux 
et se termine a la nuque, ou un large collier d'un jaune citrin se 
dessine ; les bords superieurs de ce collier remontent, de chaque 
cote, jusqu'a l'oritice des oreilles ; les joues sont d'un bleu fonce; 
toutes les parties superieures du corps, les deux pennes du mi- 
lieu de la queue, le cou et la poitrine sont d'un beau vert fonce; 
le bord exterieur du poignet de Faile est colore de vert jaunatre, 
les remiges sont brunes vers le bout, mais bordees longitudinale- 
ment de bleu tres fonce ; les pennes laterales de la queue, d'un 
bleu fonce depnis leur origine, sont toutes terminees de bleu 
clair ; le milieu de ventre est d'un beau jaune, mais sur les 
flancs et sur les couvertures inferieures de la queue regne une 
teinte verte pure et claire ; le bee est d'un cendre jaunatre, et les 
pieds bruns. Longueur totale 13 pouces. 

On le trouve a Memory Cove, a la cote sud de la Nouvelle 

La place que cette espece doit occuper, est dans le groupe des 
Perruches a large queue, longue et regulierement etage, a bee 
peu gros ; le plus souvent marquees aux* joues par un grand 
espace blanc, rouge, jaune, ou bleu tres vif ; leur tarse varie plus 
ou moins en longueur. 

La presente espece ainsi que Psittacus flat)iventris sont voi- 
sines de Psittacus Pennantii de Latham Ind., ou la Perruche d 
large queue de Vaillant. 


of the Gent ra Vsittucas and Columbu. [ ly 

Psittacus Brozinii. Peru u cue de Broxn. 

Une calotte dun noir profond couvrc la tete, s etend sur Lep 
yeux et aboutit a la nuque, ou lea plumes noires sont terminees 
par des points rouges; les joues sont dun blanc par, qui so 
nuance au dessous des yeux, par demi-teintes, en bleu asur ; 
plumes du dos et des scapulaires noires dans le milieu, toufes 
entourees par un zone d'un beau jaune; croupion. devani du 
cou, poitrine et ventre d'un blanc jaunatre, toutes les plumei de 
ces parties etant terminees par un lisere noir In s etroit ; cou- 
vertures tant superieures qu inferieures des ailes dun bleu azur, 
ires brillant ; remiges et grandes couvertures bordecs exterieure- 
ment de bleu vif ; la queue large etagee lateralement, a toutes 
les pennes d'un bleu fonce, les quatre laterales de chaque cdt6 
sont terminees, comme dans la Ferritche omnicolore de Vaillaat, 
par une couleur azuree blanchatre ; les couvertures du dessous 
de la queue sont rouges ; les pieds noirs, et le bee d un gris de 
plomb. Longueur totale 11 pouces. On le trouve a Arnheims- 
land sur la cote nord de la Nouvelle Ilollande. 

Cette espece nouvelle, dediee a Monsieur Kobert Brown, qui 
en a rapporte un individu, est plus petite que Psittacus eximius de 
Lath. Sitpp.; mais elle a le plus de rapports avec cet oiseau qui 
est la Perruche omnicolor de Vaill. Perr. pL 28. Elle vient se 
ranker dans le meme groupe que les trois precedentes. 

Psittacus multicolor. Perkuciie multicolor. 

Un large bandeau d'un jaune d'or s'etend sur le front ; celui- 
ci est suivi par un large espace d'un vert pur, qui se nuance en 
rougeatre, dont la couleur domine sur le sommet de la tete ; le 
reste des plumes de la tete, le dos, les pennes secondaires des 
ailes les plus proches du corps, les joues, le cou et la poitrine 
sont d'un vert brillant ; sur le croupion sont trois bandes trans- 

versales ; 

120 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

versales ; la superieure d'un vert tres clair, la suivante d'un vert 
fonce, et 1'inferieure rougeatre ; le ventre est d'un beau jaune, 
qui passe par clemi-teintes en orange vif ; couleur, dont le bout 
de toutes les plumes est termine ; 1'abdomen et les couvertures 
du dessous de la queue sont d'un jaune clair ; le poignet de Faile 
est de couleur aurore, et les grandes pennes sont bordees de bleu 
fonce ; les deux pennes du milieu de la queue sont bleues, les 
autres sont vertes a leur origine; elles portent une bande noire 
vers le milieu de leur longueur, et toutes sont terminees de bleu 
clair ; les ailes en dessous sont d'un bleu fonce ; les pieds sont 
bruns, et le bee cendre. La longueur totale de cette belle espece 
est de 10 pouces 6 lignes ; on la trouve a Spencer's Gulf a la cote 
sud de la Nouvelle Hollande. 

Le seul individu que j'ai vu a ete presente a la Societe par 
Mr. Robert Brown ; il fait partie de ses decouvertes. Cette 
Perruche est modelee sur les formes de Psittacus eximius de 
Lath., ou Perruche omnicolore de Yaill. ; mais elle est moins 
grande dans toutes ses dimensions. 

Psittacus icterotis. Perruche ct joues jaunts. 

Cette espece nouvelle ne fait point partie du cabinet de la 
Societe, elle se trouve dans ma collection. J'en fais mention 
iei, parceque sa description complette la petite serie des Per- 
ruches de la Nouvelle Hollande a queue large et etagee. 

Sommet de la tete, nuque, cou, et toutes les parties inferieures 
d'un rouge tres pale, se nuancant sur les flancs par demi- 
teintes en jaune verdatre ; plumes des joues d'un jaune vif; dos 
et ailes d'un vert clair, et cette couleur bordant toutes les plumes 
dont le milieu est de couleur brune ; bord exterieur des ailes et 
base des remiges d'un bleu clair ; les quatre pennes du milieu de 
la queue et la base de toutes les pennes laterales sont d'un vert 
tres clair ; ces derniers sont d'un bleu celeste sur la reste de leur 


of the Genera Psittacus and Cohtmba. I ; I 

longueur, et ont des bouts blancs ; le bee est tres petit, de cou- 
leur cendree, les tarses sont assez longs, et plus proportionnelle- 
ment aux formes totales, que dans toutes les autres Perruc^es dans ce memoire. La longueur totale nVst (pie de 
10 pouces 6 lignes. 

Cette espece est des environs de Port Jackson a la cote orien- 
tale de la Nouvelle Hollande; elle se rapproche Le plus de In Pcr- 
ruche de Brown et de la Perruche o?nnicolor, mais les tarses sont 
plus longs que chez ces especes. Les femelles paroisscnt c 1 i 1 1 » 1 1 r 
des males par le rouge moins pur des parties inferieures. Deux 
individus que j'ai vu chez des marchaiuls a Londres, ceux de mon 
cabinet, et celui d'un Museum de Paris, ne different entre-eux 
que par le rouge moins pur dans les uns que dans les autres, 
mais toujours ce rouge d'une teinte tres pale. 

Psittacus venustus. Perruchi: a bandeau bleu. 

Diagnose. Un bandeau bleu ties etroit sur le front; espaee 
entre le bee et les yeux jaune vif dans le male, d'un vert 
clair chez la femelle. Toutes les couvertures des ailes dun 
bleu fonce dans le male ; d'un bleu verdatre chez la fe- 
melle*. Une etroite bande d'un bleu tres fonce, bordee de 
chaque cote de bleu verdatre, couvre le front et s etend 
d'un ceil a l'autre; espaee entre les yeux et le bee d'un 
jaune brillant ; tete, nuque, dos et croupion d'un vert sale ; 
joues, devant du cou et poitrine d'un beau vert clair; ventre, 
flancs, abdomen et couvertures du dessous de la queue d'un 
jaune vif; toutes les couvertures des ailes et le dessous de 
celles-ci d'un bleu de roi tres vif ; remiges noires, liserees 
de verdatre ; queue d'un bleu clair a son origine, toutes les 
pennes, excepte les deux ou les quatre du milieu, termi- 

* J'ai place ici ce signe de reconnoissance, pour distinguer la presente espece de 
Psittacus pulchellus de Latham, que j'indique plus loin. 

VOL. XIII. & n ^ es 

122 Mr. Temmincx's Account of some new Species of Birds 

nees de jaune clair ; bee et pieds d'un gris fonce, iris jaune. 
Longueur totale 8 pouces. Le vieux male. 

La femelle differe du male, en ce quelle manque le jaune vif 
entre le bee et les yeux, qui est d'un vert jaunatre ; que la bande 
frontale est d'un bleu sale ou couleur de plomb ; que le vert- 
clair et le jaune des parties inferieures est moins vif; et que les 
couvertures des ailes sont d'un bleu fonce, avec de larges bor- 
dures verdatres ; le reste est comme chez le male. 

Cette espece habite King-George's Sound a la cote sud-ouest 
de la Nouvelle Hollande. Le male et la femelle, qui font partie 
de ma collection, ressemblent sous tous les rapports aux deux in- 
dividus du cabinet de la Societ6. 

Comme cette nouvelle espece paroit au premier coup d'oeil 
avoir tant de rapports dans ses couleurs avec Psittacus pulchel- 
tus de Latham, j'ai cru utile d'indiquer, en peu de mots, les signes 
precis de reconnoissance et les synonymes de cette derniere 

Psittacus pitlchellus Lath. Perruche Edwards Vaill. 
Diagnose. Face et joues d'un bleu d'aigue marin, brillant 
dans le male ; moins pur chez la femelle ; couvertures des 
ailes en partie couleur de sang et bleues dans le male ; d'un 
bleu clair chez la femelle. La longueur totale de cette 
espece, decrite dans Latham, est de 9 pouces. 

C'est Psittacus pulchellus Lath. Ind. Orn. Supp. v. ii. p. 521. 
sp. 5. le vieux ?nak. — Psittacus chrysogaster Lath. Ind. Orn. v. i. 
p. 97- sp. 45. paroit le double emploi ou plutot le jeune de cette 
espece. — La seule femelle est indiquee sous le nom de Perruche 
Edwards Vaill. Perroq. v. i. pi. 68. dessin pris d'un individu 
femelle de mon cabinet ; ou le male ne se trouvoit point encore 
a l'6poque que Mr. Vaillant composoit son histoire naturelle des 


of the Genera Psittacus and Columba. l'i:5 

Perroquets. Voyez aussi pour le vieux mille, Shaw MiscelL, 
v. iii. /. 96. 

Le genre Columba de Linne, dont j'ai fait connoitre par la Mo- 
nographic publiee sous le titre d'Histoire Natureile des Pigeons 
et des Gallinach, toutes les especes connues i\ cette epoque, fe 
trouve encore augmcnte par six especes decouvertes tres recem- 
ment a la Nouvelle Hollande. 

A cette addition vient encore se joindre quatre especes incon- 
nues du Bresil et trois autres des Moluques ; qui, ajoutccs aux 
quatre-vingt sept especes decrites dans moD ouvrage, parmi les- 
quelles se trouvent vingt et unes nouvelles, porte le noinbre to- 
tal des oiseaux qui composent ce genre a cent especes distinct*** ; 
dont les Pigeons indiques sous le nom de Colombar forment one 
section, les Colombes et les Colombi-gallines la seconde. Tout 
les Pigeons nouveaux qui font partie de ce memoire viennent se 
grouper avec les Colombes proprement dites. 

Ceux qui aiment a multiplier les genres par les plus legeres 
differences, peuvent, si bon leur semble, former un grand nombre 
de genres nouveaux ; mais lorsqu'ils auront vu en nature les cent 
especes qui composent celui-ci, ils se decideront, je suppose, a 
abandonner ce plan de reforme dans ce genre comme dans tant 
d'autres, qu'ils ne parviendront jamais a diviser par des carac- 
teres exclusifs. 

Les Colombars, lorsque nous connoitrons mieux leur genre de 
vie, pourraient a la rigueur former un genre ; mais j 'observe 
qu'alors on trouvera dans mon Colombar Jojo, Columba vernans 
de Lath., et dans ma Colombe vlouvlou, Columba holosericea, 
ainsi que dans Columba cenea, dilopha, etnicobarica, les passages, 
sans intervalle assignable et sans caracteres exclusifs, des Co- 
lombars aux Colombes proprement dites ; et qu'ainsi faisant, il 

r 2 faudrait 

124 Mr, Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

faudrait se resoudre a former de ces quatre especes citees en der- 
nier, autant de genres distincts ; vu qu'il sera egalement impos- 
sible de les rapporter a l'un de ces groupes ; et qu'ils ont cha- 
cun de tres legers caracteres particuliers, qui s'opposeront a 
leur reunion. II en est de meme des Colombes a ailes arrondies, 
dont on pourroit former aussi trois ou quatre genres, et plus, 
suivant la caprice. 

Columba dilopha. Colombe d, double huppe. 

Deux huppes distinctes caracterisent cette espece de toutes 
celles que nous connoissons. La premiere huppe se forme sur 
le front, et commence a la partie superieure du bee, entre les 
narines ; les plumes de cette premiere huppe sont comprimees et 
se recourbent en faucille sur les plumes couchees du sommet de 
la tete ; Focciput est orne d'une seconde huppe touffue, com- 
posee de plumes a barbes deliees, qui sont tres etroites a leur 
origine, mais deviennent larges a leur extremite ; toutes les 
plumes de la nuque et de la poitrine portent une double echan- 
crure ; caractere qu'on retrouve dans plusieurs Pigeons d'Afrique 
et des Indes, mais toujours a echancrure simple a chaque plume. 

La premiere huppe ainsi que presque tout le plumage de ce 
singulier oiseau est d'un gris couleur de cendres, plus fonc6 sur 
les ailes et sur le dos que sur les autres parties du corps ; la se- 
conde huppe ou huppe occipitale est d un roux fonc6, mais toutes 
les plumes sont noiratres a leur base ; les remiges et les pennes 
de la queue sont d'un beau noir ; vers le bout de la queue, qui 
est egale, se dessine une large bande d'un blanc grisatre, comme 
dans notre Colombe ramier, Columba palumbus ; les tarses sont 
couverts de plumes jusqu'a la moitie de leur longueur, le reste du 
tarse et les doigts sont dun beau pourpre ; le bee, qui est un peu 
fort et legerement renfle a la pointe, est rougeatre ; l'iris est dun 


of the Genera Psittacus and Columba. l j , 

beau rouge ; la longueur totale est de L5 (hukvs. On la trouve 
a la Nouvelle Plollande, vers Red Point, dans l'interieur des 

Je tiens un individu, pareil en tout a celui de la Soeiete. 
soins obligeans de mon ami Mr. Brooks, anatomists distingue. 
— L'espece a le plus de rapports, dans toutes sea formes, ;i\<v 
Columba spadicea de Lath. Lid. Supp., ou ma Colombc »cant, 
pi. 1. tres voisin de notre rainier, mais qui a la queue cm peu 
fourchue, tandis que celle-ci a toutes les plumes Bgaks, comme 
notre ramier : son bee est un peu plus fort que celui de la Co- 
lombe giant et un peu plus rentle vers le bout ; la Colombc g&uU 
n'a point de huppe, et celle-ci en a deux ; ellea toutes les plumes 
du cou et de la poitrine a echancrures, tandis que l'autre les a 
arrondies au bout. 

Ce sont la toutes les differences qu'il est possible de trouver 
entre ces deux oiseaux. Si on les juge propres a constituer un 
genre distinct, je consens alors que cet oiseau figure dans le 
nouveau genre que les novateurs veulent lui assigner ; et ainsi 
faisant le genre de ceux-ci, repondront, sous peu, a ce que nous 
designons par le nom d'especes. 

Columba magnifica. Colombe magnifique. 

C'est a juste titre qu'on peut donner a cet oiseau le nom de 
magnifique; son plumage brillant le distingue parmi tous ses 

Un cendre pur couvre toute la tete, les joues, ainsi que toute 
la nuque ; cette couleur confond, vers le dos, par demi-teintcs, 
avec le vert brillant dont toutes les autres parties superieures 
sont colorees ; 1'eclat de cette couleur est releve par un grand 
nombre de taches dun jaune vif, disposees en longueur sur 
toutes les couvertures des ailes ; pennes secondares et remiges 
d'un vert fonce chatoyant, toutes les pennes de la queue, qui est 


126 Mr. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds 

longue et arrondie, ont aussi les memes reflets, et presentent. 
sous certain jours, l'eclat brillant de plumes des Jacamars ; de- 
puis la gorge, setend sur le devant du cou et jusques a la poi- 
trine, une large bande d'un violet pourpre, changeant sous cer- 
tains jours en vert saphirin ; cette couleur occupe plus d'espace 
sur la poitrine et couvre tout le ventre ; les c6tes de la poitrine 
sont du meme vert que le dos j Fabdomen, les cuisses, et les cou- 
vertures du dessous de la queue, sont d'un jaune fonce ou cou- 
leur d'ocre, dont on voit aussi des teintes repandues sur les 
rlancs ; toutes les couvertures du dessous des ailes sont d'un 
jaune d'or ; la queue en dessous est cendree, les pieds sont bleu- 
atres, et le bee est brun, mais rougeatre vers la pointe ; le tour 
des yeux est nu et rouge ; Firis est aussi de cette couleur. La 
longueur totale est de 16 pouces. 

Ce Pigeon se nourrit principalement de la baie de l'arbre 
nomme Cabbage-tree ; sa chair est tres savoureuse. 11 est natif de 
la cote orientale de la Nouvelle Hollande, en face des cinq iles, 
proche de Red-point. Les formes totales de cette Colombe sont 
absolument les memes que celles de Columba cenea Lath. Ind. 
Omit. v. ii. p. 602. sp. 33. ou ma Colombe ?nuscadivore, pi. 3. son 
plus proche voisin, qui habite aux Moluques. 

M. MacLeay, Secretaire de la Societe, entomologiste distin- 
gue, me fit l'amitie, pendant mon sejour a Londres, de moffrir un 
superbe individu de Toiseau mentionne. — Je m'estime heureux 
d'etre dans Toccasion de pouvoir temoigner publiquement mes 
remercimens a cet ami. 

Columba leucomela. Colombe leucomele. 

Toute la tete, le cou et la poitrine sont d'un blanc pur, k le- 

gers reflets sur les cotes du cou. Le ventre et les autres parties 

ioferieures sont d un blanc sale, qui se nuance en cendr6 sur les 

tiancs et aux cuisses ; milieu du dos et croupion dun riche pour- 


of the Genera Fsittacus and Columba. 12? 

pre fonce a reilets ; de semblables reflets pourpres sen en t de 
bordure a toutes les plumes des seapulaires qui sont du reste 
d'un noir profond ; quelques unes des couvertures des ailes ont 
aussi des bords metalliques tres etroits ; tout ie reste des ailes. 
les remiges et la queue sont d'un brun mat presque noir ; les 
pieds et le bee sont d'un jaune clair, et la queue est a pennes 
d'egale longueur. Ce Pigeon approche de la taille du rainier, 
dont il a absolument toutes les formes; on le trouve a la cote 
nord de la Nouvelle Hollande. Le seul individu que jai vu a 
ete tue par M. Westall, et presente par lui a la Societ6. 

Columba scripta. Colomiu: marquttfo. 

Tete, nuque, cou, toutes les parties sup< rieures du corps et del 
ailes ainsi que les deux pennes du milieu de la queue d'un brun- 
eendre ; quelques taches d'un vert opalin, changeant, sous cer- 
tains jours, en pourpre et en violet, sont repandues, en petit 
nombre, sur les couvertures des ailes ; la gorge est blanche, et ce 
blanc est encadre par une bande noire ; deux autres especes 
egalement d'un blanc pur couvrent les joues, et sont chacunes 
encadrees par une semblable bande d'un noir profond, ce qui 
produit une espece de marquetterie sur ces parties ; la poitrinc 
et le milieu de ventre sont d'un cendre bleuiitre ; les flancs, 
l'abdomen et le dessous des ailes sont blancs ; la queue, qui est 
courte, a toutes les pennes d'egale longueur ; celles du milieu 
ont la couleur du dos, mais les autres sont d'un brun cendre de- 
puis leur origine jusqu'a la moitie de leur longueur, le reste cm 
d'un noir profond ; les remiges sont d'un brun cendre, le bee eM 
noir, et les pieds sont bruns. La longueur totale est de 9 ponces 

6 lignes 

Cette description est prise d'un vieux male ; I'individa de la 
Societe me paroit on femelle ou jeune male, vu que les backet 
opalines des ailes sont peu marquees et a reflets peu eclatants. 


128 Mr. Temmixck s Account of some new Species of Birds 

On trouve cette espece a Shoalwater-bay 22 degre de latitude 
sud a la cote orientale de la Nouvelle Hollande. Les formes de 
la Colombe 7narquetee se rapprochent le plus de Columba Jambos 
Lath. Ind. Orn. v. ii. p. 598. sp. 18. ma Colombe Jambo, pi. 27 
et 28, qui vit dans Tile de Sumatra. L'individu du cabinet a ete 
offert a la Societe par M. Robert Brown. 

Columba humeralis. Colombe a collier roux. 

La face, les joues, la gorge et la poitrine sont d'un bleuatre 
cendre ; les autres parties inferieures sont d'un blanc vineux 
plus fonce sur les flancs ; du blanc pur regne sur l'abdomen et 
aux couvertures du dessous de la queue ; l'occiput, le dos, le 
croupion et toutes les couvertures des ailes sont d'un brun cen- 
dre, toutes les plumes des parties indiquees etant terminees par 
une bande transversale d'un noir profond ; sur la nuque se des- 
sine un large collier d'un roux orange, dont les plumes sont 
egalement terminees par une bande noire ; la queue est large a sa 
base, longue et etagee ; les pennes laterales sont d'un brun pour- 
pre ou vineux, toutes terminees de blanc pur, les deux pennes 
du milieu seules exceptees, qui sont de la couleur du dos et 
n'ont point le bout blanc ; les remiges sont brunes, mais d'un 
roux vif sur les barbes interieures, ce qui fait que l'aile est toute 
rousse interieurement ; le tour des yeux est denue de plumes ; 
les pieds sont jaunes, et le bee est d'un jaune bleuatre. La lon- 
gueur totale est de dix pouces. 

M. Brown, qui a offert un individu a la Societe et un autre 
semblable au Museum Britannique, a trouve cette nouvelle 
espece a Broad Sound a la cote orientale de la Nouvelle Hol- 
lande. La Colombe du present article a la plus de rapports avec 
le Columba tigrina de mon Histoire de Pigeons, pi. 43. et ne dif- 
fere point dans ses formes avec Columba picturata et autres du 
nouveau monde. 


of the Genera Psittacus and Columba. 129 

Columb a phasianella. Colombe phasianeUe. 

Cette Colombe, caracterisee par la forme de sa queue longue el 
cuneiforme, diftere seul en cela de ses congeneres de la Nouvelle 

Parties superieures d'un brun roussatre terno, qui prend une 
teinte marron sur le sommet de la tete, et se peint en refletl verts 
et pourpres sur les cotes du cou ; nuque rayee transvc isiK ment 
de larges bandes brunes et d'etroites bandes rouBsea ; les pennes 
des ailes, qui sont d'un brun terne, portent sur les bonis extr- 
rieurs des barbes et a leur extremite une teinte dun mux mar- 
ron ; queue tres longue et tres coniqne : toutes les pennes du 
milieu sont d'un brun roussatre sombre, comme les plumes du 
croupion ; les laterales d'un roux vif, sur lequel se dessine une 
large bande noire qui traverse ces pennes vers le milieu de leur 
longueur ; la gorge est rousse; les autre* parties inferieures sont 
d'un brun pourpre, rayees transversalement de zigzags noirs, 
tres etroits ; flancs, cuisses et couvertures du dessous de la queue 
d'un marron vif, sans taches ni raies. Le bee et les pieds sont 
d'un brun rougeatre. Longueur totale 14 pouces 6 lignes. Elle 
vit a la Nouvelle Hollande, dans l'interieur, vers le Port Jack- 

Sir John Jameson, qui a rassemble beaucoup d'objets d'histoire 
naturelle a la Nouvelle Hollande, fit hommage de cette espece 
a Sir Everard Home, Bart, qui l'offert a la Societe. L'espece de 
cet article a le plus de rapports avec Columba migratoria Lath. 
Ind. Orn. v. ii. p. 612. sp. 70. ma Colombe royageuse, pi. 48 et 49. 
Elle ressemble en tout a cet oiseau, et a tous ceux a longue queue 
etage de l'Amerique septentrionale. 

Je termine ici cette notice sur les Pigeons nouveaux du cabi- 
net de la Societe, qui ont ete decouverts a la Nouvelle Hollande, 
vol. xm. s depuis 

130 M. Temminck's Account of some new Species of Birds. 

depuis la publication de mon ouvrage, en observant ; que hor- 
mis les especes nouvelles du Bresil, et celles trouvees recem- 
ment aux Moluques, je n'ai rien a aj outer ou a changer a hies 
descriptions, telles qu'elles sont publiees ; excepte, que je solli- 
cite de corriger Terreur faite a Tarticle de Columba purpurata, 
edit. 8vo. p. 280, et folio pi. 34 et 35. ou j'ai dit, que la Colombe 
Kurukuru, variete pi. 35. est identique avec celle de la pi. 34. 
J'ai trouve, et me suis assure depuis, que cette variete supposee 
est une espece distincte, dont les caracteres sont toujours les 
memes, et differens de mon Kurukuru. 

Je sollicite qu'on veuille bien prendre note de cette erreur 
jusqu'a la publication du Supplement a mon Histoire des Pi- 
geons et des GnUinacees. Je me servirai pour cette espece, a 
ajouter au Catalogue des Pigeons, du nom de Columba porphj- 
racea, sous lequel elle a ete indiquee dans les dessins originaux 
de Forstcr. Elle est aussi de la Nouvelle Hollande. 

XIII. De- 

Zhmj /////. >l:r.tJ/flT,/>.W.p}3i. 

* ^^; 

S /</////// _ s/s///;//y>/s/ 


( 131 ) 

XIII. Descriptions of three Species of the Genus Glareola. By 
William Elford Leach, M.D. F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read May 2, 1820. 


Glareqla, Brisson, Latham, Cuvier. 

* Cauda fur cat a. 

Spec. 1. Glareola Pratincola. 
G. cinereo-brunnea, ventre cruribus uropygio gulaque albidis ; 
h&c (quandoque sordide flavida) linea nigra circumdata, cauda 
nigra, basi albida. 

Tab. XII. Fig. 1. 

Hirundo Pratincola. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 345. 
Glareola. Briss. Ornith. v. 141. t. 12. /. 1. 
Glareola austriaca. Lath. Ind. Orn. 753. 
Glareola torquata. Meyer ii. 404. 

Tern. Man. d'Orn. 352. 

Tab. XII. Fig. 2. 

Glareola naevia. Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 695. 
Lath. Ind. Orn. 754. 
Steph. Gen. ZooL 
Glareola Senegalensis. Gmel. Syst. Nat. i. 695. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 754. 
Steph. Gen. Zool. xi. 

s 2 Habitat 

132 Dr. Leach on three Species of the Genus Glareola. 

Habitat in Europa australi ; rarior in Helvetia et in Gallia bo- 

reali ; rarissime in Hollanclia et Anglia. 
Color in junioribus cinereus rufescente nigroque varius ; cauda 

nigra rufo terminata ; gula violascente-rufa ; venter albus ; 

rostrum pallide rufescens. 
Axillae in adultis rufae. 

The young bird described above was killed near Aries in the 
South of France by Baron de Laugier, who deposited it in the 
Jardin des Plantes. In this state there is no black surrounding 
the spot on the throat. 

Spec. 2. Glareola orientalis*. 

G. cinereo-fuscescens, ventre caudaque albis ; hac ad apicem 

nigra, gula nigro irregulariter circumdata, rostro nigro. 

Tab. XIII. Fig. 1. Mas. Fig. 2. Fcem. 

Habitat in Java. 

Mus. Hist. Nat. Gall. <?, ? . 

Remiges nigra? . Venter maris antice rufescens ; fceminae albidus. 

Gula rufescens in mare, albida in foemina. Humeri in adultio- 

ribus albo-notati. 

** Cauda truncata. 

Spec. 3. Glareola australis. 
G. rufescente-flavida, caud& uropygioque albis ; ilia fascia supra 
nigra, gula pallidiore, cruribus ventreque fascia abdominali 
runs, rostro testaceo ad apicem nigro. 

Tab. XIV. Fig. 1. Ma*. Fig. 2. Faim. 
Habitat in Australasia. 
Mus. Hist. Nat. Gall. <? , ? . 

It is probable that Glareola Isabella of Vieillot (Diet. d'Hist. 
Nat. xiii. 221.) belongs to this second division of the genus. 

# I observed in the museum of the Jardin des Plantes a specimen of a bird from 
China very nearly allied to G. orientalis, but differing in having the mark on the throat 
and the anterior part of the belly paler in colour. 

XIV. Sy- 

//Y/,vyyV.' / /// // /,///. j 

/. t M/r.' 



v// /,,'//- « '///,)//,///■>. 

( 'S3 ) 

XIV. Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the 
Island of Java. By Thomas Horsfield, M.D. 

Read April 18, 1820. 

In the following essay a systematic arrangement of a collection 
of birds from Java has been attempted. The subjects from which 
the descriptions were made are placed in the Museum of the 
Honourable East India Company, where they may freely be in- 
spected. With the exception of a small number, they were 
collected between the years 1811 and 1817, the period during 
which this island formed part of the British possessions in India. 
It is chiefly on this consideration that I am induced to offer to 
the Linnean Society of London this essay, in its present state, 
containing merely a concise characteristic description of the 
subjects. It is also my duty to show to the naturalists of En- 
gland, without delay, the liberal provision that has been made 
by the Court of Directors of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany in their Museum at the East India House, for the preserva- 
tion of various objects of natural history from the Indian archi- 
pelago, collected during the period above mentioned under the 
patronage of the Honourable Sir T. S. Raffles, when Governor of 
Java and its dependencies. 

I wish further to represent a view of the subject of the natu- 
ral history of the Eastern Islands, relating particularly to the 
present period. Although during the last two centuries few ad- 
ditions have been made to this science in that part of the globe, 
various discoveries may soon be expected in every department. 


134 Dr. Ho rs field's Systematic Arrangement 

Since the transfer of Java to the same nation which governed the 
greatest portion of it subsequent to the beginning of the 17th 
century, a new system of conduct has been adopted in every 
point of view. Natural history is cultivated with ardour ; royal 
patronage has been extended to it ; and persons of ability have 
been engaged, and are now active in investigating Java, the 
Moluccas, and various other portions of the Eastern archi- 
pelago. If during the period above defined, when Java was 
under the protection of the British nation, my humble labours 
as a collector have in any manner increased our acquaintance 
with the natural productions of the Indian archipelago, I shall 
consider myself highly favoured if I may make my first report to 
the scientific public by means of the Linnean Society. 

The collection was made on Java without any attempt at a 
systematic arrangement. In the examination of the subjects, 
and in the compilation of this essay, I have to acknowledge the 
assistance which I have received from Dr. Leach. In the dis- 
position of the families I have followed the order adopted by that 
celebrated naturalist in the arrangement of the objects of orni- 
thology at the British Museum. The Manuel d'Ornithologie of 
Temminck has been my guide in regard to most of the genera, 
and it is the last edition of that book to which I frequently refer. 
Several genera are taken from Cuvier's Regne Animal, where 
they are employed either as genera or as sub-genera ; and a few 
new genera have been constructed, the distinguishing characters 
of which it has been my endeavour to point out with perspi- 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 135 


Fam. II. Falconid^ Leach. 
Plumicolles DumSril. 

Gen. 1. Falco, Linnceus, Cuvier, Bechstein, Temminch. 
* Falcones proprie sic dicti Bechst. Falco Savignif. 

Spec. 1. Falco ccerulescens Linn. 

Little black and orange Indian Hawk. Edw. t. 108. 
Allap sive Allap-aUap Javanis. 

6 pollices longus. 

The drawing of Edwards was made from a bird sent from 
Bengal. The Javan specimens are somewhat smaller, and dif- 
ferently marked. 

They appear to form a distinct variety, to which the following 
description applies : 

Corpus supra hypochondriaque nigra. Gula, jugulum, linea tem- 
poralis frons axillaeque albae. Tibia antice abdomenque sub- 
ferruginese. Remiges et rectrices interne albo-fasciatae. 

Spec. 2. Falco Tinnnnculus Linn. 
Allap-allap Sapi Javan. 

Spec. S, Falco severus mihi. 
F. supra fusco-nigricans, remigibus nigris ; subtus castaneus, 

gula pallidiore. 
Allap-allap ginjeng Javan. 

Longitudo 10-|- poll. 

Tectrices alarum, cauda et rectrices apicibus castaneis. 

** Aquilee 

136 Dr. HoitsFi eld's Systematic Arrangement 

** Aquila? Bechstein, Temminck. 
a. Les Aigles Pecheurs Cuv. Haliactus Savigny. 

Spec. 4. Falco Tondicerianus Gmel. 

Aquila ponticeriana. Brisson. i. p. 450. PL Enl. 416. 
Ulang Javanis. 

b. Les Balbusards Cuv. Pandion Savigny. 

Spec. 5. Falco Ichthycetus mihi. 

F. fuscescens, ventre postice crisso cauda cruribusque albis, 

cauda apice nigrescente. 

Jokowuru Javanis. 

Longitude- 2 ped. 4 poll. 

Caput griseum, gula albida. Collum griseo-fuscescens. Pectus 
et abdomen pallide subferrugineo-fuscescentia. Remiges per- 

As this section of the second division of Falcons, the Balbu- 
sards, possesses some peculiarities of character, I here add the 
detailed description of our bird. 

Rostrum longum : maxilla ultra medium abrupte adunca, ungue 
longo, tomia marginibus fortiter flexuosis. Mandibula apice 
oblique truncata. Nares magnse subtrapeziformes. Cera supra 
nuda lateribus pilis adspersa. Alee breves : remex prima Inte- 
gra brevis ; secunda tribus sequentibus (quae longiores sunt, 
subajquales et tenuiter interne et externe emarginat.e) paulo 
brevior, et fortiter interne emarginata. Cauda longissima sub- 
rotundata. Pedes elongati validi ; tarsi basi plumis paucis 
densis vestiti. Digiti longi, medio longiore lateralibus sub- 
sequalibus. Ungues longi fortius curvati, teretes, attenuati, 
acutissimi, medio interne sulcato ; anteriorum internus maxi- 
mus, externus minimus, hallucis medio antico major. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1:>7 

The illustrious M. Cuvier, in his definition of the Halbii/ards, 
asserts that "leurs ongles sont ronds en dessous," a character which 
applies strictly to the cylindrical claws of our bird : u lute "daiii 
Ics antres oiseaux de proie i/s sont creases en gouttiere." 

*** Astures Bechstein, Temminck. 
Les A u to u R s Cuvier. \ Savign y . 

Spec. 6. Falco Solocnsis mihi. 

F. supra plumbeo-cinereus, infra sordide ferrugineus, remhri- 

bus nigris, tectricibus basi albis, rectricibus (extcrnis excep- 
tis) nigro-fasciatis, subtus albidis. 
Allap-allap hilar Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

****Milvi Bechstein, Temminck. 
Les Mi lans Cuvier. 

Spec. 7- Falco melanopterus Daudin. 
Elanus caesius.* Savigny Ois. d'Egi/pte, OS. pi. 2. Jig. 2. 
Elanus melanopterus. Leach Zool. Misc. v. iii. p. 4. /. 122. 
Angkal-Anakal Javanis. 

The under parts of the body and of the tail in my specimens 
are perfectly white ; and the upper part of the tail is much paler 
than in those from xifrica. 

Two specimens of this bird, in the museum of the Linnean 
Society, were brought from New Holland. 


Spec. 8. Falco Bido mihi. 
F. fuscus, capite supra remigibus caudaque nigris ; plumis cristas 
vol. xin. t capitis 

138 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

capitis atris basi albis ; Cauda fascia lata albida, alis subtus 

abdomine crisso cruribusque albo guttatis. 

Bido Javanis. 

Longitudo 24 ad 26 poll. 

Hostrum mediocre, basi rectum deinde fortiter arcuatum,lateribus 
subconvexis, ungue mediocri, tomiis parum curvatis. Cera 
latiuscula. Nares oblongae subobliquse. Mandibula pone api- 
cem obsolete excisa. Ala cauda breviores. Remiges quinque 
primal interne profunde secunda ad septimam extern e emar- 
ginatae, prima brevissima, secunda duabus sequentibus paulo 
brevior, quarta longissima, tertia et quinta aequales. Primores 
interne fasciata? ; fascia? subtus alba? supra fuscescentes. Cauda 
rotundata elongata. Pedes subelongati ; tarsi basi subplumosi, 
acrotarsia squamis hexagonis reticulata. Digiti breves : medio 
longiore, exteriore breviore. Ungues subelongati ; medio, in- 
teriore, halluce subaequalibus, exteriore brevissimo. 

Spec. 9- Falco Limnaetus mihi. 
F. fuscus, cauda subtus praeter apicem albido-cinerea, tarsis us- 
que ad extremitatem dense phimosis. 
Wuru-rawa Javanis. 

'Rostrum breve a basi ad apicem aeque arcuatum, compressum, 
ungue elongato, tomiis maxillaribus valde curvatis. Mandi- 
bula subintegra apice oblique truncata. Cera angusta. Nares 
ovatae magna? trans versim positae. A Ice cauda breviores. Re- 
miges 1—6 interne, 2 — 7 externe emarginata? ; 1 abbreviata, 
2 et 3 gradatim longiores ; 4 et 5 longiores aequales, reliquae 
gradatim breviores. Pedes elongati : tarsi ad extremitatem 
usque dense plumosi. Ungues parvi, anteriores subaequales, 
halluce medio vix majore. 

A short strongly compressed and strongly curved beak, tarsi 
closely covered with plumes throughout their whole length, small 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1 3J I 

claws, and those of nearly equal size on all the toes, form the 
prominent characters of this bird. 

The border of the upper mandible is curved nearly as in Falco 
Pondicerianus ; the apex is sharp. This is a scarce bird. 1 found 
it but once at the extensive lakes, formed during the rainy Bea- 
son in the southern parts of the island, where it feeds on fishes. 
I never met with it alon^ the extensive northern sea-coast. 

Fam. III. Strigidje Leach. 
Nocturnje Dumeril. 

Gen. 2. Strix. Linnaus, Cuvier, Bechstein, Temminclc, 

Spec. 1. Strix Javanica Gmel. 

Strix Javanica. De Wurmb. Lichtenb. Mag. 10, 2. 10. 
Daris (Deris) Javanis. Serrdk Malayis. 

This bird appears to be a mere variety of the Strix flammea of 
Linnaeus. The tail is rather longer and stronger than in the 
European specimens of the latter that I have examined. 

The white variety is said occasionally to occur in Java. 

Spec. 2. Strix badia mihi. 
S. badia nigro punctata, subtus pallidior, capite antice gulaque 
albidis badio variis. 

Wowo-wiwi Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

Pedes lanuginosi pallicle castanei. 

t 2 Spec. 

140 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 3. Strix Selo-puto mihi. 

S. supra badio-ferruginosa fasciis transversis obsoletioribus, sub- 

tus alba fasciis ferruginoso-badiis saturatioribus. 

Selo-puto Javanis. 

Longitudo 20 poll. 

Remiges rectricesque obsolete fasciatae ; gnla albida, jugulum 

flavescens ; regio ocularis pallide-ferruginosa ; pedes sordido 

flavo-nigrescente fasciolati. 

Spec. 4. Strix rufescens mihi. 
S. rufescens, supra nigro pallidoque infra nigro maculata, pec- 
tore linea nigra lunulato. 

Kokko-^LO Javanis. 

Longitudo 8 poll. 

Spec. 5. Strix castanoptera mihi. 

S. griseo et nigricante transversim lineolata, scapulis dorsoque 

castaneis, ventre albo castaneoque vario. 

Blo-^a^ Javanis. 

Longitudo 8 poll. 

Remiges et rectrices castaneo fuscescentes, griseo-testaceo fasci- 
ata3. Scapularum margines taeniaque longitudinalis medio 

alarum albse. 

Spec. 6. Strix Lempiji mihi. 
S, supra fusco et nigro-flavescente variegata, subtus pallido- 
ferrugineo nigricante nebulosa, remigibus pallidius fasciatis, 
capite aurito. 

Lempi-ji Javanis. 

Longitudo 9 poll. 

Spec. 7- Strix orientalis mihi. 
S. supra fusca, ferrugineo fasciata, humeris axillis abdomine 
tarsisque albis fusco fasciatis, capite aurito. 

Longitudo 2 ped. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Jaxxi. Ul 

Spec. 8. Strii- Ketupu mild. 
S. ferruginea, supra perfusco varia, subtus nigro lincuta, remi- 

gibus rectricibusque fuscis ochroleuco fasciatis, capite aurito. 
T>Lo-kctitpu J a van is. 

Longitudo 21 poll. 

Hostrum procerum (aliishujus generis magis productimi) maxilla 
basi recta, ultra medium arcuata, mandibula apice utrini|u< 
emarginata. Cera magna. Nares obi iquie. Ahe cauda paulo 
breviores. Remiges: 1 brevis, 2 gradatim, 3 abrupte increscen- 
tes ; 4, 5, 6 longiores. Pedes elongati. Tarsi nudi reticulati. 
Digiti robusti. 


Fam. IV. HiauNDiNiDJE Leach. 
Fissirostres Cuvier. 
Planirostres Dumeril. 

Gen. 3. Pod a rg is Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Podargus Jaiensis mihi. 
P. rufescente-isabellina, fusco pulverulenta, cauda undulato-fas- 

Chaba-wonno Javanis. 

Longitudo 9 poll. 

Rostrum capite latius ad apicem abrupte acuminatum deflexum, 
maxilla inverse spatulaeformis, culmine carinato. Nares lineares 
supra squama tectae. Alee cauda breviores. Remiges 2—6 
externe emarginata?, 1 brevis, 4 et 5 longiores, ceterae gradatim 
breviores. Ungues subaequales simplices. 

Rarissima avis. 


142 Dr. Ho rs field's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 4. Caprimulgus Linnceus. 

Spec. 1. Caprimulgus affinis mihi. 

C.nigrofusco et ferrugineo variegatus, remigibus fuscis, tribus 
externis fascia alba, reliquis ferrugineo griseoque variegatis, 
rectricibus duabus externis interne albis. 

C it aba Javanis. 

Longitudo 9 poll. 

Allied to Caprimulgus Asiaticus of Latham. 
Hemiges prima interne solummodo, 2 et 3 utrinque fasciatoe. 
Fascia gularis alba. 

Spec. 2. Caprimulgus macrurus mihi. 

C. ferrugineo nigricanteque nebulosus, striga verticali tamiisque 
tectricium aterrimis, cauda corpore longiore cuneata. 

Longitudo corporis 4-f- ; caudse b\ poll. 

The four internal tail-feathers are terminated by a broad 
whitish ferruginous band ; a similar band extends across the 
middle of the wing, formed as in other species by irregular marks 
on the quill-feathers. 

This species is strikingly distinguished by the length of the tail, 
and by the regular disposition of the rigid vibrissas pointing for- 
ward ; white at the base with a black extremity. On the throat 
it has a whitish band. 

Gen. 5. Hirundo Linnaus. 

Spec. 1. Hirundo esculenta Osb. It. 

Hirundo nidis edulibus. Bont. Jav. 
Lawet Javanis. 

The specimens which I examined in Java and those which I 
brought with me differ from Latham's description in being uni- 

and Description of Birch from the Island of Jtna. I J j 

formly of a blackish colour, without a white extremity to the 
rectrices. See Ind. Orn. 580. 

Spec. 2. Hirundo fuciphaga. Act. Holm. 33. p. 151. 

Linchi Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll . 

This species differs from the former in being nearly an inch 
shorter, and in having a white abdomen and longer wings in pro- 
portion to its size. Its nest is constructed of mosses and lichen-, 
connected with the same gelatinous substance which composes 
the edible nest of the preceding species. 

Spec. 3. Hirundo Klecho mihi. 

H. viridi-nigra, remigibus caudaque obscurioribus, dorso pos- 

tice griseo : subtus cinerea. 
Samber-galeng Javanis. 

Longitudo 8^ poll. 

In young birds the abdomen is whitish, and the wing-coverts 

are banded with white at their extremities. The feathers cover- 
ing the back and the quill-feathers are tipped with brownish- 

Fam. V. Sylviadte Leach. 

Dentirostres Cuvier. 

Gen. 6. Leptopteiiyx. 
Ocypterus* Cuvier. 

* It may be necessary to state the reason for not adopting a name of so high autho- 
rity. A genus Ocyptera has been established in entomology by Latreille, in the edi- 
tion of his Genera Insectorum, &c, published in 1 809. As the name employed in or- 
nithology differs only in termination, I have taken the liberty to substitute Leptopteryx, 
which equally applies to the character of this bird. 


144 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 1. Leptopteryx leucorynchos. 

Lanius leucorynchos Linn. 

Lanius dominicanus. Son. Voy. N. Guin. pi. 25. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

Dorsum fuscescens, uropygium, pectus axillce, abdomen, crissum- 
que alba. Remiges et rectrices externe perfuscae griseo pulveru- 
lentae, subtus pallidiores. Rostrum capitis longitudine, acu- 
minatum conicum subarcuatum, maxilla mandibutaque utrin- 
que emarginatae. Nares laterales lineares basi plumis rigidis 
tectae. Pedes breves. Acrotarsia squamata. Digiti breves. 
Alee longissimae. Remex prima spuria minima, 2 — 3 longis- 
simae, ceterae gradatim breviores. Cauda mediocris truncata, 
rectrkibus 12. 

Gen. 7. Lanius Linn. 

Spec. 1. Lanius Bentet mihi. 

L. fronte lateribus colli alis caudaque nigris vertice dorsoque 
griseis, uropygio et corpore subtus rufo badiis, rectricibus 
apice albis. 

Bentet Javanis. 

Longitudo 9i poll, 

Rectrices exteriores externe albidae, gula, pectus, abdomenque 
medio pallidiores. 

This bird differs from the Lanius Lucionensis Linn., to which 
it is allied, chiefly by its greater size, and by having a black fore- 
head and a rufous uropygium or rump. 

Gen. 8. Edolius Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Edolius forficat us. 

Lanius forficatus Linn. 
Sri-Gunting Javanis. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1 45 

Spec. 2. Edolius cineraceus. 
E. cineraceus saturatus concolor, remigibus supra ad apiceni 

rectricibusque lateralibus margine exteriore, nigris. 
Chenta Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

Although very similar to the former, it must be considered ;i 
distinct species : the bill is more robust, and the exterior rec- 
trices form a greater curve than in Lanius forficatus ; it is much 
less common, and the natives distinguish it by a peculiar name. 

Spec. 3. Edolius Malabaricus. 

Lanius Malabaricus. Lath. Syn. Supp. i. p. 56. t. 108. 
Cuculus paradiseus. Brisson. iv. pi. 14. A. 1. 

Gen. 9- Ceblepiiyris Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Ceblepiiyris Javensis mihi. 

C. cinereo-griseus, abdomine fasciaque rectricium terminali al- 
bente, remigibus rectricibusque fusco-nigricantibus, pectore 
tenuiter griseo fasciato, capite supra lateribusque concolori- 

Kepodang-sungu Javanis. 

Cauda subforiicata. 

Spec. 2. Ceblephyris striga mihi. 
C. supra strigaque post-oculari cineraceo nigricante, uropygio 
pallidiore, tectricibus externe remigibus interne ad basin albo 
marginatis, rectricibus exterioribus apice albis. 

Lenjettan Javanis. 

Longitudo 6\ poll. 

vol. xiii. u Gen - 

14G Dr. IIorsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 10. Muscicapa Linnaus. 

Spec. 1. Muscicapa flammea Gmel. 

Muscicapa flammea. Pen. Inch ZooL t. ix. p. 43. 
XI wis seu Semuttan Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Muscicapa obscura mihi. 

M. viridi-chalybeo nigra, subtus uropygioque albis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Variat colore griseo-fuscescente, remigibus saturatioribus, rec- 
tricibus perfuscis. 

Spec. 3. Muscicapa Indigo mihi. 

M. obscure caesia, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, his basi axil- 

lis ventre crissoque albidis. 
Nil-nilan Javanis. 

Longitudo 4f- poll. 

Rectrices, exterioribus exceptis, externe obscuro-caesio margi- 
natae ; binae intermedia? basi unicolores. 

Spec. 4. Muscicapa Banyumas mihi. 

M. supra saturato cyaneo nigricans, subtus badia, ventre palli- 

diore, remigibus rectricibusque infra nigris. 
Chiching-goleng Javanis (Provincial Banyumas). 

Longitudo 5\ poll. 

Spec. 5. Muscicapa Javanica Sparmanni. 
Sikattan Javanis. 
Muscicapa Javanica. 
Mus. Carls, fasc. in. t.7o. 

Corpus nigricante fuscum plumis apice badiis. Frons fasciaque 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1 17 

inter gulam et pectus nigricantes. Abdomen c\ annum &ordide 
crocea. Gula rectricesque externa? apice alba\ 

Longitudo (> poll. 

Gen. 11. Turd us Linnccus. 

Spec. 1. Turdus hcemorrhous. 
Muscicapa haemorrhousa (3. Gmel. 
Ketilan Javanis. 

Longitudo 6± poll. 

T. griseo fuscescens, capite atro, malis jugulo abdomine uropy- 
gioque albidis ; crisso croceo. 

Spec. 2. Turdus am&nus mihi. 
T. cyaneo-ater, scapulis rectricibusque tribus exterioribus albis. 
Kacher Javanis. 

Longitudo 8^- poll. 

Remigum secundariarum dua? prima? fascia lateral] alba, apice 
sensim attenuata, notatae. Amoenitate cantus eximia. 

Spec. 3. Turdus macrourus Gmel. 

Long-tailed Thrush. Lath. Syn. iii. t. 39. 

Larwa Javanis. 

Spec. 4. Turdus analis mihi. 

T. griseo-fuscus, vertice remigibus rectricibusque saturatioribus, 

subtus albidus, crisso flavo. 

Chuchak Javanis. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

Spec. 5. Turdus himaculatus mihi. 
T. olivaceo-fuscescens, gula fronteque fuscis, hac macula utrin- 

que aurantia, malis flavidis, abdomine albido, crisso flavo. 
Chuchak-gunung Javanis. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

u 2 Remiges 

148 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Remises et r ect rices exteriores externe olivaceo-flavo marginatae.. 
Pectus et axilla, albidee. Humeri flavidi. 

Spec. 6. T urdus strigatus mihi. 

T. supra vinaceo-nigricans, subtus albidus vinaceo-nigrescente 

strigatus, remigibus rectricibusque saturatioribus, pallide mar- 


Longitudo 6^ poll. 

Pileus lateraque capitis saturatiore colore strigati. 

Spec. 7- Turdus viridis mihi. 

T. viridis (smaragdinus) concolor, remigibus interne rectricibus 

subtus pallide fuscis, gula rlavescente. 

Ijo'dn Javanis. 

Longitudo 8 poll. 

There is a slight shade of olive in the green of the upper parts 

and of yellow in the lower. The bill is yellowish inclining to 


Spec. 8. Tardus chahjbeus mihi. 

T. viridi-chalybeo nitens, remigibus rectricibusque pernigris, 

cauda rotundata, pennae capitis et colli rigidae, acuminata:. 
Sling Javanis. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

I have placed this bird among the Thrushes, although it differs 
in some respects from the other species of the genus : the bill is 
considerably arched and convex at the sides, with a downy cover- 
ing to the nares, approaching to that form which is exhibited by 
Irena and Oriolus. 

Spec. 9- Turdus Javanicus mihi. 
T. corpore fusco, striga gulari maculisque abdominalibus obscu- 

ris ferrugineis. 
Bochrit Javanis. 

Longitudo 8| poll. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Jaia. 149 

This species is nearly allied to Tardus austrulis : it differs by 
the dark ferruginous colour of the under parts. 

Spec. 10. Turdus varius nvihi. 
T. castaneo-testaceus, pennis apice perfuscis, remigibus fuscis 
externe castaneo-testaceis, abdomine albido, laterihus casta- 
neo et nigro variis, rectricibus subtus fuscescentibus. crisso 
albido nigroque tenuiter fasciato. 
Ayam-ayaman Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 
Gula albida tenuissime fusco varia. 

Spec. 11. Turdus cyaneus mihi. 

T. cyaneus saturatissimus, capite remigibus rectricibus externe 

et subtus ventreque nigris. 
Arreng-arrengan Javanis. 

Longitudo 9/ poll. 

The bill and the feet are black. In the next following species 
the bill is yellow, but has a similar form. 

This bird, and several others of this genus form a distinct sub- 
division, in which the bill is long, straight, and abruptly in- 
flected at the extremity ; the back (culmen) is broad, corneous, 
and forms a rounded prominent keel. 

Spec. 12. Turdus flavirostris mihi. 

T.niger, capite annulo collari gula jugulo pectore antice, nitore 

chalybeo undulatis, plumis dorsalibus basi albis, rostro flavo. 

Chiung Javanis. 

Longitudo 12 poll. 

Spec. 13. Turdus ochrocephalus Gmel. 

Chuchak-rawa Javanis. 

Longitudo 10 poll. 


150 Dr. Hors field's Systematic Arrangement 

Color fuscescente griseus. Remiges rectricesque fuscae, externe 
flavo violaceae, gula albicla, striga utrinque nigra. Caput tes- 
taceo flavum. Corpus subtus fuscescente albidoque varium. 
Uropygium sordide testaceum. Cauda elongata. 

Spec. 15. Turdus gularis mihi. 

T. fuscescente-olivaeeus, alis caudaque ferrugineis, gula alba, 

abdomine flavo. 

Bres Javanis. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

Remiges interne fuscae. Vertex griseo-ferrugineus. Axillce na- 


Spec. 16. Turdus dispar mihi. 

T. remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, externe dorsoque croceo- 
olivaceis, capite maris atro, gula coccinea, feminae conco- 

Ch ich ing-go leng J a vanis . 

Abdomen S croceum, pectus coccineo-crocew/ra ? gula pectusque 


Longitudo 6±- poll. 

Gen. 12. Timalia. 

Rostrum mediocre, cultratum valde compressum. Maxilla a basi 
ad apicem aequaliter arcuata vix emarginata ; culmine rotun- 
dato inter nares alte carinato. Nai-es in fovea ovata laterali 
sitae. Alee breves. Remiges: 1 subspuria, 3 — 6 externe emar- 
ginata?, 6 — 7 longiores, reliqure gradatim breviores. Cauda 
elongata rotundata. Pedes mediocres validiusculi : acrotarsia 
scutulata. Unguis posticus medio antico duplo major. 

This genus is allied to Turdus, but differs in the form of the 
bill and the relative robustness of the legs. The bill is nar- 
row at the base, and uniformly compressed throughout. The 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 15J 

sides of the upper mandible are perfectly uniform and smooth, 
and rise to an elevated rounded back or culmen, ha\ in-- a >li"ht 
terminal notch. In the shortness and roundness of the \\ Ings it 
differs from the other genera of this family, except from Iha- 
chypteryx, which will be described below. 

Spec . 1 . Tim a Via pileata. 

T. subolivacea fusca, pileo castaneo, gala juguloque albis ni<:ro 

lineatis, abdomine sordide testaceo. 
Dawit seu Gogo-stite Javanis. 

Longitiulo 6± poll. 
Remiges fuscae, externe castaneo-fusca\ Rectrices fuscae obsctr- 
rissime saturatiore colore fasciata^. Rhachides pennarum jugu- 
larium nigrae. 

Gen. 13. Job \. 

Rostrum mediocre, rectum, validiusculum, basi latius, apicem 
versus subcompressum, attenuatum ; culmine rotundato, leviter 
arcuato, post nares producto, apice vix iniiexo, emarginato. 
Tomia subdiaphana acuta. ISares ovatse, parva*, in fovea elon- 
gata antice attenuata sitae. Ala breves. Remiges: 1 spuria; 
4 — 7 externe tenuiter sinuatae ; 3 — 8 longiores, suba*quales, 
2 abrupte, 9 et sequentes gradatim breviores. Cauda elon- 
sata, truncata. Pedes mediocres, con«rui. Tarsi diffito medio 
dimidio longiores. Acropodia obscura, scutulata. Digiti an- 
tici debiles, medio cum externo basi coalito ; hallux i alidius- 
culus, medio antico aequalis. Ungues compressi ; antici de- 
biles, postico valido, fortius arcuato. 

This genus is distinguished by the strength and conical form 
of its bill from Sylvia and Motacilla. The nares are compara- 
tively small. It has a peculiar character in the sharpness and 
transparency of the cutting edges of the mandibules. The ante- 
rior toes are small and the claws strongly compressed ; the pos- 

152 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

terior toe and claw are comparatively stout. Its food consists of 


Spec. 1. J or a scapularis. 

J. olivaceo-viridi flava, remigibus nigricantibus, externe rlavido, 

interne albo marginatis, abdomine pectoreque tiavo. 
Chito Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Beatrices exteriores externe pallidiores. 

Gen. 14. Oriolus Temminck. 
Cora cias Illiger. 

Spec. 1. Oriolus Galbula Lath. 
Kepodang Javanis. 
Oriolus Galbula d. Ind. Orn. 128. 
Oriolus chinensis. Linn. Syst. i. p. 160. 
Culiavan. PL Enl. 575. 

Spec. 2. Oriolus Xanthonotus mihi. 
O. ater, ventre albido nigro-striato, scapulis axillis uropygio 
crisso rectricibusque interne rlavis, rostrum rubrum, pedes 


Longitudo 6± poll. 

Gen. 15. Melipiiaga Lewin* 
Puiledon Cuvier, 

Spec. 1. Meliphaga Javensis mihi. 
Chuchack-iju Javanis. 

Turdus Cochinchinensis. GmeL Syst. i. p. 825. 
Turdus Malabaricus. GmeL Syst. i. p. 837. 
Le petit Merle de la cote de Malabar. Sm. Voy. IiuL ii. p. 192. 
Le Verdin. Vieillot Ois. Dor. ii. o* 77. ? 78. 

* Birds of New Holland. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. l.*> I 

Gen. 16. Ireka. 
Rostrum mediocre, cultratum; maxilla apiee adunca emargiiiiit;i. 
Culmen arcuatum, elevatum, inter nares carinatum, utrinque a 
basi ultra medium usque sulco obsoleto exaratum, lateribus 
subconvexis. Nares basales subrotundae, vibrissis rigidis plu- 
misque velutinis obtectae. Ala cauda breviores. Remiga 
2 — 6 externe emarginatae, 3 — 6 longiores subaequales ; se- 
cunda sequente abrupte brevior, prima subspuria. Cauda nn - 
diocris, truncata. Tarsi digitique breves. Acropodia scutu- 
lata. Ungues parvi, fortius curvati, debiles. 
The striking and distinctive characters of this genus are, the 
nares covered with velvet-like feathers, from the base of which 
strong vibrissa; are protruded, the short feet and the weakness of 
the claws. It is nearest allied to Turdus and Oriolus. From the 
former it differs in the greater arch of the beak and the lateral 
convexity of the sides of the culmen ; from the latter in the cur- 
vature of the beak and the elevation of the culmen. It differs 
from both in the velvet-like covering of the nares, and in the 
lateral grooves of the upper mandible. The bill is also shorter 
and more convex than in Meliphaga, which has a semblance of 
a similar membrane over the nares, but is destitute of the downy 


Spec. 1. Irena puella mihi. 

Coracias puella, Lath. Lid. Orn. 171. 

Br ess i Javanis. 

Longitudo 8£ poll. 

The body above, the wings near the shoulders, the crown of the 
head, and the base of the tail, both above and beneath, are of a 
rich sky-blue, forming a strong and beautiful contrast with the 
other parts, which are of a deep velvet-black. 



154 Dr. Ho it shield's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 17- Myiothera Illiger. 

Spec. 1. Myiothera affirm mihi. 

M. rufo-fusca, abdomine fulvescente creberrime violaceo fasci- 

ato, gula pallida, malis nigris, crisso uropygio rectricibusque 

externe azureis, tectricibus fascia alba. 

Punglor Javanis. 

Longitudo %\ poll. & . 

Caput nigrum, vitta laterali crocea, ad basin rostri producta. 

The malar spots in the male are produced into an elongate 
vitta on each side of the neck. The throat in both sexes is di- 
vided from the breast by a black band, which is terminated pos- 
teriorly with blue in the male and with dusky-grey in the female. 
The upper part of the head of the female is nearly of the colour 
of the back, and the lateral vittse are testaceous chesnut. The 
white band on the wing-coverts is formed by a separate oblique 
band on each feather. The colour of the back and abdomen is 
more intense in the male than in the female. 

Turdus cyanurus, Latham Ind. Orn. 36l : (PL Enl. 355. Merle 
de Guiane differs in the band on the breast and in size.) 

Gen. 18. Pastor Temminck. 

Spec. 1. Pastor griseus mihi. 

P. griseus nigrescens, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, his apice 

illis basi crissoque albis, rostro pedibusque flavis. 
Jallak sungu Javanis. 

Longitudo 7i poll. 

Gracula cristatella, Linn. Syst. i. p. 165. 
Merle hup6 de la Chine, PL Enl 507- 

I have not preserved the specific name of cristatella, as it ap- 
plies to most, perhaps to all the species of the genus Pastor. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 155 

Spec. 2. Pastor Jalla mihi. 

Sturnus capensis, Linn. Syst. i. p. 290. 

L/Etourneau pie du Cap de B. Esp., PL Enl. 280. 

Jallak seu Jallak-uring Javanis. 

Corpus fusco-nigricans ; rectrices remigesque saturations. Ros- 
trum pedesque flavescentes. Vertex, torques collaris gulaquv 
atro-nitentes. Malce, pectus, abdomen, uropygium fasciaquc 
alarum alba;. Tempora nuda. 

Spec. 3. Pastor tricolor mihi. 

P. albus, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, his apice albis, dorso 
fascia nigricante grisea. 

jALLAK-azyw Javanis. 

Longitudo 8| poll. 
Rostrum et pedes flavi. 

Gen. 19- Motacilla Latham, Temminck. 

Spec. 1. Motacilla speciosa mihi. 
M. atra, pileo cristato ventre uropygio fascia alarum rectrici- 

bus extimis totis, ceteris apicibus niveis, Cauda longissima for- 

Chenginging seu Kingking Javanis. 

Longitudo corporis 4£ ; caudae 6 poll. 
The extremity of the quill-feathers has a slight cast of brown ; 
the head, except the crest, the back, neck, breast, upper part of 
the abdomen, and the interior tail-feathers are most intensely 
black, exhibiting, when exposed to a strong light, a lustre of 
blue : at the extremity of three or four of the secondary wing- 
feathers is a very narrow band of white. The feathers of the 
Hypochondria are elongated and delicately villous. The bill is 
black, the feet are flesh-coloured. 

x 2 Spec. 

156 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 2. Motacilla flam Linn.* 
Bessit Javanis. 

Gen. 20. Sylvia Latham. 

Spec. 1. Sylvia Javanica mihi. 

S. olivaceo-viridis, capite plumbeo griseo, fronte gulaque tenui- 

ter fulvescentibus, superciliis albidis, abdomine olivaceo-flavo. 

Opior-opior Javanis. 

Longitudo 4^ poll. 

Species S. Hippolai affinis. Remiges et rectrices externe oliva- 
ceo-viridi marginatae. Axillae albidae. Humeri subtus flaves- 

Spec. 2. Sylvia montana mihi. 

S. olivaceo-fuscescens, alis caudaque pallide fuscis, subtus fus- 

cescente testacea. 

Chret Javanis* 

Longitudo 4| poll. 

* This bird belongs to Budytes, one of the subdivisions or sub-genera, formed by the 
celebrated Cuvier, of the genus Motacilla of Linnaeus. In this instance I have, agree- 
ably to the advice of this great naturalist, preserved the name of the genus (" le substan- 
tif du grand genre, Regne Animal, preface, p. 17)> although in some cases, following 
the example of Temminck and others, I have employed the sub-genera of M. Cuvier as 
distinct genera. 

A comparison of Motacilla flaxa with Motacilla speciosa exhibits some remarkable 
differences, which it may be proper to point out. As the former species is sufficiently 
known, I shall notice chiefly the characters of the latter. In this the bill is long, broad at 
the base, then suddenly compressed and attenuated or tapering almost equally to a point, 
which is abruptly curved. The bill is thus much more compressed laterally than in 
Motacilla fiaxa ; it has a rounded back, the terminal notch is more obvious, and the 
point is proportionally blunt. The groove containing the nares is more depressed, and 
the membrane covering the superior portion is larger and more prominent. In Mota- 
cilla jlava the claw of the posterior toe is slender and greatly elongate, as in Larks ; in 
Motdcilta speciosa it is robust, short and curved as in Thrushes : the tarsi of the latter 
aie also blender and elevated, and it has a forked tail. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 157 

Rostrum subdepressum validum obtusiusc uliun. Vcdts cauda- 
que elongati. 

Gen. 21. Saxicoi. \ Bcchstew* 

Spec. 1. Saiicola fruticola mihi. 

S. atra, scapulis uropygio crissoque albis. 
Dechu Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Pectus et abdomen ferrugineo-griseo varia. TUmiges externe te- 
nuiter ferrugineo griseae. Rectrices extimae Subbreviores. 

Gen. 22. Brachypteeyx. 

Rostrum mediocre, subcultratum, basi latins, ultra medium sub- 
conicum, attenuatum. Culmen inter nares earinatnm, deindi 
rotundatum, apicem versus arcuatum, (^marginatum. Mmi- 
dibula lateribus marginatis, apice inclinata ; tomiis maxilla. 4 
mandibulaeque subinrlexis. Nares maxima?, in fovea subro- 
tunda basali elongata obtusa sitae ; supra et postice membrana 
clausoe. Alee brevissimas : remiges integrae, 1 subspuria, 2 — 5 
gradatim increscentes, 5 — 10 subaequales Iongiores, reliqua; 
gradatim breviores. Cauda rotundata. Pedes elongati. Digitus 
medius longissimus. Ungues compressissimi, hallucis medio 
duplo majore, fortius arcuato. 

The characters which distinguish this s^enus from Motacilla are 
the robustness of the bill, the arch or curvature of the culmen 
or back, the margin and inclination of the lower mandibule, and 
the size and protrusion of the nares. It possesses likewise pe- 
culiarities in the shortness of the wingjs and the elevation of the 

Spec. 1. Brachypteryx montana. 

B. caerulescente-grisea, subtus pallidior, abdomine albido, re- 


158 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

migibus rectricibusque fuscis, externe caerulescente-griseo 


Ketek Javanis. 

Longitudo 6 poll. 

Spec. 2. Rrachypieryx sepiaria. 

B. olivaceo subfulvescens, subtus dilutior, gula abdomineque 

medio albidis. 

Chichohan Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Remiges et rectrices badio-fuscae, externe fere badiae : rectrices 
duae mediae concolores. Crissum badio-testaceum. 

Gen. 23. Megalurus. 
Rostrum mediocre, rectum, validiusculum, subcompressum, valde 
gradatim attenuatum. Culmen rotundatum, inter nares cari- 
natum, apice emarginatum. Nares basales, superne membrana 
clausae, apertura parva lineari juxta tomia. Alee cauda bre- 
viores. Remiges : prima subspuria, secunda, tertia et quarta 
(quae sunt aequales) paululum brevior, reliquae gradatim brevi- 
ores. Cauda valde elongata cuneata. Pedes validi ; ^ar^'elon- 
gati. Digiti laterales aequales, medius longus. Ungues com- 
pressi acuti, hallucis medio dimidio major mediocriter arcu- 

This genus appears to take a situation intermediate between 
Motacilla and Anthus on one side and Alauda on the other. It 
differs from the former in the strength and horny nature of the 
bill, in which it approaches to Alauda ; but the bill is longer 
than in the latter genus, straight and decidedly notched. In the 
degree of enlargement and the curvature of the claw of the pos- 
terior toe it also holds an intermediate situation. The legs are 
comparatively robust, and the size of the tail is different from the 
allied genera. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java, 159 

Spec. 1. Megalurtu palustri*. 

M. fuscus, dorso griseo-testaceo vario, capit.- ^iim-o et fusees- 

cente vario, subtus albidus, pectore tenuiter i'usco strigato. 
Larri-a:igon Javanis. 

Longitudo 9 poll. 

Fam. VI. Fk i \<. i i i \ i> i. Leach. 
Cornirostres Cuvier, DumSril. 

Gen. 24. Mirafra. 
Rostrum breviusculum, crassum, conico-attenuatum, subcom- 
pressum. M< axilla arcuata culmine rotundato. Varei basales 
rotundae, parte superiors membrana wstita\ J if cauda bre- 
viores. Remiges: 1 spuria, 2—6 subaequales longiores, 'J — 6' 
externe emarginatae, cetera 1 gradatim bre\ iorcs. redes me- 
diocres : digitus medius elongatus. Unguis hallucis mediocri- 
ter arcuatus medio antico magis duplo longior. 

The characters in which this genus differs from AJauda are 
a more robust, conical and arched bill, round nares nearly- 
naked, and a proportionally short claw to the posterior toe. The 
sides of the beak, between the back {cultnen) and cutting edges 
(tomia) are somewhat convex. In this character it has greater 
affinity to Fringilla than to Alauda, the bill of which is often 
subulate (as in Sylvia), while the nares are covered. 

Mirafra, although it greatly resembles Calandra, differs from 
it in possessing the spurious remex, and in having the four instead 
of the three first remiges elongated. 

Spec. 1. Mirafra Javanica, 

M. supra fusca ferrugineo varia, subtus sordida, axillis pallide 


Branjangan Javanis. 

Longitudo 5± poll. 


1 50 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 25. Parus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Parus atriceps mihi. 

P. caerulescente-griseus, subtus albidus, capite caeruleo-atro, 

malis albis. 

Glate-wingko Javanis. 

Longitudo 5\ poll. 

The tail consists of twelve feathers, the exterior of which are 
white, the next tipt with white, and the interior uniform in co- 
lour with he body of the bird. 

Gen. 26. Fringilla Illiger. 

Spec. 1. Fringilla Philippina. 
Loxia Philippina, Linn. Syst. \.p. 305. 
Gros-bec, des Philippines, PL Enl. 135. /. 2. 3 . 
Many AR-kembatig Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Fringilla Manyar mihi. 

F. supra fusca, plumis ferrugineo marginatis, subtus albido rlavi- 

cans, gula pectoreque saturatiore, linea superciliari flavida. 

Manyar Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Spec. 3. Fringilla punicea mihi. 

F. saturate punicea, alis fuscis, cauda nigricante, tectricibus 

alarum pectore et abdomine albo punctatis. 
Mtnyiring Javanis. 

Longitudo S£ P ^- 
One of the smallest and most beautiful species of this genus. 
The coverts of the tail are more obscurely dotted ; the interior 
tail-feathers are terminated by a narrow white band. The colours 
of the female are less brilliant. 


and Description of Birds from the Inland of Java. \<^l 

Spec. 4. Fringilla punctularia. 
Loxia punctularia, Linn. Syst. up. 30 f 3. 
Gros-bec tachete de Java, VI. Enl. 139. f. I. 
Pekking J av arris. 

Very similar to Loxia molucca, Linn. PL Enl. 139. Jig. 2, oi 
which it seems to be merely a variety. 

Spec. 5. Fringilla striata. 
Loxia striata, Linn. Syst. i. p. 306. 
Gros-bec de Tisle de Bourbon, PL Enl. 153. fig. 1. 
PnY Javanis. 

Spec. 6. Fringilla prasina. 

F. viridi-olivacea, fronte regione orbitali gulaque azureis, remi 
gibus rectricibusque nigricantibus, uropygio abdomineque 
coccineis, pectore ventre hypochondriisqar ferrugineis. 
Binglis Javanis (regionibus orientalibus Insula 4 ). 

Longitudo 5\ poll. 
The two middle tail-feathers extend about half an inch beyond 
the others ; the bill is intensely black and shining ; the feet are 
reddish. In several of my specimens the bird appears in a dif- 
ferent state of plumage ; the upper parts of a greenish-olive, the 
lower of an uniform dusky-grey colour inclining to ferrugineous ; 
the coverts of the tail are scarlet. From birds in this state the 
description oi Loxia prasina, Mus. Carls, fasc. iii. 172. appears 
to have been made : " viridi-olivacea, subtus cano-rlavic;ms, 
uropygio rubro/' The bird above described, in a perfect state 
of plumage, greatly exceeds this in beauty. 

Spec. 7- Fringilla oryzivora. 
Loxia oryzivora, Linn. Syst. i.p. 302. 
Gros-bec de la Chine, PL Enl. 152. Jig. 1. 
Glate Javanis. 



162 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 8. Fringilla Maja. 

Loxia Maja, Linn. Syst. i. p. 301. Osbeck, It. 2. p. 328. 
Maja de la Chine, PL Enl. 109. fig. 1. 
Bondol Javanis. 

Gen. 27. Sitta Linn. 

Spec. 1. Sitta frontalis mihi. 

S. supra csesia saturata, subtus testaceo-vinacea, fronte superci- 
liisque atris, remigibus nigris. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Fam. VII. CoRviDiB Leach. 

Gen. 28. Colaris Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Colaris orientalis. 
Coracias orientalis, Linn. Syst. i. p. 159- 
Rollier des Indes, PL Enl. 619- 

This genus differs from Roller in the comparative stoutness, 
breadth and form of the beak, its sudden deflexion at the extre- 
mity, and the shortness of the tail. The nostrils are bounded 
with feathers posteriorly, which slightly project over them. 

Gen. 29. Eulabes Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Eulabes religiosa. 
Gracula religiosa, Linn. Syst. i. p. 164. 
Mainate des Indes Orientales, PL Enl. 268. 
Bed seu Mencho Javanis. 

Gen. 30. Piirenotrix. 

Rostrum mediocre, validum, altum, cultratum, basi crassiusculum. 
Maxilla arcuata, lateribus subconvexis, lsevibus, sensim in cul- 
men conniventibus. Capistru?n latum, plumulis holosericeis 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. ](>:> 

densis. Nares capistro recondite, circulares, parviv, in medio 
sulci transversali ad basin rostri dispositae. AUe rotondatae : 
remigibus integris 3 et 4 longioribus. Cauda corpore longior, 
cuneata,rectricibus 10 in paribus dispositis. Pedes congruj : 
digiti mediocres, exteriore medio ad basin levissime coalito. 
A cropodia scutulata. Ungues compressi : hallucis medio \i\ 

This genus is strongly characterized by the form of the bill, 
which is elevated, regular and smooth, laterally tapering (<> a 
keel, equally arched from the base to the point. In the velvet- 
like border which surrounds the base of the beak it resembles the 
genus Paradisea. In its elevation, and in the smoothness and 
uniformity of the sides tapering to a regular keel, it differs from 
all the other genera of this family which I have examined. 

Spec. 1. Fhrenotrix Temia. 

P. fuliginosa, nitore viridi-olivaceo fuscescente, scapulis alis 
caudaque supra saturatissimo viridi-olivaceo nitentibus, ca- 
pistro atro. 

Chekitut seu Benteot Javanis. 

Temia, Le Vaillant Afr. 56. 

Corvus varius, Lath. Suppl. 

This bird is described by the celebrated Le Vaillant, Ois. d'Afr. 

n. 56; but as the native country was not known with certainty, 

and I have frequently observed it in Java, I have proposed 

Threnotrix for the generic name, and applied Temia to the species. 

Longitudo corporis 5 poll. ; caudae 7 poll. 

Rectrices in paribus 5 dispositne, ut caudam obverse cuneatam 
constituant; par primum minimum angustatum, paria sequen- 
tia sensim increscentia, par quintum maximum apicem versus 
utrinque dilatatum rotundatum. 

y 2 Gen. 

16*4 Dr. IIorspield's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 31. Fregilus Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Fregilus Enca mihi. 

F. supra cyaneoniger nitens, subtus obscurior, fronte malis 

antice gulaque atris. 
Enca Javanis. 

Longitudo 17 poll. 

The lower and posterior parts of the space surrounding the eye 
are naked. 

Fam. IX. Certhiad/r Leach. 
Tenui host res Cuvier, Dumiril. 

Gen. 32. Pomatorhinus. 

Rostrum longiusculum, basi rectum, ultra nares modice incurvum 
et abruptius compressum, mesorhinio elevato : culmine vali- 
diusculo, carinato, apice integro. Nares operculo corneo ob- 
longo convexo clausae, apertura oblique postice spectans, 
juxta capistrum fornicata. Alee rotundatae. Remiges: 1 et 2 
abrupte, 3 et 4 gradatim increscentes, 3 — 7 externe tenuiter 
emarginatae. Cauda rotundata, elongata. Pedes subelongati. 
Digitus medius longior, cum exteriore basi leviter connexus. 
Ungues compressi, arcuati, posteriore majore, validiore. Acro- 
podia scutulata; acrotarsia obscurior. 

The corneous covering of the nares and its sudden compression 
and equal breadth beyond these form the distinguishing charac- 
ter of this genus, in which it differs both from the two following 
genera, and from that extensive group which comprises Certhia, 
Nectarinia and Cinmjris. The prominent, rounded and very 
gradually attenuated , back or culmen is also peculiar to this 


and Description of Binlsfmm the Island of Java. 

Spec. 1. Pomatorliinus montanus. 
P. castaneus, capite cinerescente-riigro, strict paatoculari gula 

pectoreque albis. 
Bokkrek Javanis. 

Longitudo 71 poll. 

Geir. 33. Pri \ i \. 
Rostrum mediocre, rectum, bnsi latiusculum, ultra nares sensim 
attenuatum, apice validiusculo. Maxilla hasi recta, apice le- 
vissime arcuata : culmine inter nares carinato, deinde roton- 
dato, extremitate obsolete emarginato. Mandibula recta, ultra 
medium levissime sursimi inclinata. Nares basales, magna?, in 
fovea oblonga antice angustiore positae,membrana teotss, parte 
mferiorerimalongitudinalc apcrta*. Ala rotundatae. Remigi ti 
1 abrupte, 2 et 3 gradatim breviores, reliquafi subaequales, 3 — 7 
externe tenuiter emarginatse. Cauda elongata cuneata. Pedes 
elongati. Digitus medius longiusculus cum exteriore basi coa- 
litus. Hallux validiusculus medio antico major validior. 
This genus is allied to the former, but it differs in the compa- 
rative straightness of the bill and its more gradual tapering to 
the point ; it is also destitute of the horny covering of the nares. 
It holds an immediate place between Pomatorliinus and Necta- 
rinia. In the situation of the nares it agrees with the latter, but 
the aperture is much larger and of a different form. The eleva- 
tion of the tarsi constitutes a peculiar character. 

Spec. 1. Prinia familiar is. 

P. olivaceo-fusca, abdomine rlavo,gula pectore fasciisque duabus 

alarum albis, cauda fascia subterminali perfusca apice alba. 

Prinya Javanis. 

Longitudo 5 poll. 

Gen. 34. Orthotomus. 
Rostrum mediocre, rectum, subdepressum, basi triquetrum, atte- 
nuatum : 


Dr. Ho rs field's Systematic Arrangement 

nuatum : culmine basi carinato, versus apicem leviter arcuato. 
Mandibula tomiis rectissimis. Nares basales, magna?, superne 
membrana clausae, inferne rima longitudinali apertae. A Ice : re- 
miges, 1 spuria, 2 et 3 abrupte longiores, 4 — 8 longiores sub- 
a?quales externe emarginatae, ceterae gradatim breviores cu- 
neatae. Fedes subelongati. Digitus exterior a medio ad basin 
connexus : hallux validus. Ungues compressi arcuati acuti, 
postico medio duplo ma] ore. Acropodia scutulata. 

The straightness and slenderness of the bill distinguish Ortho- 
tomus from the two former genera ; these characters, with the 
depression and triangular form of the base of the bill, prevent 
its union with the other genera of this family. I have not been 
able to determine satisfactorily the affinity of this genus. The 
slenderness of the bill and its other habits associate it with the 
Certhiadce ; in the acumen of the bill and the size of the hallux 
it resembles in some degree the genus Sitta. 

Spec. 1. Orthotonus sepium. 

O. olivaceo-fuscescens, capite et tibiis ferrugineis, remigibus 

fuscis, gula pectoreque nigricantibus, abdomine flavido. 

Chiglet Javanis. 

Longitudo 4 poll. 

Gen. 35. Cinnyris Cuvier. 

Spec. 1. Cinnyris affinis mihi. 

C. olivacea, subtus grisea sordido-fuscescente varia, rectricibus 

extimis apice albis. 
Chess Javanis. 

The general description of the Certhia olivacea, Linn. Syst. i. 
p. 185. 5, a native of Madagascar, applies to this bird ; but our 
species exceeds the former three inches in length, and it wants the 
white orbits. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 167 

Spec. 2. Cinnyris longirostra mihi. 
Certhia longirostra, Latham Ind. Orn. l 2QQ. 
Prit Andun Javanis. 

The Javan species is larger and more brightly coloured. 

Length 5J- inches. 

Gen. 36. Nectarinia Illiger. 

Spec. 1. Nectarinia Javanica mihi. 

N. multicolor, capite supra nucha dorsoque saturato-viridi- 

olivaceis, scapulis uropygioque violaceo nitentibus, alis genis- 

que olivaceo fuscis, gula juguloque ferrugineis, pectore et 

abdomine croceis, cauda nigra. 

Prit-Gantil Javanis. 

Longitudo 4± poll. 

A violet streak extends, below the cheeks, from the bill to the 
breast ; the lower coverts of the wings are rufous, and the re- 
miges have a yellowish margin. The tail is black with a greenish 
lustre above, fuliginous and paler underneath. The lustre of the 
upper parts of the male is very bright ; the female is less diver- 
sified and almost without lustre. It is dark-olive green with a 
brownish tint above, and nearly uniformly yellow underneath. 
On the head and back a slight resemblance to the colours of the 
male is observable. 

This bird has some affinity to the Certhia lepida, described in 
Mas. Carls, fasc. ii. £.35. 

Spec. 2. Nectarinia pectoralis mihi. 
N. supra viridi-olivacea, fronte gula jugulo pectoreque cyaneo- 
nigris nitentibus, abdomine flavo, remigibus fuscis flavescente 
marginatis, rectricibus atris, fascia terminali alba. 

Sri-Ganti Javanis. 

Longitudo 5£ poll. 


K'S Dr. IIorsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

The male is conspicuously distinguished by the blueish-black 
colour of the anterior parts, separating the breast from the ab- 
domen by a defined line. The lower part of the tail appears 
nearly white : the interior rectrices are terminated by a narrow 
band, which on the exterior ones successively becomes wider. 

The female differs from the male in entirety wanting the dark 
blackish-blue colour on the throat and breast. 

Spec. 3. Nectarinia eocimia mihi. 
N; supra viridi-olivacea, capite supra caudaque saturissimo vi- 

ridi-smaragdino nitentibus, gula pectoreque puniceis, fascia 

jugularis purpurea. 
Plichi-kemba?ig Javanis. 

Longitudo 4^ poll. 
Rectrices duae intermedia? longiores : abdomen fusco-olivaceum ; 

remiges caudaque infra fuscse ; uropygium flavum ; abdominis 

latera axillaqxxe lactea. 

This is one of the most beautiful of the birds of Java. The 
colouring of the female is almost uniformly dark olive-green, 

Fam. X. MERoriD^E Leach. 
Syndactyles Cuvier. 
Tenuikostiies Dumcril. 

Gen. 37. Dicjeum Cuvier. 

Spec. 1 . Dicceum cruentatum. 
Certhia cruentata, Linn. Syst. i. p. 187. 
Black, white and red Indian Creeper, Edw. t. 81. 
Vieillot Ois. ii. t. 36. 
Sopa Javanis. 

This bird is described by Linnaeus and by Latham as a spe- 
cies of Certhia. M. Cuvier, agreeably to the method adopted in 
the Regne Animal, has also arranged it as a sub-genus of the great 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. M><) 

genus [du grand genre) of Certhia with the name DlCAUM*. 
This I have empolyed as a generic name. 

The following description applying equally to Dictrwn cruen- 
tatum and favum, is given to show that the characters of this 
genus are sufficiently marked. 

Rostrum capite brevius, basi latissimum, apicem versus abruptius 
acuminatum, subulatum. Maxilla lei iter arcuaia. Culmtn 
inter nares carinatum. Mandibula recta. Tomia ambarum 
subintracta. Nares basales, magna?, in sulco oblongo antice 
angustato positae, supra membrana fornicali subcorneaclauvt . 
rima longitudinali versus angnlum oris aperta*. Remiges: 
prima duabus sequentibus quae sunt a^quales brevior, cetera 
gradatim decrescentes, 2 — 4 externe emarginata:. Cauda trun- 
cata. Pedes congrui. Digiti anteriores compressi, exteriore 
cum medio usque ad extremitatem phalangis prima 1 coalito, 
halluce validiore. Ungues compressi, arcuati, postico medio 
fere duplo majore. 

This genus forms a connecting link between Nectarinia and 
Alcedo, or between the families of Certhiadce and Aferopida or 
Sytidactyles. In consequence of the subulate form of the extre- 
mity of the bill it has been placed in the genus Certhia ; but it 
differs greatly as well from this genus as from Cinnyris and Nec- 
tarinia. The broad base and subulate point of the bill, the 
union of the exterior and middle toe for the length of one entire 
phalanx, and particularly its habits, distinguish it from the Cer- 
thiadcB and associate it with the Meropidce. 

* Having in a former part of this paper arranged one of the birds under the genus 
MELIPH AGA, it is necessary to state in this place, that I have not been able to recon- 
cile to my investigations the following remarks of M. Temminck {Manuel, pnface, 86.) 
on the identity of these two genera: " Tous les Phihdom (Meliphaga Lewin) sont de 
I'oceaniqueet des mors les plus reculees de l'lnde. Les especes du genre Dicte de M . Cu- 
\ ier y tiennent de si pres, tant par leur forme generate que par les caracteres pris du bee, 
des pieds, &c, qu'il est impossible de les distinguer des Phikdons du meme auteur." 

vol. xiii. v Spec. 

170 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 2. Dicceum flavum mihi. 

D. olivaceo-flavum, subtus flavum, remigibus rectricibusque mar- 
ginibus exterioribus exceptis perfuscis. 

Longitudo 4 poll. 

Gen. 38. Eurylaimus. 

Rostrum capite brevius, validum, depressum, basi latissimum, 
postice dilatato-ampliatum, margine angusto intracto. Rictus 
amplissimus. Maxilla culmine obsolete carinato apice abrupte 
adunco, emarginato, tomiis verticalibus. Mandibula basi recta 
ad apicem maxilla congruenter curvata. Nares basales, subro- 
tundae, apertae, omnino nuda3. Pedes congrui, gressorii. Di- 
giti compressi, medius fere longitudine tarsi, hallux robustus. 
AIce cauda breviores. Rectrices 12. 

The distinguishing characters of this genus are a broad, de- 
pressed, cuneated beak (passing backwards into a narrow in- 
curved margin, which extends beneath the eyes and forms an 
excessively wide throat) and prominent, erect, vertical cutting 
edges (tomia), associated with gressorial feet. In these characters, 
and also in the nakedness of the nostrils, it differs essentially from 
Todus platyrhynchos, which is arranged among the Dentirostres 
(Sylviadce Leach) by M. Cuvier. It resembles Todus viridis (the 
only species of the genus known at present, Temm.) in the gres- 
sorial feet, but differs essentially from it in the form of the bill, 
disposition of the nares, &c. 

Spec. 1. Eurylaimus Javanicus mihi. 

J5. capite toto corporeque infra vinaceis, dorso absque perfus- 
cis flavo variis,' cauda atra fascia apicali alba. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

An lice 

and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1?I 

Axilla et crissum flavae. Dorsum linea mediana. al& linea lire- 
gulari flava varise. Remiges intermedin externe macula alba. 
Uropygium atrum navo varium. Rect rices atnr. duae interme- 
dia* concolores, proxima utrinque fascia interiore alba, exte 
riores utrinque fascia alba. 

Rostrum capite brevius, validum, Lateribus ad apicem in cuaeum 
attenuatis, basi latissimum, cornemn : postice utrinserus <li- 
latato-ampliatum, margine intracto, angusto, sab oculos pio- 
ducto. Vi bri ssa paucee mastacales. Rictus amplissimus. Mas- 
ilia lateribus parum inclinatis basi latioribus, culminc obsolete 
carinato, rotundato, apice abrupte adunco, spatulato, emaj 
nato, tomiis latis, porrectis, acutis, verticalibus, nigra. \lan- 
dibula depressa, tomiis verticalibus, basirecti^ versus apicem 
maxilla congruenter curvatis, obsolete emarginatis, acumine 
brevissimo obtuso terminali. Nares basales, hit* rales, subro- 
tundae, apertae. Redes mediocres, gressorii. Tarsi basi plu- 
mis tecti. Digiti compressi, medius longus (longitudinis fere 
tarsi), internus externo brevior, externus medio fere ad ter- 
tiam, internus ad secundam phalangem connexus, hallux me- 
dio antico paulo brevior, robustus. Ungues compressi, medi- 
ocres. Ala cauda breviores. Remiges: prima brevior, secunda 
et quarta requales, tertia longiuscula, quinta gradatim, sexta 
et ceterre abrupte breviores. Rectrices 12. 

Gen. 39- Merops Linn. 
Spec. 1. Merops Jatanicus mini. 
M. olivaceo-viridis splendore aeneo, rectricibus duabus elonga- 
tis, linea frontali per oculos ad aures producta atra, crisso 
uropygioque thalassinis, gula sulphurea, jugulo castaneo, ab- 
domine medio sordide thalassino, lateribus axillisque fulvis. . 

Kachangan Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

z 2 Remiges 

172 Dr. Ho rspi eld's Systematic Arrangement 

Jlemiges primores et secunclariae fascia terminali nigra. Taenia 
thalassina obsoleta utrinque ad marginem linece frontalis. La- 
tera crissi albentia. 

Spec. 2. Merops Urica mihi. 

M. olivaceo-viridis nitens, abdomine crisso uropygioque dilu- 
tioribus candore thalassino, pileo collo supra interscapulio- 
que castaneis, gula juguloque sulphureis, linea temporali fas- 
ciaque pectorali semilunari atris, cauda subtus fuliginosa. 

Tirik Javanis. 

Longitude* 8 poll. 

Cauda supra, splendore thalassino obscuriore. Remigum pri- 
morum et secundariarum apices nigrae. 

Gen. 40. Alcedo Linn. 
* Rostro gracile, culmine carinato. 
M artin-pecheur Le Vaillant. 

Spec. 1. Alcedo Meninting mihi. 

A. supra nigricans, dorso medio thalassino, uropygio cyaneo, 

subtus badia, gula maculaque collari utrinque albidis. 

Meninting Javanis. 

Longitudo 5^ poll. 

Scapula maculis nonnullis cyaneis adspersae. Striga inter ocu- 
ios et rostrum utrinque sordide albida. 

Spec. 2. Alcedo Biru mihi. 

A. subazurea, remigibus interne fuscis, gula jugulo abdomine 

ventre alisque subtus albis. 
Meninting-watu Javanis. 

Longitudo 5\ poll. 

** Rostro 

and Description of Birds from the Island vf Jaia. 173 

** Rostro lreviore, culmine rotundato. 
Martin-chasseur Le Vail/ant*. 

* The birds of this section differ from those of the first, in having a dilated or swelled 
bill, of light consistence, large at the base, and gradually tapering towards the extre- 
mity, which is moderately compressed. The upper mandible is e\ en, or slightly grooved 
from the nares to the point. The back {admen) is rounded ; not prominent 
as in the species belonging to the first section (sans arrete z'nc, Tenmi.), and die extre- 
mity of the upper mandible forms a cavity fur the reception of the lower. 

The lower mandible is depressed at the base, swelled towards the middle, then gra- 
dually attenuated to a point, which is acute and somewhat smaller than the upper ; so 
that when the bill is closed the sides are completely received within iti> margin. The 
cutting edges (tomia) of both mandibles are sharp ; those of the upper are slightly curve d 
or cut out towards the extremity ; those of the lower are nearly straight. The upper 
mandible is slightly bent downwards near the point or tip, while the lower inclines 
upwards in a small degree. 

The nostrils are basal, small, oblong, naked, having inferiorly a somewhnt oblique 
aperture, while the upper portion is closed by a small membrane covered with plumes. 

This section of the genus Alcedo (to the individuals of which the denomination of 
JLntomothertz " Chasseurs" may be applied) holds a situation intermediate between 
Alcedo and Dacelo. The preceding remarks show its difference from the first section. 
Dacelo has a thicker, stronger and more dilated beak, which does not exceed the head 
in length. The cutting-edges towards the extremity take a bold curve upwards, are 
deeply cut out, and the tip of the back (admen) is lengthened beyond the curvature of 
the edges, abruptly truncated, and terminated by a small notch. The lower mandible 
is considerably swelled ; the margin is not straight, as in the section of Entomothercc, 
but curved upwards in conformity to the upper mandible. These characters are di- 
stinctly observed as well in the gigantic Kingsfisher from New Holland, as in a beau- 
tiful new species described in this paper under the name of Dacelo pulchella. It is re- 
markable that, although these two species differ greatly in size and in brilliancy of colours, 
the general distribution of the marks which form the specific character is the same. The 
forehead and crown are circumscribed by the lateral parts of the head and a posterior 
collar. The under parts in both are uniform ; the wings above and the tail are trans- 
versely banded. In all the individuals of both the sections of the genus Alcedo that I 
have examined the colouring is more or less widely diffused in spots (macula, plaga, &c), 
or is exhibited in slight undulations, while transverse bands appear to be characteristic 
of the species of Dacelo. 


174 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 3. Alcedo tridactyla Linn. 
Ceyx Lacep. 

Chuchack-urang Javanis. 

Spec. 4. Alcedo leucocephala Gmel. 
Ten"GKE-6m£o Javanis. 
Marten-pecheur de Java. PL Enl. 757. 

Spec. 5. Alcedo coromanda Lath. 
\'\:sGKB-sumbo Javanis. 

Martin-pecheur violet de la cote de Coromandel. Son.Voy. 
hid. n.p. 212. t. 118. 

Spec. 6. Alcedo chlorocephala Gmel. 
TEXGKE-c/ieger Javanis. 
Martin-pecheur a tete verte, PL Enl. 783. /. 2. 

Spec. 7. Alcedo sacra Gmel. 

Tengke Javanis. 

Variat Alced. sacra Lath. Syn. ii. p. 6*21. torque, pectore, ab- 
domineque sordide ferrugineis, nigro tenuiter undulatis, uro- 
pygio thalassino. Affinis var. y. Ind. Orn. 250. 

Spec. 8. Alcedo melanoptera mihi. 

A. dorso uropygio ventreque cyaneis, capite scapulisque nigris, 
remigibus thalassinis apice et subtus fuscis interne latissime 
albo fasciatis. 

TENGKE-wrawg Javanis. 

Longitudo 10 poll. 

Gala et annulus latus collaris fuliginoso-badia?. Cauda thalas- 
sina subtus fuscescens. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 1 7 5 

Gen. 41. Dacelo Leach. 

Spec. 1. Dacelo pulchclla milii. 
D. supra thalassino atro alboque fasciata, capite fusco badio, 

vertice azureo, gula juguloque albidis, abdomine femigiiM o 


Tengke-watu Javanis. 

Pulcherrima avis. 

Longitudo 8 poll. 

Fam. XI. Buceridje Leach. 
Gen. 42. Buceros Linn. 

Spec. 1. Buceros Bhinoceros Linn. 
Bangkok seu Jongrang Javanis. Bont. Jav. t. ()4. 

Spec. 2. Buceros undulatus. Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 26. 
Goge sive Bobosan Javanis. 

Le Calao a casque festonne. Lc Vaill. Cal. pi. 20. 21. 
Le Calao J a van male. Le Vaill. Afr. 239. 

Spec. 3. Buceros albirostris. Shaw's Zool. viii. p. 13. 
KUnglingan Javanis. 
Le Calao a bee blanc. Le Vaill. Cal. pi. 14. 


Fam. XII. Picid.e Leach. 

Gen. 43. Picus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Picus Javensis milii. 
P. niger, capite cristato cum taenia colli laterali coccineis. abdo- 
mine sordide testaceo. 
Platv K-ayam Javanis. 

Longitudo maris 15 poll. 


1?() Dr. IIorsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

The female exceeds the male about an inch in length ; it is of 
a paler colour ; the head is variegated above with blackish-grey 
and white. It has a scarlet mark on each side of the neck under 
the eyes ; the colour of the belly is uniform with the rest of the 
body, and the throat and lower part of the neck are Isabella 


Spec. 2. Picus Bengalensis Linn. 

Platuk bawatig Javanis. 

Spotted Indian Woodpecker, Edw. t. 182. 
Pie verd de Bengale, PL Enl. t. 695. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 
Partes superiores alteque nigrescentes, pileus coccineus, subtus 
sordido-albo sagittatus : fazminaz pileus niger. 

Picus Goensis and Picus Bengalensis of Gmelin and Latham 
appear to be the same bird : the Javan Woodpecker differs 
slightly from both, but there is considerable variety in our spe- 

Spec. 3. Picus miniatus Gmel. 

Platuk Javanis. 

The Red Woodpecker, Pennant's Ind. Zool. p. 39. t. 6. 

Spec. 4. Picus puniccus mihi. 

P. cristatus, pileo alisque puniceis, dorso et uropygio viridi- 
olivaceis, cauda nigra, subtus exsordido-saturato ferrugineo 
et olivaceo-albo variegatus. 

Longitudo 8j- poll. 

Maxilla inferior flava : remiges ultra medium subtusque fuscse, 

pogonium internum albo fasciatum. 

Spec. 5. Picus strictus mihi. 

P. cristatus, rostro stricto gracili sensim attenuato, angulis su- 
perioribus parallelis axpialibus, lineolis transversis curvatis 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. \' t ] 

tenuissimis notato, culmine stricto, mandibula inferiore fla- 


Plat uk Javanis. 

Longitudo 10^ poll. 

Supra aurantio-viridis, subtus albo nigroque varius. Cauda ni- 
gra. Pileus maris coccineus, foeminre aurantiiiv 

Spec. 6. Picus minor Linn. 

PiATUK-/a//ar Javanis. 

Picus minor, var. y. Lath, Ind. Orn. p. 230. 

La petite Epeiche, PL Enl. 59S- 

Spec. 7- Picus tristis mihi. 

P. supra nigro alboque irregulariter fasciatus, subtus niger, uro- 

pygio albo. 
Platu K-watu Javanis. 

Longitudo 7 poll. 

Hostrum conicum subarcuatum. Pileus et cervix tenuissime ni- 
gro alboque strigati. Rectrices, remiges et plumaz femorales 
nigro alboque fasciatae. 

** Pedibus tridactylis. 

Spec. 8. Picus tiga mihi. 
P. cristatus, supra aurantio-viridi-nitens, pileo, nucha, cervice 
uropygioque coccineis, subtus albo nigroque varius, Cauda 
fuliginoso concolore. 

Longitudo 8£ poll. 

Latera capitis collumqae subtus alba, lineis quinque nigro albo- 
que variis longitudinaliter notata ; maculae pectoris et scapu- 
larum saturate-atrae, abdominis dilutiores. Remiges fuliginosae 
pogonio interno albo fasciatae. 

Femina pileus niger. 

vol. xiii. 2 a Fam. 

178 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Fam. XIII. C € U 1 1 1) & Leach . 

Gen. 44. Phcenicopuaus Vieillot. 

Spec. 1. Pkcenicophaus melanognathas mihi. 
Ph. supra viricli-aeneo nitens, subtus caudaque margine lato spa- 

diceis, maxilla rlavicante mandibula pernigra. 
Kadallan s. Sintok Javanis. 

Longitudo corporis 7 : caudae 11 poll. 
The nostrils are- elongate, and situated at the base of a groove 
which extends nearly to the middle of the beak. 

Spec. 2. P/iGenicophaus Javanicus mihi. 
Ph. cano-viridescente niger, malis gula jugulo crisso cruribus- 

que ferrugineo-badiis, rectricibus apice albis. 
Bubut-kembang Javanis. 

Longitudo 16^ poll. 

Gen. 45. Cuculus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Cacidus orientalis Linn. 
Tiihu <? . Chule ? . Javanis. 

c?. Cuculus orientalis, Linn. 

Coucou noir des Indes, PL Enl. 274. Jig. \. 

$ . Cuculus Mindanensis, Linn. 
Coucou varie de Mindanao, PL EnL 277- 

The cabinet of the Linnean Society contains a pair of these 
birds from New Holland, exhibiting the same sexual difference 
which occurs in the Javan specimens. 

Spec. 2. Cuculns fugav mihi. 

C. supra cinereo-griseus, cauda sordido-nigro fasciata, apice fus- 


Longitudo 11-|- poll. 


and Description of Birth from the Island of Java. 179 

Corpus subtus album, pectus, venter hypochondtiaque medio badia 
postice nigro lineata. 

Spec. 3. Cuculus fiavus Gmel. 
Gedasse Javanis. 

Coucou petit de l'isle de Panay, PI. Eft/. 814. 
Sonnerat Voy.p. 122. t. 81. 

Spec. 4. Cuculus canorus Linn. 
I have not been able to ascertain the native name, as it is a very 
rare bird. In the specimens from Java n very slight difference 
from the bird as it occurs in Europe is observed. 

Spec. 5. Cuculus Pravata mihi. 

C. supra castaneus, infra albido et perfusco-undulatus, rectrici- 

bus nigris externe castaneis apice albis. 

Tracha Javanis. 

Longitudo 8^ poll. 

Spec. 6. Cuculus lugubris mihi. 
C. ater nitore viridi, remigibus exterioribus pogonio interno 
albo-notatis, rectricibus duabus externis crissoque albo fasci- 
als, tibiis postice albis. 

Awon-awon Javanis. 

Longitudo 10^ poll. 

Spec. 7. Cuculus i author hynch us mihi. 
C. violaceus, axillis ventre rectricibusque externis albo fasciatis, 

rostro flavo. 

Longitudo 6 poll. 

Spec. 8. Cuculus basalts mihi. 
C. fuscescens nitore viridi-aureo, gula jugulo pectoreque albido 

2 a 2 et 


Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

et pallido-fusco variis, abdomine albo et fuscescente fasciato, 
rectricibus intermediis basi castaneis. 

Longitudo 6 poll. 

Remiges : prima brevis, secunda et tertia longiores aequales, 
quarta praecedentibus duabus paulo brevior, quinta abrupte 
brevior, sequentes gradatim breviores primores fuscescentes. 
Rectrices externae supra viridi-fuscescentes infra nigrescentes 
albido maculatae, reliquae (duabus intermediis exceptis) basi 
castaneae, apice albo fasciatae. Crissum albidum, maculis pos- 
tice acuminatis fuscis nitentibus. 

Gen. 46. Centropus Illiger. 

Spec. 1. Centropus affinis mihi. 

C. niger, alis ferruginosis, ungue hallueis arcuato. 
Bu TSWT-allang-allang Javanis. 

Longitudo 14^ poll. 

Tlumce scapulares fuliginosae rachidibus albis. Hectrices externae 
fasciola terminali albida. 

Spec. 2. Centropus Bubutus mihi. 

C. cyaneo-niger, nitens, alis badiis. 

Bubut JaVanis. 

Longitudo 18^ poll. 

Spec. 3. Centropus lepidus mihi. 

C. supra fuliginosus, infra albus, rachidibus marginatis. 

Longitudo 12 poll. 

Pliima pilei, colli, scapularum et remiges secundaria^ fuliginosae, 
longitudinaliter rachide alba marginata notatae. Tectrices ba- 
diae seu fuscae, rachide alba. Remiges primores badiae, apice 
fuscescentes. Rectrices nigrae, fascia terminali albida. Gula, 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 181 

jugulum, pectus et abdomen alba. Urt>pygittm y fcctriccs. Cauda, 
pleuraque nigro et femigineo fasciata. 

Fam. XIV. Bucco \ i d e Leach, 

Gen. 47. Bucco Linn. 

Spec. 1. Bucco Javensit niihi. 
B. smaragdinus saturatus, pileo aurantio, fascia ad latera capi- 
tis atra duplici, una superciliari, altera jugulo utrinque con- 
niventi, gula taeniaque transversa jugulari coccineis. 
Chodok javanis. 

Longitudo 1 1 poll. 
Size of B. grandis. A black band originates at the base of the 
bill below the nostrils, and includes the anterior angle of the eye ; 
then divides, and proceeding backwards, one branch terminates 
on the occiput, while the other, diverging below the eyes, unites 
on the throat with that from the opposite side. At the rictus of the 
beak is an orange, and at the forehead, covering the stiff vibrissa, 
is a scarlet spot. Some of the plumes of the head, neck and shoul- 
ders, and the upper side of the tail have a sea-green tint. The 
extremity of the remiges is brown. The breast and belly arc of a 
paler green. The bill is very little curved at the extremity. 

Spec. 2. Bucco Fhilippensis Linn. 
Engku Javanis. 
Barbu des Philippines, PL Enl. 331. 

Spec. 3. Bucco australis mihi. 
B. viridi-olivaceus, fronte gula cauda subtus scapulisqne cya- 
neo-aeruginosis, jugulo pectoreque croceo interposita fascia 
transversa nigra. 

Truntung Javanis. 

Longitudo 5^ poll. 



Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

The cheeks have the same yellow colour as the breast ; the 
tail above and the quill-feathers are blackish-brown ; the latter 
have externally a dusky-yellowish border. 

Fam. XV. Psittacidje Leach. 
Gen. 48. Psittacus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Psittacus Osbeckii Lath. 

Psittacus Javanicus. Osb. It. 
Bettet Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Psittacus Galgulus Linn. 

Silindit s. Silinditun Javanis. 

Longitudo 4£- poll. 
The wings beneath are blue, excepting an exterior margin of 
black, the outer larger half of the remiges being black, the inte- 
rior blue ; hence the extremity of the wings is also black. It 
differs from Ps. vernalis Mus. Carls, in size, and in the propor- 
tion of the wings to the tail. 

Fam. XVI. Columbadh Leach. 

Gen. 49- Columba Linn. 
Spec. 1. Columba vernans Linn. 

Colombar Jojoo, Temminck Hist. Nat. des Pigeons, pi. 9& 11. 
(? . Kate, ? . Jowan Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Columba lit oralis Temm. 
Burung-dara lahut Javanis. 
Colombe marine, Temm. Pig. pi. 7. 
Columba alba, Lath. 

Le Pigeon blanc mangeur de muscade, Son. Voy. N.G. 1. 103. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 183 

Spec. 3. Columba melanocephala Gmel. 
Jowan-bondol Javanis. 
Colombe Turgris, Temm. Pig. pi. 30. 
The Black-capped Pigeon. Pennant Ind. Zool. t. J. 

Spec. 4. Columba tigrina Temm. 
Dero s. Derkuku Javanis. 
Colombe a nuque perlee, Temm. Pig. pi. 43. 

Spec. 5. Columba risoria Linn. 

Puter Javanis (cum pluribus varietatibus). 
Colombe blonde, Temm. Pig. pi. 44. 

Spec. 6. Columba Bantamensis Sparm. 

Berkutut Javanis. 

Columba bantamensis, Mus. Carls, fasc. iii. t.6l. 

Spec. 7- Columba bit or quota Temm. 
Puter-genni Javanis. 
Colombe a double collier, Temm. Pig. pi. 40. 

Spec. 8. Columba Javanica Temm. 

Delimu s. Glimukan Javanis 
Colombe Turvert, Temm. Pig. pi. 26. 

Mr. Temminck unites under this name the Columba Javanica, 
the C. c&rulocephala , and the C. albicapilla of Gmelin, thejavan 
and Blue-crowned Turtle, and Grey-headed Pigeon of Latham. 
My specimens and drawings contribute to show that this is done 
with propriety, and that they are merely varieties of one species. 

Spec. 9. Columba Amboinensis Linn. 
Derkuku-sopa Javanis. 


184 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

The Javanese specimens differ in several particulars from the 
description of the Amboina Turtle. The upper part of the neck 
is covered with a purple gloss, and the black transverse bands are 
scarcely discernible. 

Spec. 10. Columba cenea Linn. 

A variety of this Pigeon, called Geduwo by the natives, is found 
in several parts of Java. 

Fam. XVII. Tethaoxid.e Leach. 
Gen. 50. Perdix Lath. 

Spec. 1. Perdix Chinensis Linn. 

c? Perdix chinensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. 652. 

$ Perdix manillensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. 655. 
Caille des Philippines, PL Enl. 126. c? . 
Sonnerat Voy. N. Guin. t. 24. ? . 
Piker Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Perdix Javanica Lath. 
Dagu Javanis. 
Browns III. p. 40. t. 17- 

Spec. 3. Perdix orient a I is mihi. 
P. cinereo-fuscescens, lunulis nigris castaneo marginatis, pileo 
regione orbitali torque collari atris, reliquis capitis collique 

partibus albis. 

Longitudo 12 poll. 

Rostrum nigrum, pedes carnei, abdomen cinereum nigro lunula- 

Gen. 51. Ortygis Illiger. 
Hemipodius Temminck. 


and Description of Birch from the Inland of Java. 18.) 

Spec. 1. Ortygis luzoniensis. 

«J Drigul Javanis. (A word derived from the Sanskrit, the literal 
meaning of which is three-toed.) 

? Gomma Javanis. 

Perdix luzoniensis, Lath. Ind. Orn. 656. 
Caille de lisle de Lucon, Son. Voy. p. 54. t. 23. 

Fam. XVIII. Piiasianid;e Leach. 

Gen. 52. Gallus Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Gallus Javanicus mihi. 
G. caruncula compressa integra, subtus niger, plumis pilei colli 

pectorisque postice nigro aureo et cyaneo variis, tectricibus 

linearibus utrinque pendulis. 
Pitte-wonno Javanis. 

Phasianus varius, Shaw's Zool. Misc. 353. 
Caruncula supra rubra nigro marginata, subtus parte anteriore 

rubra, posteriore flava. 

Spec. 2. Gallus Bankiva Temm. 
Bengkiwo seu Bekikko Javanis. 

Fam. XIX. Pavonid.e Leach. 
Gen. 53. Pavo Linn. 

Spec. 1. Pavo Javanicus. 

P. crista elongata, plumis linearibus simplicibus. 

Merak Javanis. 

Differt praesertim Pav. cristata Linna^i, crista plumis lineari- 
bus composita, plumulis colli, pectoris dorsique viridi-asneo 
nitentibus, fascia terminali nigro-violaceo variegatis, plumis 
scapularibus tectricibusque alarum minoribus smaragdino et 
splendente-cyaneo variis. 

vol. xni. 2 b Ordo 

186 Dr. Hoesfield's Systematic Arrangement 


Fam. XX. CHAEADRiADiE Leach. 

Gen. 54. Vanellus Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Vanellus melanogaster Bechst. 

Chibugan Javanis. 

Tringa Squatarola, Limi. Syst. i. p. 252. 

Vanneau gris, PL Enl. 854. 

The abdomen and vent are purely white ; the forehead, breast, 
and lateral parts of the neck are whitish and variegated with 
paler spots of the same colour as the upper parts, which are 
brown variegated with dusky- white. The colouring of the Ja- 
van bird is less striking and vivid than in the European speci- 
mens described by M. Temminck (Man. 547, &c). 

The following species belongs to a natural section of this genus, 
in which the wings are armed with spines, and the base of the 
bill is provided with fleshy pendulous caruncles. 

Spec. 2. Vanellus tricolor mihi. 

V. griseo-fuscus, capite remigibus rectricibus abdomineque atris, 

pleuris alis subtus crisso caudaque basi apiceque albis. 
Terek Javanis. 

Longitudo 12£ poll. 

Rostrum utrinque caruncula membranacea pendula instructum. 

Pedes longissimi. Tibia ad medium plumosse. Digiti elon- 

gati, medio cum exteriore basi membrana connexo. Alee cauda 

longiores. Humeri spina forti armati. 
Differt Charadrio bilobo Gmel. PL Enl. 880. statura majore, 

absque spinosis. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java , 187 

Gen. 55. Charadrius Linn. 

Spec. 1. Charadrius Cantianus Lath. 
Trendasan Javanis. 
Charadrius albifrons, Meyer. 
Charadrius litoralis, Bcchstein. 

Spec. 2. Charadrius pluvialis Linn. 
Trule Javanis. 
Golden Plover, Br. ZooL ii. n. 208. 

Spec. 3. Charadrius Asiaticus Gmel 
Charadrius asiaticus, Pallas Reise ii. p. 715. 

Spec. 4. Charadrius pusillus mihi. 
C. cinereo-fuscus subtus albus, pectore fascia transversa partibu^ 
superioribus concolore, rectricibus intermediis cinereo-fuscis 
apicem versus fascia saturatiore. 

Gen. 56. Cursorius Lath. 

Spec. 1. Cursorius Isabellinus Meyer. 

Cursorius Europseus, Lath. Lid. Orn. 151. 
Charadrius gallicus, Gmel. Syst. i. p. 692. 

In the Javan specimens the colouring is less vivid than in the 
European specimens that I have seen. 

Gen. 57. Glareola Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Glareola orientalis Leach. 
Tre Javanis. 

This bird is described and figured in the present volume of the 
Society's Transactions by Dr. Leach, from a specimen in Paris, 
brought from Java by M. Leschenault. 

2 b 2 Fam. 

188 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Fam. 21. ARDEADiE Leach. 
Cultrirostres, DumSril, Cuvier. 

Gen. 58. Ciconia Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Ciconia Javanica mihi. 

C. corpore nigro nitore olivaceo saturatissimo, subtus albido, 
vertice calvo, collo nudiusculo villis pilisque nonnullis sparse 
Bangu Javanis. 

Erecta 5 pedes longa. Rostrum 11-pollicare. 

The Javan bird differs in various particulars from the Ardea 
Argala of Latham, to which it is allied. 

A broad band with a brownish lustre passes the wing trans- 

Spec. 2. Ciconia leucocephala. 

Sandang-lawe Javanis. 

Ardea leucocephala, Gmel. Syst. i. p. 642. 

Heron de la cote de Coromandel, PI. Enl. 906. 

Corpus supra alaque violaceo-chalybeo-nigra. Pileus ater. CWs- 
sum, cauda, collumque alba. Pectus et abdomen vinaceo-niten- 
tia. J?rons malceque nudiusculae. Plumce colli lanuginosa?. 

Gen. 59- Ardea Linn. 

Spec. 1. Ardea cinerea Lath. 
Changa-awu Javanis. 

Spec. 2. Ardea purpurea Linn. 
Chanm-ulu Javanis. 

Spec. 3. Ardea Egret t a Linn. 
Kuntul Javanis. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Jam. ]8f) 

In a young specimen the beak, excepting the base of the fairer 
mandible, is black. See Temminck's Manuel, p. 572, \v. on this 
species, and its plumage at different ages. 

Spec. 4. Ardea ajfinis mihi. 

A. alba, capite crista collo antice plumisque dorsalibus elon- 

gatis fulvo-castaneis, crista setosa, pluniis dorsalibus filifor* 

KuxTVL-chilik Javanis. 
Rostrum flavum, pedes nigrescentes. 

Spec. 5. Ardea Malaccemis Gmel, 

Blekko Javanis. 

Crabier de Malac, PL Enl. 91 1. 

Corpus a Iceque alba. Dorsum cinereo-fuscimi. Pileus collumqtie 

supra fusco sordido-albo castaneoque striati. Pectus casta- 

neum. Mandibula basin versus rlava, tnaxilla apice pedesque 


Spec. 6. Ardea speciosa mihi. 

A. cristata alba, dorso nigro, collo supra rlavescente subtus fulvo. 
Blekko-zV^??^ Javanis. 

Longitudo 18 poll. 
The crest is formed of four linear, elongate, pendulous plumes, 
two of which are longer than the others. The plumes surround- 
ing the neck are filiform, very long and pendulous. The beak is 
whitish at the base and black at the point. The legs are flesh 


Spec. 7. Ardea mjcticorax Linn. 
Guwo Javanis. 

Spec. 8. Ardea sinensis GmeL 

Bambangan Javanis. 

Spec. 9- Ardea JlavicolUs Lath. 

Tomtomman sive Tototan Javanis. 


190 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Crista occipitis corpusque fuliginosae. Rectrices et remiges ni- 
tore saturatissime cyaneo. Species an distincta A . flavicolli 
Lath. ? 
In the cabinet of the Linnean Society is a specimen from 

New Holland greatly resembling the Javan species. 

Spec. 10. Ardea lepida mihi. 

A. Isabellina-fuscescens dorso saturatiore, subtus dilutior, pileo 

crista remigibus rectricibusque atris, collo postice malisque 


Longitudo 15 poll. 

Plumes pectus tegentesfuscae, saturata3, flavescente marginatas. 

Spec. 11. Ardea nebulosa mihi. 

A. supra spadiceo-ferrugineo et sordido-flavo nebulosa, taeniis 

transversis, subtus dilute castanea collo pallidiore, longitudi- 

naliter strigis fuscis notata, pileo nigrescente, cauda remigi- 

busque badiis. 

Longitudo 14 poll. 

Strigae colli breviores, pectoris et abdominis longiores. 

Spec. 12. Ardea Javanica mihi. 
A. cristata caesia, pileo alis caudaque saturate olivaceis aeneo 
splendentibus^ remigibus apice nigris, plumis dorsalibus line- 
aribus lonoissimis eeneo et canescente variegatis. 

Upi-upian Javanis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 

The base of the lower mandible is white. A black spot extends 
from the beak to the anterior margin of the eye. The throat is 
purely white, and the anterior part of the neck and breast have 
a cast of dusky- white. The coverts of the wings are attenuated 
to a point, which has a narrow white border. The legs are 


and Description of Birds fro??? the Island of Java. 191 

Spec. 13. Ardea cinnamomea Gmel. 
Ayam-ayaman Javanis. 

Fam. XXII. Ti;i\i.ii>r Leach. 

Gen. 60. Numenius Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Numenius Phaopui Lath. 
Gajahan Javanis. 
Numenius minor, Brisson. 
Whimbrel, Lath. 

Gen. 61. Scolopax IUiger. 
Spec. 1. Scolopax saturata mihi. 

S. rostro subelongato apice tuberculato, supra ox uigro satnra- 

tissimo castaneoque variegata subtus pallidior. 

Tekken Javanis. 

Longitudo 12 poll. 

This is one of the rarest of Javan birds, found once only near 
a mountain-lake at an elevation of 7000 feet above the ocean. 

At the base of the lower mandible is a small whitish spot : the 

anterior part of the neck is transversely banded with black and 

chesnut ; the breast and abdomen are sooty-black with irregular 

dusky bands. 

Spec. 2. Scolopax Gallinago Linn. 

Burchet Javanis. 

Gen. 62. Totanus Bechstein. 

Spec. 1. Totanus affinis mihi. 

T. supra perfuscus plumis pallidiore marginatis, remigibus pri- 

moribus perfuscis, secundariis intensiore albenteque fasciatis, 

subtus caudaque albis, hac fusco fasciata. 

Trinil Javanis. 

Lonsjitudo 10 poll. 


1Q2 Dr. Horsfield's Systematic Arrangement 

This bird is nearly allied to T. Glareola ; it differs principally 
in the marks of the secondary quill-feathers, and in the lower 
continuation of the covering of the tibiae. 

Spec. 2. Tot anus hypoleucos Temm. 
Teinil batu Javanis. 
Tringa hypoleucos, Linn. Syst. i. p. 250. 
Guinetta, Brisson. 

Spec. 3. Totanus acuminatus mihi. 
T. supra fuscus, plumis dorsalibus ferrugineo tectricibus griseo 

marginatis, subtus albidus, pectore sublutescente, rectricibus 

Tkinil gutig Javanis. 

In this, as in several other instances, the Javanese have a com- 
mon term applying to several birds, as Tit i nil ; while those 
which they have observed to be nearest allied to them are di- 
stinguished by a particular epithet, as Tkinil batu, Trinil 
gung, &c. 

Spec. 4. Totanus tenuirostris mihi. 

T. supra pallide fuscus cinereo varius, remigibus fuscis, subtus 

albens, gula pectoreque fuscescente maculatis, rostro tenui. 
Keeyo Javanis. 

The beak is more slender than in the European species of this 

Spec. 5. Totanus Damacensis mihi. 

T. supra pallide cinereo-fuscus, subtus albus, remigibus fuscis 
rachidibus primorum albis aliarum fuscescentibus. 

Longitudo Q\ poll. 

Spec. 6. Totanus Glottis Bechstein. 
Benonchang Javanis. 
Limosa grisea, Brisson. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 193 

Spec. 7- Totanus Javanicus rriihi. 
T. rostro biasi albente, supra griseo-fuscus scapulis remigibus- 

que saturatioribus, subtus albus, tectricibus inferioribus ultra 

medium albis oblique truncatis, pedibus subabbreviatis, Cauda 

supra omnino concolore. 

Bedaran seu Choweyan .Javanis. 

Longitudo 10 poll. 
Gen. 63. Rv n c n r.v Cuvu h 

Spec. 1. Rynchaa orieritalis mihi. 

R. supra cinereo-fusca, capite lineis tribus dorso duabus luteo- 
badiis, pectore cinereo-fuseo, abdominealbo fascia semilunari 
diviso, cauda supra remigumque apicibus griseis. 

Pengung Javanis. 

Scolopax Maderaspatana, Gmel. Syst. i. p. 6(>7. 

Partridge-Snipe, Rail Syn. p. 193. 1. 1. Jig. 2. 

Becassine de Madagascar, PL Enl. 922. 

Gen. 64. Limosa Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Limosa mehinura Leisler. 

Scolopax Limosa, Linn. Syst. i. p. 245. 
Biru-lahut Javanis. 

The entire neck intensely cinereous. Half the size of the large 
European specimen. I have followed M. Temminck in the refe- 
rence to the specific denomination, see Manuel &c, p. 664. 

Gen. 65. Tringa Linn. 

Spec. 1. Tringa subarquata Tenini. 

Scolopax subarquata, Gmel. Syst. i. p. 658. 
Mayatan Javanis. 


2 c 


104 Dr. Ho rs field's Systematic Arrangement 

Gen. 66. Himantopus Brisson. 

Spec. 1. Himantopus melanopterus Meyer., 
Gagang-bayem Javanis. 

Charadrius Himantopus, Linn. Syst. i. p. 255. 
Echasse, PL Enl. 878. 

The reference to Meyer is made agreeably to M. Temminck's 
Manuel, p. 529. The Javanese specimens differ from those of 
Europe that I have seen, in having the tint of cinereous on the 
tail much paler. 

In a second specimen, which has the appearance of a young 
bird in change, the upper part of the head is blackish, and the 
hinder part of the neck dusky. 

Earn. XXIII. Rallidje Leach. 

Gen. 67- Pa era Linn. 

Spec. 1. Parra superciliosa mihi. 
P. atro-viridis nitens, lineis superciliaribus albis, dorso absque 
olivaceo-nitentibus, remigibus nigris, uropygio caudaque fer- 
rugineis nitore violaceo. 
Pichisan Javanis. 

Longitudo 17 poll. 
Caruncula superne rotundata. Calcaria alarum obtusa. 

Gen. 68. Porphyrio Brisson. 
Spec. 1. Porphyrio Indicus mihi. 
P. niger, splendore saturate olivaceo, capite ventreque fuliginosis, 
jugulo pectore humerisque thalassinis, lateribus colli abdomi- 
neque purpureis, crisso albo, clypeo frontali latissimo post 
oculos producto, culmine recte conjuncto, digito medio ungui- 
culato tarsi longitudinis. 
Pellung Javanis. 

Longitudo 19 poll. 



and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. If).') 

Ch/peus frontalis pedesque rufi. Caicaria alarum brevia acutis- 
sima recondita. 

Gen. 69- Gallinula Brisson. 
Sect. 1. Clypeo frontali non dilatato. 

Spec. 1. Gallinula gularis mihi. 

G. fusca, subtus pallide gilva fusco transversim undulata, tectri- 

cibus et plumis dorsalibus sordido gilyo marginatis, rectricibua 

canescente-fuscis, gula alba. 

Bureng Javanis. 

Longitudo 17 poll. 

Spec. 2. Gallinula lugubris mihi. 

G. plumbeo-nigrescens, tectricibus et plumis dorsalibus margi- 

nibus pallidioribus, remigibus fuscescentibus, margine alarum 

anteriore albo. 

Bontod Javanis. 

Longitudo 20 poll. 

Dorsum plumbeo nigricans, nitore fuscescente. Blumce crissi 
albo transverse fasciata^. Fasciola? tenuissimne fuscescentes ab- 
dominis. Axilke pallidiores albo fasciatae. Remiges secun- 
dariae pallidiore fusco marginatae. 

Sect. 2. Clypeo frontali dilatato. 
Spec. 3. Gallinula orient alls mihi. 

G. clypeo frontali ovato oculos fere attingente. 
Pro s. Opel-opellan Javanis. 

Longitudo 13 poll. 
This species differs from the Gallinula Chloropus in being con- 
siderably smaller, and in having a much wider and differently 

shaped frontal clvpeus. 

2 c 2 Spec. 

1<X> fir. Hoksfield's Systematic Arrangement 

Spec. 4. GalUnula Javanica mihi. 

G. supra nigra, subtus alba, uropygio rlavescente ferrugineo. 

Sri-bombo Javanis. 

Longitudo 14 ad 15 poll. 

This species appears to hold an intermediate situation between 
the first and second sections which are established by M. Tem- 
minck : the frontal clypeus is short, circumscribed, marginated, 
and slightly carinated in the middle. It greatly resembles the Red- 
tailed Water-Hen, Gallinula Phcenicuriis, Ind. Zool. t. 9 ; Rallus 
Phcenicurus, Gmel. PI. Enl. 896 : but it is more than a third larger; 
it has a black tail, and the clypeus has a different form. 

The forehead and the sides of the head are white, the axillae 
and the lateral parts of the abdomen are black. 

Gen. 70. Rallus Lw. 

Spec. 1. Rallus gularis mihi. 
R. nigro-fuscus, albo undulatus, fronte vertice occipite et cer- 
vice supra ferrugineis, gula alba, jugulo pectoreque intense 
plumbeis, abdomine albo fasciato. 

Tikussan Javanis. 

Longitudo 12 poll. 

Spec. 2. Rallus fuscus Linn. 
Le Rale brun des Philippines, PL Enl. 773. 

The brown of the upper parts inclines to rufous, and the ferru- 
gineous of the breast and forehead to chesnut. The bill is short 
and somewhat compressed. 

Spec. 3. Rallus quadristrigatus mihi. 
R. supra fuscus gilvo mixtus, subtus pallidior gula albida, capite 
supra nigricante, utrinque strigis duabus albis. 

Longitudo 8^ poll. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. 197 

Gen. 71. FV i . ic v Linn. 


Spec. 1. Fulica <tfra Linn. 

Common Coot, Br. Zool. ii. n. 220. /. 77- 

This bird does not appear to differ in any degree from the 
European species. 


Fam. XXIV. Peiecanxada Leach. 
Pinnipedes, Dumeril. 
Tot r P A L M e s , Cuvier . 

Gen. 72. Pelecanus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Pelecanus Pftilippenm Gmel. 
Walang-kadda Javanis. 

Vertex nuchaque cristati. Dorsum glaucum. Ala, fuse®. Rachi- 
des pennarum nigrae. 

Spec. 2. Pelecanus Javanicus. 

P. albus, crista obsoleta, remigibus primoribus nigris, secunda- 
riis et plumis dorsalibus nigro marginatis, rachidibus penna- 
rum albis, rostro latiore. 

Bakkul Javanis. 

Longitudo 4 ped. 

Gen. 73. Carbo Meyer. 

Spec. 1. Carbo Javanicus mihi. 

C corpore nigro, capite laevi. 

Pechuck Javanis. 

Longitudo corporis caudseque 16 poll. 


198 Dr. Ho rsfi eld's Systematic Arrangement 

Rostrum nigricans, mandibula inferior pallida. Corpus a/<^que 

nigra, candore cinereo-argenteo, plumis marginibus atris. 

Gula alba. Collum subtus nigro, fusco, fuliginosoque varium. 

Crura concolora atra. Abdomen fasciolis tenuissimis cinereis 

Statura et coloribus difFert Carbone Cormorano Meyeri. 

Gen. 74. Plotus Linn. 

Spec. 1. Plotus mehmogaster Gmel. 
Black-bellied Anhinga, Ind. Zool. p. 13. t. 12. 

Fam. XXV. Colymbid^, Leach. 
Gen. 75. Podiceps Latham. 

Spec. 1. Podiceps minor Latham. 
Colymbus minor, var. /3. Gmel. Syst. i. p. 591. 
Le Castagneux des Philippines, PL Enl. 945. 
Titihan Javanis. 

Fam. XXVI. Laridte Leach. 
Gen. 76. Sterna Linn. 

Spec. 1. Sterna minuta Linn. 
To yang Javanis. 

A young bird : remiges less intensely coloured ; frontal white 
spot less denned. 

Spec. 2. Sterna Javanica mihi. 
S. glauca, gula malis cervice postice alis caudaque infra albis, 
capite supra nigro, remigibus griseo fuscescentibus interne 
plaga albida notatis, rostro pedibusque flavis. 

Longitudo 11 poll. 


and Description of Birds from the Island of Java. I < M I 

Spec. 3. Sterna media milii. 

S.fronte cervice postice etpartibus inferioribus albis pileo albo 
nigroque vario, nucha atva, alis dorso urop\ oioqut' ulaucis, 
remigibus supra fuscis cano pulverulentis, subtus dimidio ex- 
teriore intense olaucis interiore albis. 
Toy ax G-kacher Javanis. 

Longitudo 15 poll. 
The feet are black, the bill is greatly lengthened, and the in- 
terior border of the sixth, seventh and eighth remiges, which Is 
white, is very regularly defined. 

Spec. 4. Sterna grisea mihi. 

S. supra grisea, corpore subtus annulo collari fronteque albis. 

remige exteriore nigricante, rostro nigro. 

Puter-lahut Javanis. 

Longitudo 9 poll. 

Spec. 5. Sterna affinis mihi. 

S. alba, dorso tectricibusque plumbeo-griseis, remigibus cam's 
interne subfuscescentibus. 

Allied to Sterna Anglica, Montagu. 

Fam. XXVII. Anatid^e Leach. 

Gen. 77- Anas Linn. 

Spec. 1. Anas Javanica mihi. 
A. alis supra medium caudaque juxta uropygium castaneis, 
dorso cum partibus inferioribus alarum nigro fuscescentibus, 
collo sordido fulvo canescente, gula pallidiore, abdomine ca>- 

Melivis Javanis. 

Longitudo 17 poll. 


200 Dr. Ho rs field's Description of Birds from Java. 

Pileus et cauda apice nigrescentes : crissum et hypochondria al- 

bentia : plumce dor sales fulvo marginatae. 
Var. /S. A. plumis inter scapulii, pectoris, ventrisque fasciis ni- 

gris variegatis, pileo nigro, plumis hypochondriarum albis 

utrinque nigro fasciatis, crisso albo. 
Melivis-kembang Javanis. 

Praecedente 2 pollices fere longior. 

XV. An 

( 201 ) 

XV. An Account of a new G/nus of Flints, named R v mi.f.sia. 
By Robert Brown, Esq.] F.R.S. Lihr. L.S. 

Bead June SO, L880. 

It is now nearly eighteen months since some account of a Flower 

of extraordinary size was received by m\ lamented friend and 
patron the late revered President of the Royal Society, from Sir 
Stamford Rallies, Governor of the East fadia Company's esta- 
blishments in Sumatra. 

This gigantic Flower, which forms the subject of the present 
communication, was discovered in ISIS on Sir Stamford's first 
journey from Bencoolen into the interior. In that journey he was 
accompanied by a naturalist of great zeal and acquirements, the 
late Dr. Joseph Arnold, a member of this Society, from whose 
researches, aided by the friendship and influence of the Governor, 
in an island so favourably situated and so imperfectly explored 
as Sumatra, the greatest expectations had been formed. But 
these expectations were never to be realized : for the same letter 
which gave the account of the gigantic Flower, brought also the 
intelligence of Dr. Arnold's death. 

As in this letter many important particulars are stated respect- 
ing the plant which I am about to describe, and a just tribute is 
paid to the merits of the naturalist by whom it was discovered, I 
shall introduce my account by the following extract. 

" Bencoolen, 13th August, 18 IS. 

" You will lament to hear that we have lost Dr. Arnold : he 
fell a sacrifice to his exertions on my first tour into the interior, 
and died of fever about a fortnight ago. 

vol. xiii. 2d "It 

202 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

" It is impossible I can do justice to his memory by any feeble 
encomiums I may pass on his character ; he was in every thing 
what he should have been, devoted to science and the acquisition 
of knowledge, and aiming only at usefulness. 

"I had hoped, instead of the melancholy event I have now 
to communicate, that we should have been able to send you an 
account of our many interesting discoveries from the hand of 
Dr. Arnold. At the period of his death he had not done much ; 
all was arrangement for extensive acquirement in every branch 
of natural history. I shall go on with the collections as well as 
I can, and hereafter communicate with you respecting them, and 
in the mean time content myself with giving you the best ac- 
count I can of the largest and most magnificent Flower which, as 
far as we know, has yet been described. Fortunately I have 
found part of a letter from poor Arnold to some unknown friend, 
written while he was on board ship, and a short time before his 
death, from which the following is an extract. 

" After giving an account of our journey to Passummah, he 
thus proceeds : 

" ' But here (at Pulo Lebbar on the Manna River, two days 
journej^ inland of Manna) I rejoice to tell you I happened to 
meet with what I consider as the greatest prodigy of the vege- 
table world. I had ventured some way from the party, when one 
of the Malay servants came running to me with wonder in his 
eyes, and said, " Come with me, Sir, come ! a flower, very large, 
beautiful, wonderful ! " I immediately went with the man about 
a hundred yards in the jungle, and he pointed to a flower growing 
close to the ground under the bushes, which was truly astonish- 
ing. My first impulse was to cut it up and carry it to the hut. 
I therefore seized the Malay's parang (a sort of instrument like 
a woodman's chopping-hook), and finding that it sprang from a 
small root which ran horizontally (about as large as two fingers, 


named Raffle si a . 203 

or a little more), I soon detached it and removed it to our hut. 
To tell you the truth, had I been alone, and had there been no 
witnesses, I should I think have been fearful of mentioning the 
dimensions of this rlower, so much does it exceed every flower I 
have ever seen or heard of; but I had Sir Stamford and Lady 
Raffles with me, and a Mr. Palsgrave, a respectable man resi- 
dent at Manna, who, though equally astonished with myself, yet 
are able to testify as to the truth. 

" ' The whole rlower was of a very thick substance, the petal* 
and nectary being in but few places less than a quarter of an 
inch thick, and in some places three-quarters of an inch ; the 
substance of it was very succulent. When I first saw it a swarm 
of flies were hovering over the mouth of the nectary, and appa- 
rently laying their eggs in the substance of it. It had preciseh 
the smell of tainted beef. The calyx consisted of several roundish . 
dark-brown, concave leaves, which seemed to be indefinite in 
number, and were unequal in size. There were five petals at- 
tached to the nectary, which were thick, and covered with pro- 
tuberances of a yellowish-white, varying in size, the interstices 
being of a brick-red colour. The nectarium was cyathiform. 
becoming narrower towards the top. The centre of the necta- 
rium gave rise to a large pistil, which I can hardly describe, at the 
top of which were about twenty processes, somewhat curved and 
sharp at the end, resembling a cow's horns ; there were as many 
smaller very short processes. A little more than half-way down, 
a brown cord about the size of common whip-cord, but quite 
smooth, surrounded what perhaps is the germen, and a little 
below it was another cord somewhat moniliform. 

" * Now for the dimensions, which are the most astonishing 
part of the flower. It measured a full yard across : the petals. 
which were subrotund, being twelve inches from the base to the 
apex, and it being about a foot from the insertion of the one petal 

2d2 to 

204 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

to the opposite one ; Sir Stamford, Lady Raffles and myself 
taking immediate measures to be accurate in this respect, by 
pinning four large sheets of paper together, and cutting them to 
the precise size of the flower. The nectarium in the opinion of 
all of us would hold twelve pints, and the weight of this prodigy 
we calculated to be fifteen pounds. 

" * I have said nothing about the stamina ; in fact, I am not 
certain of the part I ought to call stamina. If the moniliform 
cord surrounding the base of the pistil were sessile anthers, it 
must be a polyandrous plant ; but I am uncertain what the large 
germen contained ; perhaps there might be concealed anthers 
within it. 

" * ft was not examined on the spot, as it was intended to pre- 
serve it in spirits and examine it at more leisure ; but from the 
neglect of the persons to whom it was intrusted, the petals were 
destroyed by insects, the only part that retained its form being 
the pistil, which was put in spirits along with two large buds of 
the same flower, which I found attached to the same root : each 
of these is about as large as two fists. 

" ' There were no leaves or branches to this plant ; so that it 
is probable that the stems bearing leaves issue forth at a different 
period of the year. The soil where this plant grew was very rich, 
and covered with the excrement of elephants. 

" ■ A guide from the interior of the country said, that such 
flowers were rare, but that he had seen several, and that the 
natives called them Krfibut. 

" ' I have now nearly finished a coloured drawing of it on as 
large drawing-paper as I could procure, but it is still consider- 
ably under the natural size ; and I propose also to make another 
drawing of the pistil removed from the nectarium. 

P« "' I have now, I believe, given you as detailed an account of 
this prodigious plant as the subject admits of; indeed it is all I 



mcd RAFFLB8IA. 'JO. 

know of it. I would draw your attention, however, to tin- very 
great porosity of the root, to which the buds are attached. 

" ' I have seen nothing resembling this plant in any of mv 
books; but yesterday, in looking over Dr. Horsfield's immense 
collections of the plants of Java, 1 find something which perhaps 
may approach to it; at any rate the buds of the flower he has 
represented grow from the root precisely in the same manner: 
his drawing, however, has a branch of leaves, and I do not ob- 
serve any satisfactory dissections, lie considers it as a new genus ; 
but the difference of the two plants appears from this, that his 
full-blown flower is about three inches across, whereas mine i- 
three feet.' 

Sir Stamford proceeds : 

" Dr. Arnold did not live to return to Bencoolen, nor to fulfil 
the intentions expressed in the above extract ; but we have finished 
the drawing of the whole flower, and it is now forwarded under 
charge of Dr. Ilorsfield, to whom I have also intrusted the pistil 
and buds. 

" I shall make exertions for procuring another specimen, w ilh 
which I hope we shall be more fortunate." 

(Signed) "T. S. R.u fi.ks." 

To the "Right Honourable 
Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. G.C.B., Sec. Sec. 

The drawing of the expanded iiower, and the specimens men- 
tioned in the preceding extract, were brought to England by 
Dr. Ilorsfield ; and, having been put into my hands, J proceeded 
without delay to examine the smaller tiower-bud. In this exa- 
mination the anthem, although not at first obvious, were soon 
discovered, but no part was found which could be considered 
either as a perfect pistillum, or as indicating the probable nature 
or even the exact place of the ovarium. The remains of the ex- 

206 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

panded flower exhibited the same structure ; and the larger bud, 
which was examined by Mr. Bauer, whose beautiful drawings of 
it form the most valuable part of the present communication, 
proved also to be male. 

These materials, it must be admitted, are insufficient even for 
the satisfactory establishment of the proposed new genus, and in 
my opinion do not enable us absolutely to determine its place in 
the natural system. 

The curiosity of botanists, however, has been so much excited 
by the discovery of a flower of such extraordinary dimensions, 
the male flower is in many respects so singular, and its structure 
is so admirably illustrated by Mr. Bauer's drawings, that, ac- 
companied by them, even the present incomplete account will 
probably be thought worthy of a place in the Society's Transac- 

Its publication is the less objectionable, as it may still be a 
considerable time before the plant is met with in all its states ; 
and however unsatisfactory our present materials may be, either 
for determining its affinities, or the equally important question, 
whether it be parasitic on the root to which it is attached, there 
can be no doubt that it forms a genus abundantly distinct from 
any that has hitherto been described. 

It is proposed, in honour of Sir Stamford Raffles, to call this 
genus Raffles i a, the name I am persuaded that Dr. Arnold 
himself would have chosen had he lived to publish an account of 
it ; and it may in the mean time be distinguished by the following 


n amed R a f f i. e s i a . CO? 


Perianthium monophyllum, eoloratum ; tubo ventricoso : corona 
faucis annulari, indivisa ; Umbo quinquepartito, eeqttali. 

Mas. Columna (inclusa) : limbo aphis redinato, Bubtus simplici 
serie polyandro : disco processibus (concentricis) tectO. 

Antherce sessilcs, subglobosa\ cellulose, porn apici* deliiscentev 


Tabb. XV.— XXII. 


B Radice lignea horizontali tereti, laevi, crassitie fere et struc- 
tura interiore omnino radicis \"\\\> \ Inifene {tab. 'I'l. f. 8.) or- 
tum ducit Flos unicus, ante expansionem, dum bracteis imbri- 
catis adhuc inclusus, brassies minori figura et magnrtodine 
similis (tab. 16.) ; cum radice parum dilatata connexus Bast. 
(tab. 17.) modice convexa, abbreviata, insignita lineolis nunn - 
rosis, elevatis, nigricantibus, plerisque reticulatim conrluenti- 
bus, nonnullis brevioribus distinctis, omnibus sulco longitudi- 
nali tenui per axin exaratis, apothecia Opegraplue amiulanti- 
bus, superioribus desinentibus in annulum modice elevatum 
exsulcum, ejusdem fere substantia;, definientem basin reticu- 

Bracteaz (tab. 16.) supra annulum baseos reticulata 1 , numenisi. 
dense imbricatae, subrotundaj, coriacea% glaberrimae, inte- 
gerrimae, venis vix vel parum emersis, ramosis, distinctis, nee 
anastomosantibus, infra apicem evanescentibus, lata basi in- 
serts ibique crassae, versus apicem sensim tenuiores, subfolia- 
ceae ; intima^ e latiore basi, )> usque ad j- circuli aequante. 

Perianthium (tab. 15.) intra bracteas sessile, monophyllum, colo- 
ratum, ante expansionem depresso-sphaeroideum (tab. 18 et 19.). 


208 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

Tubus ventricosus, abbreviato-urceolatus, extus laevis, intus ra- 
mentis filiformibus simplicibus passimque parum divisis dense 
tectus. Faux: corona annulari integerrima, intus ornata are- 
olis numerosis, convexiusculis, subrotundis transversim paulo 
latioribus, superioribus omnino laevibus, reliquis margine in- 
feriore aucto ramentis filiformibus brevibus. Limbus quinque- 
partitus (diametro tripedali), laciniis aequalibus, (patentibus 
rerlexisve) rotundatis, integerrimis, extus laevibus, prreter ve- 
na s parum elevatas, numerosas, dichotomas, passim anastomo- 
santes, ad apicem usque attingentes ; intus verrucis numerosis, 
subrotundis, sparsis, ina?qualibus, interstitiis laevibus : cestiva- 
tione arete imbricatis, exterioribus interiores utroque margine 
equitantibus (tab. 19-)- 
Cohunna centralis (tab. 20. et 21. fg. 1.) staminifera, cavitatem 
fcttbi perianthii fere omnino replens, inclusa, solida, carnosa, 
intus cum substantia ipsius baseos reticulata? extus cum tubi 
superficie ramentacea continua ; prope basin aucta annulis 
duobus modiee elevatis, rotundatis, ante expansionem ap- 
proximatis (tab. 21. f. 1, 2.), in expanso tiore remotioribus 
(tab. 22./. 2.), inferiore paulo crassiore, striis leviter depressis 
numerosis rugoso, superiore exsulco, punctis minutis elevatis 
insequali : supra annulum superiorem he vis et sensim angus- 
tata in collum brevissimum, insculptum excavationibus (tab. 21. 
f. 2.) numero antherarum iisque oppositis, basi angustatis, lon- 
oitudinaliter elevato-striatis, interstitiis subcarinatis, carinis 
marginibusque ciliatis : apex clilatatus, cujus discus planius- 
culus, tectus process ibus numerosis carnosis leviter incurvis 
subcorniformibus, simplicibus apiceve parum divisis, in serie- 
bus pluribus concentricis, interioribus plus minus irregulariter. 
dispositis, nonnullis minoribus sajpe minimis sparsim inter- 
mixtis, majorum singulis fasciculo vasculari centrali tenui in- 
structis, omnibus lrcvibus, praeter apices lobulorum qui srepe 


named Rafflbsza. 209 

hispiduli vel minute pcnicillati : Umbus solutus rcclinatus, e 
basi recurvata, subtus punctis parvis elevatis qaan^oque pilife- 
ris insequali, adscendens, margine en vto-connhenti, Indiviao 
tenuiter crenulato, substantia et superficie processions disci 
similis, intus fasciculis vascularibus simplici aerie dispositia el 
ad basin antherse singula? oexura ootabili instructs (tab. 21. 
/. 2, 3, 7, 8. et t. 22> /. ().). 

Anther* (tab. 21. /. 4—8. et t. 22. f. 4—6.) simplici Bene dis- 
positse, aequidistantes, 35 circiter, \i\ 40, sessile*, excavatio- 
nibus dimidiae recurvata' limbi, cum iis colli continuis, lata 
basi inserts, semiimmersa\ apicibus deorsum spectantibus, in 
respondentibus ca\ itatibus colli receptis, ovato-globosa\ ])isi 
magnitudine, apice depressione unica central] demum aperi- 
ente umbilicata\ celluloses, cellulis indefinite Dumerosis, sub- 
concentricis, longitudinalibus, exterioribus versus apicem eon- 
niventibus, passim contiuentibus et quandoque transversim in- 
terrupts, plenis Polline (tab. 21. f. 9.) minuto, splnerico, sim- 
plici, larvi. 

Pistilli rudiment a nulla certa ; processus enim corniculati api- 
cis columnar staminifera?, in circulis pluribus concentricis dis- 
positi atque singuli fasciculo vasculari centrali donati, dubia* 
natural sunt. 

To the foregoing description of Rafflesia it is necessary to add 
some observations explanatory of structure ; and I shall also offer 
a few conjectures on certain points of the economy of the plant, 
and on its affinities. 

The great apparent simplicity in the internal structure of even- 
part, especially in a flower of such enormous size, is in the first 
place deserving of notice. 

'This observation particularly applies to the Column, which is 
found to consist of a uniform cellular texture, with a very small 

vol. xiii. 2 e proportion 

210 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants; 

proportion of vessels. The cells or utriculi are nearly sphserical, 
slightly angular from mutual pressure, and, in the specimens 
examined at least, easily separable from each other without la- 
ceration. I have not been able to detect perforations on any 
part of their surface ; but extremely minute granules, originally 
contained in great abundance in the cells, and frequently found 
adhering to their parietes, may readily be mistaken for pores. 

The structure of vessels either in the column, perianthium or 
bractesc, in all of which they are apparently similar, has not been 
satisfactorily ascertained. They may be supposed to approach 
most nearly to the ligneous, though certainly unaccompanied by 
spiral vessels, which do not appear to exist in any part of the 

The same internal structure is continued below the origin of 
the bractese, down to the line at which the vessels of the root ap- 
pear to terminate, and where an evident change takes place 
(plate 20. and 22. /. 1.). 

The Perianthium and Bractece in their cellular texture very 
nearly agree with the column, except that in their more foliaceous 
parts the cells are considerably elongated. 

I have not found in any part of their surface, or in that of the 
column, those areolae universally considered as cuticular pores, 
and which, though of very general occurrence, do not perhaps 
exist in the imperfectly developed leaves of plants parasitic on 

In the external composition of the column, the part most de- 
serving of attention is the Anthera ; for in apparent origin, as well 
as in form and structure, it presents the most singular modifica- 
tion of stamen that has yet been observed. 

It appears to me of importance to inquire into the real relation 
which so remarkable a structure bears to the more ordinary states 
of Anthera. 

A satis- 

named W \ PILES] \. 211 

A satisfactory determination of this point, while n would cer- 
tainly assist in explaining the nature of the other parts of the < « 
lumn, might also in some degree lead to correct notions of the 
affinities of the genus ; and the question is perhaps sufficient!; 
interesting, even independent of these results. 

In this inquiry, it is necessary in the first place to take a ge- 
neral view of the principal forms of Anthem- in phanogamous 
plants ; all of which, however different they may appear, I con- 
sider as modifications of one common structure. 

In this assumed regular structure or type of Anthcra, 1 sup- 
pose it to consist of two parallel folliculi or tkeca . fixed by their 
whole length to the margins of a compressed filament : each thee a 
being originally filled with a pulpy substance, on the surface or 
in the cells of which the pollen is produced : and having ils ca- 
vity divided longitudinally into two equal cells, the subdivision 
being indicated externally by a depression or furrow, which is 
also the line of dehiscence*. The 

* A certain degree of resemblance between this supposed regular state of Anthera, 
and that which in a former essay (on Composite, Linn. Soc. Transact, xii. p. 89.) I 
have considered as the type of Pistillum in phasnogamous plant-, will probably be ad- 
mitted ,• and both structures have, as it appears to me, an evident relation to the Lea/', 
from whose modifications all the parts of the flower seem to be formed. 

This hypothesis of the formation of the Flower may be considered as having origi- 
nated with Linnaeus in his Prolepsis Plantarum, though he has not very clearly stated 
it, and has also connected it with other speculations, which have since been generally 
abandoned. It is, however, more distinctly proposed by Professor Link (in Philos. Bot. 
Prodr. p. 141), and very recently has been again brought forward, with some modifica- 
tions, by AC* Aubert du Petit Thouars. 

In adopting the hypothesis as stated by Professor Link, I shall, without entering 
at present into its explanation or defence, offer two observations in illustration of it, 
founded on considerations that have not been before adverted to. 

My first observation is, that the principal point in which the anthera? and anuria 
agree, consists in their essential parts, namely, the pollen and ovula, being produced 
on the margins of the modified leaf. 

2 E <2 In 

212 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

The structure now described actually exists in many families 
of plants ; and the principal deviations from it may be stated to 
depend either on a reduced or increased development of the 
parts enumerated, on differences in the manner of bursting, or 
on the confluence of two or more antherse. 

Reduced development may consist merely in the approxima- 
tion of the thecae, consequent on the narrowing or entire absence 
of the connecting portion of the filament, which is one of the 
most common states of anthera ; in their partial confluence, 
generally at the upper extremity ; their parallelism either con- 

In the Anthera, which are seldom compound, and whose thecse are usually distinct, 
the marginal production of pollen is generally obvious. 

In the Ovaria, however, where, with very few exceptions, the same arrangement of 
ovula really exists, it is never apparent, but is always more or less concealed either by 
the approximation and union of the opposite margins of the simple pistillum, and of 
the compound when multilocular; or in the unilocular pistillum with several parietal 
placentae by the union of the corresponding margins of its component parts. 

The few cases of apparent exception, where the ovula are inserted over the whole or 
greater part of the internal surface of the ovarium, occur either in the compound- pistil- 
lum, as in Nympfuca and Nuphar ; or in the simple pistillum, as in Biitomea of Richard ; 
and in Lardizabalea, an order of plants sufficiently distinct in this remarkable character 
alone, and differing also in the structure of embryo and in habit, from Menispermea, to 
which the genera composing \t(Lardizaba!a and Stauntonia)hzve hitherto been referred. 

The marginal production of ovula, though always concealed in the ordinary or com- 
plete state of the Ovarium, not unfrequently becomes apparent where its formation is 
in some degree imperfect, and is most evident in those deviations from regular structure, 
where stamina are changed, more or less completely, into pistilla. Thus, in the case of 
the nearly distinct or simple pistillum, it is shown by this kind of monstrosity in Sernper- 
vivum iectorum ; in the compound multilocular pistillum, by that of Tropccolum maius ; 
and in the compound pistillum with parietal placentas, by similar changes in Cheiranlhus 
Cheiri, Cochlearia armoracia, Papaver nudicaule and Salix olei folia. 

In all the cases now quoted, and in several others with which I am acquainted, it is 
ascertained that a single stamen is converted into a simple pistillum, or into one of the 
constituent parts of the compound organ : a fact which in my opinion establishes the 
proposed type of Ovarium. 

I have 


named RaFPLESIA, 213 

tinuing, which is also not imfYeqnent ; or accompanied by \a- 
rious degrees of divergence, as in many genera of Labiate; in 
their complete confluence while they remain parallel, as in Epa*- 
cridece, Polygalece, and in some genera of Acanthacea : and Lastly, 
in the imperfect production or entire suppression of one of the 
thecae, as in JVe&tringia, Anisomele* and Marantea. 

Increased development may in like manner be confined to 
the dilatation, elongation, or division of the connecting portion 
of the filament, of which examples occur in many Sdtaminea . 
Orckidea and Acanthacea ; it may consist in the elongation of 

I have entered thus slightly at present into the proof of this type, derived from these 
deviations from regular structure, partly on account of an observation which 1 find in 
the second edition of the excellent Thtorie Elementaire de la Bot unique of Professor 
De Candolle, to whom, in 1 8 16, I had shown drawings of most of the instances of mon- 
strosity now mentioned. To these drawings, and to my deductions from them with regard 
to the structure of pistillum, I suppose the ingenious author alludes in the passage in 
question. His views, however, on this subject differ considerably trom mine, which be 
does not seem to have been aware were already published (Linn. Soc. Trans. I. c). 

My second observation relates to the more important differences between the antherae 
and ovaria, independent of their essential parts. 

In the Anthera the vascularity, with relation to that of the Leaf, may be said to be di- 
minished without being otherwise sensibly modified ; the pollen is formed iu a cellular 
substance apparently destitute of vessels ; and is always produced internally, or under 
the proper membrane of the secreting organ. 

In the Ovarium, on the other hand, the vascularity, compared with that of the Leaf, 
is in general rather modified than diminished ; the principal vessels occupying the 
margins or lines of production, and giving oft' branches towards the axis, whose vascu- 
larity is frequently reduced. Theovula constantly arise from vascular cords, and, with 
reference to the supposed original state of the ovarium, are uniformly produced exter- 
nally ; though by the union of its parts, whether in the simple or compound state, they 
become always inclosed, and, before fecundation at least, are completely protected from 
the direct action of light and of the atmosphere. 

In Conifera and Cycadea, however, according to the view I am disposed to take of 
them (Tuchey's Congo, append, p. 4 34.), this is not entirely the case. But these two 
families will perhaps be found to differ from all other phoenogamous plants in the more 
simple structure both of their ovaria and anthera?. 


214 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants* 

the thecae either above or below the connecting filament ; in an 
increased number of divisions of each theca by longitudinal, 
transverse, or oblique processes of the receptacle of the pollen, 
as in several genera of Orchidece and Laurince ; or in the per- 
sistence of part of the cells in which the pollen is formed, as in 

Reduced and increased development of different parts may 
co-exist in the same organ, as in the bifid or incumbent anthera 
with contiguous thecae ; in the extraordinary dilatation of the 
connecting portion of the filament, while one of the thecae is abor- 
tive or imperfect, as in the greater number of Salvia; ; or in the 
thecee being confluent, while the polliniferous cells are at the 
same time persistent, as in certain species of Viscum. 

The deviations from the regular mode of bursting are also nu- 
merous ; in some cases consisting either in the aperture being 
confined to a definite portion, generally the upper extremity, of 
the longitudinal furrow, as in Dillenia and Solatium ; in the apex 
of each theca being produced beyond the receptacle of the pol- 
len into a tube opening at top, as in several Ericince ; or in the 
two theca? being confluent at the apex, and bursting by a com- 
mon foramen or tube, as in Tetratheca. In other cases a sepa- 
ration of determinate portions of the membrane takes place, either 
the whole length of the theca, as in Hamamclidece and Berberidece; 
jor corresponding with its subdivisions, as in several Laurince ; or 
lastly, having no obvious relation to internal structure, as in cer- 
tain species of .Rhizophora. 

The regular structure may also be altered or disguised by the 
union of two or more stamina ; the thecae of each anthera either 
remaining distinct and parallel, as in Myristica, Canella, and in 
several Aroidece ; being divaricate and united, as in Cissampelos ; 
or absolutely separate, by division of the filament, as in Cono- 
spermum and Synaphea. 


named \\\ PPLBS . \ . I r> 

It is unnecessary for my present purpose do cuter Into a more 
minute account of the various structures of stamina, most of 
which appear to me easily reducible to the type here assumed. 

The precise relation of the anthem of Rafflesia, however, to this 
type is so far from being obvious, that at least three different 
opinions may be formed respecting it. 

According to one of these, each actual anthera would be con- 
sidered as composed of several united stamina. But in adopting 
this opinion, which is suggested solely by the existence and dis- 
position of the cells of the anthera, it seems also necessarj to con- 
sider the apparently simple flower of Rafflesia as in realit\ com- 
pound, and analogous to the spike of an Aroidca ; the pistilla, 
if present, being consequently to be looked for not in the centre 
but in the circumference. On attending, however, to the w bole 
external structure of the flower, as well as to the disposition of 
vessels, this supposition will, I conclude, appear still more im- 
probable than that in support of which it is adduced. 

A second opinion, diametrically opposite to the former, would 
regard the anthera of Rafflesia, as only half a regular anthera, 
whose two thecae are separated by portions of the united fila- 
ments, which, being produced beyond the anthera?, together form 
the crenated limb of the column. 

This view, though less paradoxical than the first, will hardly 
be considered as affording so probable an explanation of struc- 
ture as the third opinion ; according to which each anthera 
would be regarded as complete, made up of two united thecae, 
opening by a common foramen, and internally subdivided into 
numerous vertical cells by persistent portions of the confluent 
receptacles of the pollen ; a structure not perhaps essentially 
different from that of certain anther* more obviously reducible 
to the supposed type. 

Even in adopting this opinion, a question would still remain 


216 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

respecting the limb of the column under which the antherae are 
inserted ; namely, whether it is to be viewed as an imperfectly 
developed stigma, or as made up of processes of the united fila- 
ments. In support of the former supposition the nearly similar 
relation of the sexual organs in certain Asarince may be adduced ; 
and in favour of the latter, not only their disposition and form in 
other plants of the same natural family, but also the vascular struc- 
ture of the column itself; the limb deriving its vessels from branches 
of the same fasciculi that supply the antherae (plate 20. /. 1.). If 
this latter view, however, of the origin of the limb were admitted, 
it might be considered not altogether improbable, that even the 
corniculate processes of the disk of the column, each of which has 
a central vascular cord, are of the same nature. For if, on the 
other hand, these processes are to be regarded as imperfect styles 
or stigmata, their number and disposition would indicate a struc- 
ture of ovarium to be found only in families to which it is not 
probable at least that Rafflesia can be nearly related, as Anno- 
nacete and the singular genus Eupo?natia*, which I have placed 
near that natural order. 

Another point to be inquired into connected with the same 
subject is, in what manner the impregnation of the female flower 
is likely to be effected by antherae so completely concealed as 
those of Raffle si a seem to be in all states of the flower ; for it does 
not appear either that they can ever become exposed by a change 
in the direction of the limb under which they are inserted, or even 
that this part of the column in any stage projects beyond the tube 
of the perianthium. 

It is probable, therefore, that the assistance of insects is abso- 
lutely necessary ; and it is not unlikely, both as connected with 
that mode of impregnation and from the structure of the anthera 
.itself, that in Rafflesia the same economy obtains as in the sta- 

* Flinders '< Voyage, ii. p. 597. tub. <2. 


named R.\ \. 217 

minn of certain Aroidea, in which it has been observed that a con- 
tinued secretion and discharge of pollen takes place from the same 
cell ; the whole quantity produced greatrj exceeding the size of 

the secreting organ. 

The passage of the pollen to the bottom of the Bower, where it 
is more easily accessible to insects, seems likewise to be pro- 
vided for, not only l>\ the direction of the anther®, but also b\ 
the form of the corresponding cavities in the neck of the column, 
in the upper part of which thej are immersed. 

That insects are really necessary to the impregnation ot* luij- 

flesia, is confirmed by \h\ Arnold's statement respecting the odour 

of the plant, b\ which they may be supposed to be attracted, and 

also by the fact of the swarms actually seen havering about and 

tling in the expanded flower. 

The structure of Rajflesia is at present too imperfectly known 
to enable us to determine its place in the natural system. I shall, 
however, offer some observations on this question, which can 
hardly be dismissed without examination. 

As to which of the two primary divisions of plnenogamou> 
plants the genus belongs, it may, I think, without hesitation 
be referred to Dicotyledones ; yet if the plant is parasitic, and 
consequently no argument on this subject to be derived from the 
structure of the root, which is exactly that of the Vine*, its 
exclusion from Monocotyledones would rest on no other grounds, 
that I am able to state, than the quinary division of the perian- 
thium, which in other respects also bears a considerable resem- 
blance to that of certain dicotyledonous orders ; the number of 
stamina, and the ramification of vessels in the bracteac. 

Assuming, however, that Rajflesia belongs to Dicotyledones, 

* Compare the magnified section of the Root, tab. 22. f. 8. with that of the Vine 
in Grew's Anat. tab. 17- 

vol. xiii. 2 e and 

218 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

and considering the foliaceous scales which cover the unex- 
panded flower, both from their indefinite number and imbri- 
cate insertion as bracteae, and consequently the floral envelope 
as simple, its comparison with the families of this primary divi- 
sion would be limited to such as are apetalous ; either absolutely 
asJsarmte; those of a nature intermediate between the apetalous 
and polypetalous, in which the segments of the perianthium are 
generally, though not always, disposed in a double series, as 
Passiflorece, CucurbitacecE and Homalinaz ; or those which have 
a simple coloured floral envelope, but are decidedly related to 
polypetalous families, as Sterculiacece. 

With Asarince, the only truly apetalous order to which it seems 
necessary to compare it, Rafflesia has several points of resem- 
blance, especially in the structure of the central column. In 
Aristolochia the aniherae, though only six in number, are in like 
manner sessile, and inserted near the apex of a column formed 
by the union of stamina and pistillum. The mere difference in 
the number of stamina seems to be of no importance in the pre- 
sent question, there being twelve in Asarum ; and in T hot tea, a 
genus certainly belonging to this family, though referred by 
Rottboll to Contortce*, the stamina are not only still more nu- 
merous, but are disposed in a double circular series one above 
the other ; an arrangement which may perhaps be considered 
analogous to the concentric series of processes in the apex of the 
column of Rafflesia. 

In all these genera of Asarince and in Bragantia of Loureiro, 
which is also referable to the same order, the flowers are herma- 
phrodite ; but in Cytinus, which, if not absolutely belonging to 
this order, is at least very nearly related to it, they are diclinous. 

The affinity is also in some degree confirmed by the appear- 
ance of the inner surface of the tube of the perianthium of some 

* Thottea grandiflara. Rottboll in Nov. Act. Soc. Reg. Hafn. ii. p. 529. tab. <2. 


named \\ \ r v l f s r a . 219 

Asarina, especially Aristolochia grand/flora. :nu\ by tin thickening 
or annular projection of the faux in the same plant, as well as in 
a new species of Bragantia discovered in .lava by I )r. I [orsfield. 

It may also be noticed in support of it, that some of the largest 
flowers which were known before the discovery of Rajjlcsia belonu 
to Asarince, as those of Aristolochia grandiflora, and particularly 
Aristolochia cordiflora of Mutis, which, according to M. Bon- 
pland, are sixteen inches in diameter, or nearly lialt' that of our 

The first objection that occurs to this approximation is the ter- 
nary division of the perianthiiun in the regular flowered genera 
of A sarina, opposed to its quinary division in Rafflesia: but in 
Cytinm it is divided into four tegmenta, a number more gene- 
rally connected in natural families with five than with three. 

A second objection would exist, if it be considered more pro- 
bable that the ovarium of Rafflesia is superior, or free, than in- 
ferior, or cohering with the tube of the perianthium. 

There is indeed nothing in the structure of the column itself 
indicating the particular position of the ovarium. J Jut if it be 
admitted, that a base of a form equally calculated for support 
should exist in the female flower, as is found in the male, it might 
perhaps be considered somewhat more probable that such a base 
should be connected with a superior than with an inferior ovarium. 

Even admitting this objection, however, it would be consider- 
ably weakened, on the one hand, by allowing that Nepenthes, 
which has a superior ovarium, is related to Asarince, as I am in- 
clined to believe; and on the other, by considering Homalina, 
whose ovarium is inferior, as allied to Passifiorea, the order with 
which I shall now proceed to compare Rafflesia. 

This comparison is suggested by the obvious resemblance be- 
tween the perianthium of our genus, and that of certain species 

* Humboldt Bonpl. et Ktt/itk Nov. Gen. et Sf. ii. p- 1 !$■ 

( > 1 2 of 

220 Mr, Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

of Passiflora itself; or of other genera of the order, as Deiclamia, 
in which the inner series of segments is wanting. Thus, they agree 
essentially, and even remarkably, in aestivation of perianthium : 
the corona of Raffiesia may be compared with that of Murucuia, 
and the two annular elevations at the base of the column with the 
processes of like origin and nearly similar form in some species 
of Passiflora. The affinity is also supported by the position of the 
stamina on a central column. 

The peculiar structure of antherae in Raffiesia can hardly be 
regarded as an objection of much weight to the proposed asso- 
ciation ; and it will at least almost equally apply to any other 
family with which this genus may be compared. 

If the concentric processes on the disk of the column in our 
plant are to be regarded as indications of the number and dispo- 
sition of pistilla, or of the internal structure of ovarium in the 
female flower, they present a formidable objection to its affinity 
with Passiflorece, in all of which the ovarium is unilocular with 
parietal placentae. If, however, these processes were considered 
as inner series of imperfect stamina, the objection derived from 
their number and arrangement merely, would be comparatively 
slight ; for in some genera of Passiforea, particularly in Smeath- 
mannia*, the stamina are also numerous and perhaps even in- 
definite. It 

* As Smeathmannia forms a very remarkable addition to the order in which I have 
proposed to place it, and is still unpublished; 1 shall here give its characters, and add 
a few remarks in support of this arrangement. 

SMEATHMANNIA. Soland. Mss. in Biblioth. Banks. 
Ord. IN at. Passiflorea3. Br. in Tuckeys Congo, p. 439. 
Syst. Linn. Polyandria Pentagynia. 
CHAR. GEN. Ferianthium duplex, utrumque 5-partitum ; exterius semicalycinum per- 
sistens ; interius petaloideum marcescens. Urceolus simplex, membranaceus, ex 
ipsa basi perianthii. Stamina numerosa, distincta, apici columns brevissimse ge- 
nitalium inserta. Styli 5. Stigmata peltata. Capsula inflata, quinquevalvis. 
Semina axibus valvularum inserta. 


named Raffi. i>i a. ■;■; | 

It has been already remarked, that there is nothing in tin 
structure of the column in llqftksia to enable us to determine the 

Frutiees (forsan dccumbentes). Folia alterna rimplicia subdentata, stipule (nu-- 
ralibus {utrinque solitariis geminisve) distincti*, caliasu. Flores ait Hares tubsoii" 
tarii, pedunculis, quandoque brevissimis, basi bract colat is. Urceoliu abhreviatus, 
ore denticulato. Filamenta simplici serie, viginti circitcr. Antbene incumbent -■ 
Hneares. Capsula chartqcea. Semma axibusjiliformibui taboularum subnmplici 
serie inserta, pedicellata, punctata, vmnino Passiflorn. 
Patria. Africa equinoctialis. 

1. S.pubesccns, ramis tomcntosis, foliis oblongo-ovatis basi obtusis: adultis pubc ixj 
conspersis, urceolo barbato. 
Smeathmannia pubescens. Solander I. c. 
Loc. Nat. Guinea, prope Siena Leone, Smeathman, Afzelitu. 
1. S. laevigata, ramis glabris, foliis oblongis ovatisvo basi acutis : adultis glaberrimi? 
utrinque nitidis, urceolo imberbi inciso. 
Smeathmannia laevigata. Su/and. /. c. 

Loc. Nat. Guinea, prope Siena Leone, Smeathman, vlfzelius, Purdie. 
3. S. media, ramis glabris, foliis obovato-oblongis basi obtusis : adultis utrinque glabri* 
Loc. Nat. Guinea, prope Sierra Leone, Smeathman. 
Forsan varietas S. lax&eaUb. 

The affinity of Smeathmannia to Paropsia of M. du Petit Thouars will probably be 
admitted without hesitation ; and its exact agreement in fruit in every important point, 
both with this genus and with Modecca, seems to leave no doubt of its belonging to 
Passijiorecc, with which it agrees in habit even better than Paropsia, and certainly- 
much more nearly than Malesherbia, considered by Jussieu (in Flor. Peruv. hi. 
p. xix.) as belonging to the same family. 

Smeathmannia differs then from the other genera of Passiftorea solely in its greater 
number of stamina, which, however, may not be really indefinite ; and an approach to 
this structure is already known to exist in an unpublished genus (Thompsonia) disco- 
vered in Madagascar by Mr. Thompson, of which the habit is entirely that of Deidamia, 
and whose stamina are equal in number to the divisions of both series of the perian- 

But from Smeathmannia the transition is easy to Ryania, which differs chiefly in its 
still greater number of stamina, in the want of petals or inner series of peiianthium, in 
tlie single style being only slightly divided, and in the form of its placenta 1 . 

And Ryania, although it has a superior ovarium, may even be supposed to be related 
to Asteranthos and Belvisia, if the fruit of these two genera should prove to be unilo- 
cular with several parietal placentae. 


222 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

position of the ovarium in the female flower ; but that from 
another consideration there seems a somewhat greater probabi- 
lity of its being superior. If, however, it were ev^en inferior, 
the objection to the affinity in question would not be insupe- 
perable, the relationship of Homalince to Passiflorece being ad- 

If Napoleona or Belvisia be really allied to Passiflorece, which 
is very doubtful, however, and can only be determined by an 
examination of the fruit, it may also be compared with Baf- 
flesia. At first sight this singular genus seems to resemble our 
plant in several respects, particularly in the manner of insertion 
of its sessile flower into the branch, in the bracteae surrounding 
the ovarium, the confluence and dilatation of its filaments, and 
in the existence of a double corona. But some of these points 
are obviously unimportant ; and the comparison between the co- 
rona of the great flower and the double corolla of Belvisia will 
probably be considered paradoxical*. 

It seems unnecessary to compare Rajflesia with Cucurbit acece, 
to which it could only be considered as approaching, if its affi- 
nity to Aphyteia should appear probable, and the relationship of 
that genus to Cucurbit acea, suggested chiefly by the structure of 
antherse, were at the same time admitted. The 

* M. de Beauvois, in his account of Napoleotia (Flore d'Ozvare ii. p. 52.), has men- 
tioned a genus allied to it, which has been since published by M . Desfontaines under 
the name of Asteranthos. These two genera are without doubt nearly related ; and 
even independent of the structure of fruit, which in both remains to be ascertained, 
possess sufficient characters to separate them from every known family, as M. de Jus- 
sieu is disposed to think; and certainly from Symplocea, where M. Desfontaines has 
placed them. 

In adopting the generic name proposed by M . Desvaux for Napoleona, this order may 
be called 


Calyx monophyllus, limbo diviso, persistens. Corolla ? monopetala, plicata, (multiloba 
vel indivisa ; simplex y. duplex) decidua. Stamina vel definita v. indefinita ; basi 


flawed liAFFLESlA. 223 

The points of agreement between Rqffli ssa and Sfcrculiaccw are 
the division and form of the coloured perianthium, the sessile 
antherae terminating a column, and the separation of sexes. 

On these resemblances, however, I am not disposed to insist; 
and I am even persuaded that there is here no real affini ty ; 
though I confess I have no other objections to state to ii than the 
valvular aestivation of the perianthium, and the absence both of 
the corona and of the annular elevations at the bast of the column 
in StcrculiacciC. 

To conclude this part of my subject. 1 am inclined to think 
that Rajflesia, when its structure is completely known, will be 
found to approach either to AsarifKE or Tamfiorea; and that. 
from our present imperfect materials, notwithstanding the very 
slight affinity generally supposed to exist between these two or- 
ders, it cannot be absolutely determined to which of them it is 
most nearly allied. 

The only question that remains to be examined respecting 
Raffiesia is, whether the tlower with its enveloping bracteac and 
reticulate base do not together form a complete plant parasitic 
on the root from which it springs ? 

corolla? inserta. Ovarium inferum. Stylus 1. Stigma lobatum v. angulatum. 
Pericarpium baccatum, poly sperm um. 
Frutices ( Africa? Eequinoctialis ; an etiam Brasilia? ?) foliis alternis integerrimis exstipu- 
latis, Jioribus axillaribus lateralibusxe solitaries. 

BELVISIA, Desvauxin Journal de Botanique appliq. iv. p. 130. 
Napoleona, Palisot de Beauvois Flore d'O&are ii.p. 29- 

Calyx 5-fidus. Corolla? duplex; exterior indivisa; interior (e staminibus sterilibus 
connatis formata?) multifida. Stamina: Filamenta 5 dilatata biantherifera. 

ASTERANTHOS, Desfont. in Mem. du Mus.\\.p. 9. tab. 3. 
JCalyx multidentatus. Corolla? simplex multiloba. Stamina indefinite numerosa di- 


224 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

That such was probably the case, occurred to me on first in- 
specting the flower-bud ; the opinion being suggested not only 
by the direct origin of the flower from the root, but more parti- 
cularly by the disposition, texture and colour of the bracteae ; in 
which it so nearly resembles certain plants known to be para- 
sites, as Cytinus, Cynomorium, Caldasia of Mutis*, Balanophora, 
and Sarcophyte. 

In this opinion I was confirmed on seeing the figure of the 
plant mentioned in Dr. Arnold's letter, as probably related to 
the Great Flower, though not more than three inches in dia- 

The plant in question, which had been found in Java by Dr. 
Horsfield several years before the discovery of Rafflesia ArnoldL 
only, however, in the unexpanded state, is represented in the 
figure referred to as springing from a horizontal root in the same 
manner as the Great Flower ; like which also it is enveloped in 
numerous imbricate bracteae, as having a perianthiumof the same 
general appearance, with indications of a .similar entire annular 
process or corona at the mouth of the tube, a pustular inner 
surface, and a central column terminated by numerous acute 
processes. It is therefore unquestionably a second species of 

* Ix^i the Journal of Science, vol. iii. p. 127, from El Semanario del Nuevo Reyno 
de Granada, for 1810. To this genus belong Cynomoritim jamaicense, and perhaps 
cai/aneitse of Swartz, an unpublished species from Brazil, and some other plants of 
5 j-. ,'iioctial America. Before the appearance of Caldasia in the Journal of Science, 
I was aware that these plants formed a genus very distinct from Ciftiomorium (Jour- 
nal of Science, iii. p. 12Q.), but I had not given it a name, which is still want- 
ing, that of Caldasia having long been applied to a very different" and well known 

The new name, however, may be left to M. Richard, who is about to publish, and 
who will no doubt illustrate with his usual accuracy, the plants formerly referred to 
Cynornorium, of one of the species of which (Ccayanense) he is himself the disco- 


named Rafflbsia. 335 

the same genus* : but the branch with leaves which, though ft - 
parately represented in the drawing, is considered as proceeding 
from the same root, appears to me, on an examination of the 
specimen figured, to belong to a species of Vttu : and on men- 
tioning my supposition respecting the Great Flower to Dr. Hors- 
field, he informed me he had observed this second species of the 
genus also connected with leaves of a different kind, and u bicfi 
seemed likewise to be those of a Vitis^. 

Even with all the evidence now produced, I confess I was 
inclined, on a more minute examination of the buds of Rqfflt 'si a 
Arnoldi, to give up the opinion of its being a parasite ; on con- 
sidering, first, the great regularity of the reticulate base, which 
yet, externally at least, seemed to be merely a dilatation of the 
bark of the root : secondly, the nearly imperceptible change of 
structure from the cortical part of the base to the bractea* in 
contact with its upper elevated margin : thirdly, the remarkable 
change of direction and increased ramification of the vessels of 
the root at the point of dilatation ; a modification of structure 
which must probably have taken place at a very early stage of its 
growth : and lastly, on finding these vessels in some cases pene- 
trating the base of the column itself (plate 22. /. 1.). 

But to judge of the validity of these objections, it became ne- 
cessary to examine the nature of this connection in plants known 

* This second species may be named Rafflesia Horsfieldii, from the very meritorious 
naturalist by whom it was discovered. At present, however, the two species are to be 
distinguished only by the great difference in the size of their flowers ; those of the one 
beinc nearly three feet, of the other hardly three inches in diameter. 

f Isert (in Reise nach Guinea, p. 283.) mentions a plant observed by him in equi- 
noctial Africa, parasitic on the roots of trees, consisting, according to the very slight no- 
tice he has given of it, almost entirely of a single flower of a red colour, which he refers 
to the Linnean class Icosandria, and compares in appearance, I suppose in theyoun^ 
state, to the half of a Pine-cone. It is not unlikely that this plant also may be really 
allied to Raffiesia, the smaller species of which it probably resembles in appearance. 

VOL. XIII. 2 G to 

226 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

to be parasitic on roots ; in those especially, which in several 
other respects resemble Rafflesia, as Cytinus, Aphyteia, Cynomo- 
rium, and Balanophora. On this subject I cannot find that a 
single observation has hitherto been made, at least with respect 
to the genera now mentioned. Sufficient materials, indeed, for 
such an investigation are hardly to be expected in collections, 
in which the parasite is most frequently separated from the 
root ; and even when found in connection with it, is generally 
in a state too far advanced to afford the desired information. I 
consider myself fortunate, therefore, in having obtained speci- 
mens of several species where the union is preserved ; and the 
result of the examination of these, though not completely satis- 
factory, has been to lead me back to my first opinion, namely, 
that the Great Flower is really a parasite, and that the root on 
which it is found probably belongs to a species of Vitis. 

An account of some of the more remarkable of this class of 
parasitic plants, to which a few years ago I had paid particular 
attention, may hereafter form the subject of a separate communi- 
cation. At present I shall confine myself to such general observa- 
tions on the class as relate to the question respecting Rafflesia. 

In the first place, plants parasitic on roots are chiefly distin- 
guishable by the imperfect development of their leaves, and the 
entire absence of green colour ; an observation which, as applvinc 
to the whole tribe, was I believe originally made by Linnaeus*. 
In both these points they agree with Rafflesia. 

A second observation which may be made respecting them is 
that their seeds are small, and their Embryo not only minute, but 
apparently imperfectly developed ; in some cases being absolutely 
undivided, and probably acotyledonous, even in plants which, 
from their other characters, are referable to dicotyledonous, or 
at least to monocotyledonous families. 

* Fungus Melitensis, p. 3. Amain. Acad. iv. p. 353. 


named Raffles r v. 20? 

In these points the structure of Rafflesia remains to be ascer- 
tained. In the mean time, however, if it be considered as a pa- 
rasite, and as likely to agree with the other plants of the tribe in 
the state of its embryo, it may be remarked, with reference (<> 
the question of its affinities, that such a structure would approxi- 
mate it rather to Asarince than to PuxsiflorecE. 

My principal and concluding observation relat< •> to the modes 
of union between the stock and the parasite. These vary in the 
different genera and species of the tribe, which may be divided 
into such as are entirely dependent on the stock during the w bole 
of their existence, and such as in their more advanerd Mate pro- 
duce roots of their own. 

Among those that are in all stages absolutely parasitic, to 
which division Rafflesia would probably belong, very great dif- 
ferences also exist in the mode of connection. In some of those 
that I have examined, especially two species of Balanophora* , 
the nature of this connection is such, as can only be explained on 
the supposition that the germinating seed of the parasite excites 
a specific action in the stock, the result of which is the formation 
of a structure, either wholly or in part, derived from the root, 
and adapted to the support and protection of the undeveloped 
parasite ; analogous therefore to the production of galls by the 
puncture of insects. 

On this supposition, the connection between the flower of 
Rafflesia and the root from which it springs, though considerably 
different from any that I have yet met with, may also be explained. 
But until either precisely the same kind of union shall have been 
observed in plants known to be parasitic, or, which would be 

* Balanophora fungosa of Forster, and B. dioica, an unpublished species, lately sent 
by Dr. Wallich from Nepaul, where it was discovered by Dr. Hamilton, and also found 
in Java by Dr. Horsfield. 

2 o 2 still 

228 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

still more satisfactory, until the leaves and fructification be- 
longing to the root to which Rafflesia is attached shall have been 
found, its being a parasite, though highly probable, cannot be 
considered as absolutely ascertained*. 


Read November 21, 1820. 

Since my paper on Rafflesia, or the Great Flower of Sumatra, 
was read to the Society, further information respecting it has 
been received from Sir Stamford Raffles and Mr. Jack, which 
will form an important addition to my former account. 

Sir Stamford, in a letter to Mr. Marsden, states the following 
particulars : 

" I find the Krubid or Great Flower to be much more general 
and more extensively known than I expected. In some districts 
it is simply called Ambun Ambun. It seems to spring from the 
horizontal roots of those immense Climbers, which are attached 
like cables to the largest trees in the forest. We have not yet met 
with the leaves. The fruit also is still a desideratum. It is said 
to be a many-seeded berry, the seeds being found in connection 
with the processes on the summit of the pistillum. I have had 
buds brought in from Manna, Sillibar, the interior of Bencoolen 
and Laye ; and in two or three months we expect the full-blown 
flower. It takes three months from the first appearance of the 
bud to the full expansion of the flower ; and the flower appears 
but once a year, at the conclusion of the rainy season." 

* Annals of Philosophy for September 1820, p. 225. 


named Rafflesia. 

The first communication from my friend Mr. Jack consisted of 
a description of recent riower-buds, at that time regarded by him 
as hermaphrodite, but which he has since ascertained to be male. 
It is unnecessary to introduce this description here, as if essen- 
tially agrees with that already given, and may also be consi- 
dered as superseded by the important information contained in 
the following letter, which I have more recently received from 
the same accurate botanist. 

" My DEAR SlR, "Bencoolcn, June 2, 1S20. 

" Since I wrote you last I have ascertained several particulars 
respecting the Gigantic Flower of Sumatra, additional to those 

contained in the account forwarded by Sir Stamford Raffles to 
Mr. Marsden, and by him communicated to you, which it may 
be interesting to you to know. 

" Numerous specimens, in every stage of growth, have been 
sent from various parts of the country, which have enabled me 
to ascertain and confirm every essential point. The first and most 
unexpected discovery is, that it has no stem of its own, but is 
parasitic on the roots and stems of a ligneous species of Cissus 
with ternate and quinate leaves : I have not ascertained the spe- 
cies*. It appears to take its origin in some crack or hollow of 
the stem, and soon shows itself in the form of a round knob, 
which, when cut through, exhibits the infant flower enveloped in 
numerous bracteal sheaths, which successively open and wither 
away as the flower enlarges, until, at the time of full expansion, 
there are but a very few remaining, which have somewhat the 
appearance of a broken calyx. The flowers I find to be unisexual, 
which I did not before suspect, and consequently dicecious. 
The male I have already described. The female differs very 

* jNI r. Jack has since determined it to be Cissus angustifolia of Roxburgh. Fl. Ltd. i. 


230 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

little in appearance from it, but totally wants the globular an- 
thers, which are disposed in a circle round the lower side of the 
rim or margin of the central column of the male. 

" In the centre of this column or pistillum in the female are 
perceived a number of fissures traversing its substance without 
order or regularity, and their surfaces are covered with innume- 
rable minute seeds. The flower rots away not long after expan- 
sion, and the seeds are mixed with the pulpy mass. 

" The male and female flowers can be distinguished by a section 
not only when mature, but at every stage of their progress. I have 
made drawings of every essential part, which I hope soon to be 
able to send home, together with a further account than I have 
j r et had leisure to make. 

" I remain, &c. 

" William Jack/' 

The two principal desiderata respecting Rajjlesia, namely, the 
satisfactory proof of its being a parasite, and the discovery of the 
female flower, are now therefore supplied. 

Additional information, however, on several points is still 
wanting to complete the history of this extraordinary plant. 

Thus, it would be interesting, by a careful examination of the 
buds in every stage, to trace the changes produced in the root 
by the action of the parasite, and especially to ascertain the 
early state of the reticulate base, which I have ventured to con- 
sider as a production of an intermediate nature, partly derived 
from the root itself, and Avhich I suppose will be found to exist 
before the bractea? become visible. 

Further details are also wanting respecting the circumstance of 
its being found both on the roots and stems of the Cissus or Vith* 9 

* As these two genera differ from each other merely in number of parts, [ have for- 
merly proposed to unite them under the name of Vitis. (Tuckey's Cor^o, p. 465.) 


named Rafflfsia, 


no instance being, I believe, at present known of parasites on 
roots, which likewise originate from other parts of the plant. 

Many important particulars remain to be ascertained respect- 
ing the Vist ilium. 

From Mr. Jack's account it appears that the seeds are found 
in the substance of the column ; in other words, that the ovarium 
is superior. But as I have formerly remarked, that in the male 
flower the same internal structure seems to be continued below 
the apparent base of the column, it is possible that in the female 
the production of seeds may extend to an equal depth : the ova- 
rium would then become essentially inferior, as far at least as 
regards the question of the affinity of the plant. This point would 
be determined by a description of the unimpregnated ovarium, 
a knowledge of whose structure is also wanting to enable us to un- 
derstand the nature of the ripe fruit, and especially the origin 
and direction of the fissures, on the surfaces of which the seeds 
are produced. 

It is desirable likewise to have a more particular description 
of the Stigma, to which Mr. Jack seems to refer both the cor- 
niculate processes of the disk, and the undivided limb of the 
column. These parts in the male flower have no evident papulose 
or secreting surface ; for the hispid tips of the processes can 
hardly be regarded as such. But it is not likely that in the female 
flower they are equally destitute of this, which is the ordinary 
surface of a stigma ; and it appears to me more probable that 
such a surface should be confined to a definite portion, probably 
the tips, of the corniculate processes, than that it should extend 
over every part of the apex of the column. 

vVhatever may be the fact, my conjecture respecting these 
processes being possibly imperfect stamina is completely set 
aside ; though it is still difficult to connect their number and ar- 
rangement with the supposed structure of ovarium. 


232 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, 

Until these points are ascertained, and the seeds have been 
examined, the question of the affinities of the genus will proba- 
bly remain undetermined. In the mean time it may be remarked, 
that as far as the structure of the fruit of Rafflesia is yet under- 
stood, it may be considered as in some degree confirming the pro- 
posed association of the genus with Asarina, ; especially with Cy- 
tinus, in which the ovarium is unilocular, with numerous parietal 
placentae extending nearly to the centre of the cavity, and having 
their surfaces covered with minute ovula. 

From the appearance of the ripe fruit of Aphyteia, a similar 
structure may be supposed to exist also in that genus, of which, 
however, the unimpregnated ovarium has not been examined. 
But these two genera are parasitic on roots, and have also their 
stigmata remarkably developed ; and although 'Rafflesia probably 
differs from both of them in having a superior ovarium, I have 
endeavoured to show that this difference alone would not form an 
insuperable objection to their affinity. 




Plate XV. 

The expanded Flower reduced to somewhat less than -J- of its na- 
tural size ; the scale given on the plate being too lono* by 

nearlv f. 


A Flower-bud covered with its bracteae, of the natural size. 


named Rafflesi a. ;.'>; 

Plate XVII. 
The underside of the same Bud ; to show the root, the reticulata 
base with the circular elevation in which it terminates, and 
the origin of the outer b actca\ Natural size. 


A Flower-bud, of which the bractese, whose insertions are shown, 
are removed. Natural size. 


A different view of the Bud in the same state, to show the aesti- 
vation and veins of the segments of the perianthium. Na- 

tural size. 


Fig. 1. A vertical section of the Bud deprived of its bracteffi : 
exhibiting the principal vessels of the column and pe- 
rianthium, and the structure of the root, especially the 
change in the direction, increased ramification and 
termination of its vessels at the base of the parasite. 
Natural size. 
2. One half of the vertically-divided perianthium of the 
same Bud, in which the internal surface of the tube, 
corona and segments is shown. Natural size. 


Fig. 1. A Flower-bud, its bracteae and perianthium being re- 
moved, to show the column with the two annular pro- 
cesses at its base. Natural size. 

2. A portion (about f) of the column, of which part of the 

limb is removed, to show the cavities of the neck, into 
which the antherae are received. Natural size. 

3. The portion of the Limb removed from fig. 2. with its an- 

therae immersed in their proper cavities. Natural size. 
vol. xiii. 2 h Fig. 

234 Mr. Brown's Account of a new Genus of Plants, $c. 

Fig. 4. An Anthera, magnified three diameters, as are figures 5, 
6, 7 and 8. 

5. A transverse section of the same above the middle. 

6. A transverse section of the same below the middle. 
7, 8. Vertical sections of the same. 

9. Pollen, magnified 200 diameters. 

Plate XXII. 

Fig. 1. A vertical section of part of the base of the smaller 
Flower-bud, showing the vessels of the root, some of 
which appear to penetrate the substance of the para- 
site. Natural size. 
2,3. Portions of the column of the expanded Flower, nearly 
corresponding with those of the Bud, in PL 21. f. 2 & 3. 
Natural size. 

4. Anthera of the expanded Flower, magnified 3 diameters. 

as are figures 5 and 6. 

5. Transverse section of the same below the middle. 

6. Vertical section of the same. 

7. Pollen of the expanded Flower, magnified 200 diame- 


8. A transverse section of the Root, magnified 3 diameters. 

XVI. De- 


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( 23$ ) 

XVI. Descriptions of the Wild Dog of Sumatra, a new Species of 
Viverra, and a new Species of Pheasant. By Major-General 
Thomas Hardwicke, F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read May 2, 1820. 


Wild Dog of Sumatra. 
Tab. XXIII. 
Countenance of a Fox ; nose pointed ; apex black ; whiskers 
long and black ; eyes oblique ; ears erect, more rounded than 
in the common Fox or Jackall, very hairy ; muzzle foxy brown 
much mixed with black ; tail pendulous, bushy, most so about 
the middle, smaller at the origin ; hair black, reaching to the 
The animal stands high on its legs, which are long in proportion 
to its size. Feet firmly planted, but not resting on the heel ; 
toes four in front, large and strongly united ; a fifth very small, 
on the inner side of the foot and remote from the rest ; claws 
long, compressed, strong, not retractile ; above the small toe 
is a round tubercle or callosity on each leg. 
The general colour of the animal a foxy-ferruginous red, vary- 
ing to lighter shades on the belly and inside the thighs. 

The action of the animal in confinement is, like most other 
wild animals, restless in the extreme while any one stands near; 
and if teased, it emits a most foetid urine. Its voice is more of a 
cry than a bark. 

The length of the subject about 24 inches ; height 14 inches. 

2 h 2 The 

236 Major-Gen, II a r dwicke On the Wild Dog of Sumatra, 

The resemblance between this animal and the Wild Dog of 
the Ramglmr hills, called Quiio, is strikingly close ; the colour 
of both is the same, the black bushy tail the same, as also the 
form of the nose ; but the ears of the Sumatra Dog are more 

It has also a great affinity to the Dog of New Zealand. One 
of these animals was exhibited in the Museum of Mr. Brooks, 
Blenheim-street, Great Marlborough-street, in April 1815. 

VJVERRA? Linsaxg. 
Tab. XXIV. 

Head small, ovate, much pointed, finely tapering, the upper jaw 
much longer than the under ; whiskers numerous, setaceous, 
longer than the head, pointing backwards ; eyes equi-distant 
between the nose and ears, small, circular ; ears rounded, of 
a moderate size ; neck almost twice the length of the head ; 
body twice the length of the neck ; tail nearly as long as the 
body, cylindrical ; legs of nearly equal length, and, in pro- 
portion to the size of the animal, rather long ; feet in propor- 
tion, planted like those of the feline genus ; toes five on each 
foot, before and behind ; claws very small, retractile, and so 
obscured in the fur as to be hardly visible. 

The general colour of the animal is a yellowish-white, covered 
with longitudinal broad lines, and long confluent spots of 
black ; the spots on the legs and lowest line of the abdomen 
more distinct. 

The tail annulated with six bands of black, alternating with as 
many of the ground colour of the animal, yellowish-white. 

The belly, under-part of neck and inner side of the legs yellow- 
ish-white ; nose black, and a black streak extending from the 
posterior corner of the eye to the side of the neck. 


a new Species of J'iverra, arid a new Species of Pheasant. 287 


Length of the head ...... 3,5 

Do. of the neck to base of the tail . 1 1 ,() 
Do. of the tail 11,3 

Total leno-th <2(),4 


The height of the animal to the nose when standing 8,7£ 

At the rump 6,3 

A knowledge of this animal was communicated to the Asiat it- 
Society by Major Farquhar, from Malacca, from whence he 
sent a dead specimen. In most respects the specimen was in 
good condition, but the teeth were wanting. 

It is a native of the island of Java, and is said to be a carni- 
vorous animal. 


Size of a small fowl ; length seventeen inches ; bill short, -^ of 
an inch, convex, very strong, black, the base red, including 
the nostrils ; temples naked ; skin red, but feathered between 
the bill and the eye ; from the base of the upper mandible 
rises a small crest of short various coloured feathers, inclining 

The colour of the plumage above is dark ash, with white shafts, 
the coverts of the wings variously tinged with green, with 
broad strokes of white through the length of each feather : 
primaries and secondaries brownish-black, with white shafts ; 
the feathers of the chin deep crimson, neck much mixed with 
white ; on the breast, belly and sides the feathers are lance- 
shaped, of various length, the tips green with crimson mar- 
gins, collectively resembling dashes of blood scattered on the 
breast and belly; vent rufous. The tail consists of twelve 


238 Maj.-Gen. Hardwicke On the Wild Dog of Sumatra, $c. 

sub-equal feathers, about six inches in length ; shafts white, 

rounded, the ends whitish ; the coverts both above and beneath 

a rich crimson red. 
Legs deep red, armed with three unequal spurs, but varying in 

number in different subjects ; toes long; claws strong, long and 

The hen is similar to the cock in plumage and all other marks. 

but smaller and without spurs. 

This fine species of Pheasant is a native of the Nepaul hills ; 
and it is to the liberal contributions of the Honourable Edward 
Gardner, Resident at the Court of Nepaul, that I am indebted 
for the opportunity of presenting to the Linnean Society this de- 
scription, from well preserved dead subjects in my possession. 

XVII. De- 

( m ) 

XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, made on 
account of the Honourable East India Company, in the Island 
of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under the Direction of Sir Thomas 
Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough ; 
with additional Notices illustrative of the Natural History of 
those Countries. By Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt. F.R.S. 
Communicated by Sir Everard Home, Bart., F.R.S. and L.S. 

Read December 5, 1820. 

Ah 3 interest excited by the researches carried on during my 
administration in Java, early induced me to extend similar in- 
quiries to the more extensive island of Sumatra ; and I esteemed 
myself fortunate in obtaining the assistance of Dr. Joseph Arnold, 
a gentleman already advantageously known to the scientific 
world. Unhappily he fell an early sacrifice to his zeal in the 
cause, and his loss cannot be more regretted in a public view, 
than it is lamented by those who were best able to appreciate his 
amiable disposition and private virtues. He lived, however, long 
enough to lay the foundation of an extensive plan of research. 
I was subsequently induced to engage the services of two French 
gentlemen, who appeared qualified to assist in the collection and 
preservation of the zoological specimens, and to furnish such 
anatomical details as might require observation in recent sub- 
jects, it being stipulated that on the payment of the monthly 
sum of 500 dollars, the whole of their collections and observa- 
tions should be the exclusive property of the East India Com- 
pany. On these terms I intrusted to them the charge of the 


240 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

collection, and used all my influence to bring into it whatever 
was interesting in zoology. A year had scarcely elapsed when 
circumstances rendered it necessary to discontinue this arrange- 
ment. They advanced pretensions diametrically opposed to the 
spirit and letter of their engagement, and altogether inconsistent 
with Avhat I had a right to expect from them, or they from me. 
Thus situated, I had no alternative but to undertake an imme- 
diate description of the collection myself, or to allow the result 
of all my endeavours and exertions to be carried to a foreign 
country. I should observe, that the papers delivered to me as 
containing all their observations, were for the most part so spe- 
culative and deficient in the kind of information required, that I 
could make no use of them myself, nor give them to the world 
under the sanction of my authority. I have therefore returned 
them, and left these gentlemen at liberty to publish or amend 
them as they think proper. They are young men not deficient 
in zeal, and though misled for the moment by private and na- 
tional views, will, I doubt not, profit by the means I have afforded 
them, and eventually contribute to our further knowledge of the 
zoology of these islands. 

I have thought it necessary to say thus much respecting these 
gentlemen, in order to prevent the possibility of misrepresenta- 
tion ; and I need only add, that as my descriptions have been made 
without assistance from them, and may contain particulars not 
only unknown to them, but at variance with their ideas, they are 
of course not responsible for any part of them. The Catalogue 
now submitted has been drawn up by myself from actual exa- 
mination of the subjects, combined with the result of extensive 
personal inquiries among the best informed natives of the coun- 
try. It has no pretensions beyond accuracy and the simple 
statement of facts. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra, 241 



Of this genus nine or ten species are known to the natives of 
these islands, the greater part of which are in the collection. 
The first is the well known 

SIMIA Satyrus Linn. 
Orang Utan of the Malays, ^y, cJ 

Of this a living specimen from Borneo was sent to the Mena- 
gerie at Calcutta in 1819. Native information gives reason to 
believe that it also exists in Sumatra ; it is there known by the 
name of Orang Pandak (Pygmy), and the accounts given of it 
agree exactly with the Orang Utan of Borneo- It is frequently 
confounded with the Orang Kubu and Orang Gugu described by 
Mr. Marsden, which, though often the subject of fable and exag- 
geration, appear to exist on the island as a distinct race of men, 
almost as hairy and wild as the real Orang Utan. 

The observation of Linnaeus, that the nail of the thumb is 
wanting on the hind-feet, is confirmed by the above specimen, 
and is probably correct in all the true Orang Utans. 


S 1 a m a n g of the Malays. J--L- 

This new species of Gibbon is abundant in the forests near 
Bencoolen, where they are seen in large companies, making the 
woods echo with their loud and peculiar cry. 

It is of a jet-black colour throughout ; is upwards of three feet 

in height, and of a robust and muscular frame. It agrees with 

vol. xiii. 2 1 the 

242 Sir T. S. Raffles 's Descriptive Catalogue 

the Simia Lar of Linnaeus in being tailless, having naked callo- 
sities and arms reaching to the feet. It differs, however, essen- 
tially in having the index and middle toes, or rather fingers, of 
the hind feet united as far as the middle of the second phalanx ; 
in having two loose and naked folds of skin on the throat, 
which I have observed to be occasionally inflated with air ; and 
in being entirely black, with the exception of a few brown hairs 
on the chin, which appear to become grey with age. The hair 
is long and soft ; the face is without hair and black, as are also 
the breasts of the female. The orbits of the eyes are circular 
and remarkably prominent. The canine teeth are long. 
Besides the specimens in the collection, I have recently pro- 
cured a living Siamang, which is very tame and tractable : in fact, 
he is never happy but when allowed to be in company with some 

Samang; or Siamano; is the name eiven to certain tribes of ab- 
original inhabitants of the Malay peninsula. See Preface to 
Marsden's Grammar, and Asiatic Researches, vol. xii. 

There is said to be a white variety of the Siamang found at 
Tapus and Barus ; and I have accounts of one of these having 
been lately seen at Palembang, but it is probably nothing more 
than an accidental variety. 

SIMIA Lab Linn. 

There is found on the Peninsula of Malacca a smaller Gibbon 
than the preceding, which is probably the true Simia Lar. It 
does not exceed two feet in height, and is black, with a white 
circle round the face. It is there called Ungka etam. JLa il&l 

I have now in my possession a living specimen of another 
Gibbon called here Ungka puti, j>£ ijJsS which appears nearly 
related to the Wouwou fjy of Java, or Simia leucisca Schr. In 
size it is considerably less than the Siamang, not exceeding two 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 243 

feet, and is altogether of a more delicate and slender frame. Its 
colour is a dirty-yellowish white, which becomes nearly brown on 
the under and inner parts, contrary to what takes place in most 
animals, which are lighter below. The face and hands are black : 
the hair is softer and more woolly than that of the Siamang, and 
its cry is softer and less harsh. 

Both these are of a more timid disposition, and have neither 
the strength nor boldness of the Siamang. 

With regard to the Ungka puti, it is the general belief of the 
people of the country that it will die of vexation if it sees the pre- 
ference given to another; in corroboration of which I may add, 
that the one in my possession sickened in this situation, and did 
not recover until relieved from the cause of vexation by his rival 
the Siamang being removed to another apartment. 

Another variety has been met with at Bencoolen, which only 
differs in being of a light-brown colour, with a still lighter circle 
round its black face. 

In none of these are there any naked folds of skin on the throat, 
and all the toes are separate. These marks are fully sufficient 
to distinguish them from the Siamang, which I therefore propose 
to establish as a distinct species under that appellation, if the 
characteristic one of S. syndactyla be not thought preferable. 

SIMIA Carpolegus. 
Bruh of the Malays, j^ 

This is a very common Baboon in the vicinity of Bencoolen, 
where the inhabitants frequently train it to ascend the trees for 
the purpose of gathering coco-nuts, a service in which it is very 
It is about two feet high when sitting : colour yellowish-brown 

mixed with black on the back, and pale or whitish in front. 

% i 2 The 

244 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

The hair of the body is short and close. On the top of the 
head the hairs are black, and diverge horizontally ; those of 
the eyebrows, which unite above the nose, are also black and 
are radiated upwards. There is scarcely any beard. The 
face is naked and flesh-coloured ; the ears, hands and callosi- 
ties are the same, and the extremity of the prepuce is vermi- 
lion. The muzzle is somewhat prominent, and the nostrils 
open anteriorly. The eyes are brown. Ears roundish, obtusely 
pointed behind. Cheeks pouched. Tail short and tapering, 
about six inches long, inserted very high, and curling down- 
wards. The callosities on the nates are large. The thumb is 
a little longer in proportion to the fingers than in many other 
species. The last molar has five tubercles. In this species, as 
in many others of the genus, there is a sac under the os hyoides 
which communicates with the larynx. 

The natives distinguish three varieties of Bruh : the Bruh 
setopong, Bruh selasi, and Bruh puti. The Bruh setopong is the 
largest, the colour on the back verging to olive, and light in 
front. It is the most docile and intelligent of the whole, and is 
much prized in consequence. When sent to gather coco-nuts, 
he selects the ripe ones with great judgment, and pulls no more 
than he is ordered. The other two are darker coloured, less in- 
telligent, and more intractable. 


Chingkau of the Malays. j^L^ 
Frequent in the forests near Bencoolen. 
This species is about two feet long, with a tail nearly two and a 
half; when standing on all fours it is fourteen inches high. It 
is of a dark-grey colour, the hairs being in general black with 
white points. The face, fore-arms, hands, feet, back, and 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. '24.5 

upper side of the tail are nearly black, the under part of the 
body paler. (The same colour would in a horse be called iron- 
grey, or grey with black points.) The disposition of the hairs 
on the head is peculiar ; they are long, and diverge round the 
face, forming on the top a kind of crest. Beard scanty. Face 
and ears bare and nearly black. Orbits large. Nose rather 
elevated between them, but quite flat at the nostrils, which 
are situated at some distance above the upper lip, and open 
laterally. Head and face small. Ears large and rounded. 
Canines lono;. Neck short. Callosities large. Tail thin and 
tapering, without any tuft. Thumbs on the fore-hands re- 
markably short. It is altogether of a light and slender make. 
The young Chingkaus are of a reddish fawn-colour, forming 
a singular contrast with the dark-coloured adults. 

A variety of this is described by the natives to be of a light- 
grey or whitish colour, and called Chingkau Puti. 

Simpai of the Malays. ^Juu* 
Frequent in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen. 
In general form and appearance this species nearly resembles 
the preceding, but is a little larger, and of a very different 
colour, being of a bright fawn-colour, mixed with black on 
the head, back and shoulders. The whole of the under parts 
is nearly white. Head and face small, with hair diverging 
as in the preceding, but forming a longer and more distinct 
crest on the head composed of black hairs, and also forming 
a tuft on each cheek of a fawn-colour graduating into white. 
The forehead below the crest is of a bright fawn-colour. Beard 
scanty. The orbits, nose and ears scarcely differ in form from 


246 Sir T. S. Raffle s's Descriptive Catalogue 

the preceding. Pace bare, of a blueish colour, and slightly 
wrinkled. The line of the face is singularly straight and per- 
pendicular. The ears nearly of the same colour. The palms 
and soles of the hands and feet are black. The thumb of the 
hands very short. Callosities large. Tail long and tapering, 
exceeding thirty inches. 

The hair of this and the preceding species is long, and in this 
soft and silky. 


Kb A of the Malays. \J 

Frequent in the forests of Sumatra and the Malay islands, 
where they are met with in large companies. 

The body is about twenty inches long, and the tail a little more. 
The back and upper part of the head are of a reddish-brown 
colour ; the tail and sides of the body grey, which becomes 
still lighter on the inside of the limbs and lower part of the 
body and face. The face is brown, and covered with short 
light grey hairs. The cheeks are furnished with tufts of the 
same colour, much longer than the beard. The eyelids, par- 
ticularly the upper ones, are white. The eyes are brown, the 
eyebrows prominent, and the muzzle projecting. The nose is 
prominent between the eyes, and flat at its point, where the 
nostrils open obliquely some way above the lip. Cheeks 
pouched. Ears roundish, obtusely pointed behind. Canines 
short. Callosities strong. Thumb of the hands short. 

The Malay name has frequently a close resemblance to the cry 
of the animal it designates ; and this is remarkably the case in 
the present instance, as well as in the Simpai, Wouwou and 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 247 

The Kra is not easily domesticated. The natives distinguish 
a whiter variety, with a reddish shade on the back. 

Besides the Kra above described, there is a smaller species 
called the Kra Buku, which only differs in size, and in wanting 
the circle of hair round the face. This little animal, which is less 
than a foot in length, is equally common in the other Malay 
islands. The head is remarkable in having very little hair on the 
temples, in which it strikingly differs from the larger species. 

SIMIA maura? Linn. 
Lotoxg of the Malays. cjJ 
Found at Singapore and Penang. 
This species is often eighteen or twenty inches long and twelve or 
thirteen in height when on all fours. The tail is some inches 
longer than the body. Its colour is chiefly black. The hair of 
the arms, legs, and top of the head is tipped with grey. The 
inside of the thighs and lower part of the abdomen are entirely 
white ; a line of white also extends from thence to the throat ; 
the breast and axillre are light grey. The hands, feet, ears 
and face are black. The lips are furnished with short whitish 
hairs mixed with a few longer black ones. Beard scanty, and 
composed of a few black hairs. The cheeks have also some 
black hairs. The hair diverges from the crown of the head 
so as to project over the forehead in front, and to form a kind 
of crest behind. Head and face small. Nose flat at the point, 
where the nostrils open laterally. It is not easily tamed. 

LEMUR tardigradus Linn. 
Kukang (Malay). ^£= 
Of this the natives distinguish a large and a small variety : the 
former they call Bruh samundi, and describe it as a larger and 


248 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

more active animal, of a grey colour, with a black stripe along 
the back. The Malays have a superstitious aversion to these 
animals, and never keep them in their houses, from an idea that 
they bring misfortunes and ill luck. 

GALEOPITHECUS rufus Pallas. 
Lemur volans Linn. 
K u b u n g of the Malays . £j>j£a 
Frequent in the Malay peninsula and islands. 
This animal is too well known to require description : it usually 
hangs from the branch of a tree suspended by its four hands. 
The wing-like membrane cannot serve the animal to fly, but 
when extended acts as a kind of parachute, by which it is 
enabled to make long leaps from tree to tree. There are six 
pectinate incisors in the lower jaw, and four in the upper, of 
which the middle ones are remote ; two canines in each jaw, 
and five molars on each side. The canines are peculiar in 
having two fangs, and the molars have the same number. The 
larynx is osseous. The animal produces two young at a time, 
and the number of mammae correspond. The two pair are 
situated near to each other on the breast a little below the 
axillae. The colours on the back of the young are more di- 
stinct and variegated than in the adult. Mr. Marsden's figure 
gives a very good idea of this animal. 

VESPERTILIO Vampyrus. Var. 0. rubricollis Geoff. 

Vespertilio Ferrum equinum Linn. 

Kaluang of the Malays. ^Ss 

Of this there are two distinct varieties : one large, and having 
a complicated nasal membrane ; the other smaller, and having a 
simple semilunar membrane over the nose. In one of these, 


of a Zoological Collect ion made in Sumatra. 249 

besides the two pectoral mammae, there are two others situated 
a little above the pubes, as already observed by Mr. Montagu 
in the 9th volume of the Transactions of the Linnean Society. 
These are not found in the V. Vampyrus. 

MANIS pextadactyla Linn. 

Paxgolixg sisik. j™--~ tJ*/" 

Or, Taxgilixg. J-*Lft? 

CANIS famiiiaris Linn. Var. Sumateensis. 

Wild Dog of Sumatra*. 

Of this I carried a living specimen to Bengal in 1818 ; it died 
soon after, and the preserved skin was sent to Mr. Henry Cole- 
brooke, in England, by my friend Dr. Wallich. They are nume- 
rous in the forests of the interior, where they are said to hunt in 

It is of a small size, of a brownish-red colour, lighter beneath, 
with an elongated head, and a bush-like tail somewhat resem- 
bling that of a Fox. Body slender. Ears short and erect. It 
is wild and untameable, and seems to resemble most the Au- 
stralasian Dog, or Dingo. 

How far this differs from either of the wild Dogs of Java, 
Dr. Horsfield will be able to decide. 

Of this genus two species only are in the collection, the Royal 
Tiger, and a species of Tiger-cat. The latter is precisely the 
same with the Felis Bengalensh, Bengal Tiger-cat described by 
Pennant, and is called by the Malays Rimau bulu, fa ^ 

* For a description and figure of this Dog, see p. 235, tab. XXIII. 

vol. xiii. 2 k Tigers 

250 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

Tigers are very numerous in Sumatra, and are very destructive 
on the west coast. The natives distinguish several varieties, such 
as the Rimau Kumbang, or black Tiger ; the Rimau samplat, 
and others. 

It may be proper also to notice the variety of the domestic Cat 
peculiar to the Malayan Archipelago, and remarkable by having 
a twisted or knobbed tail, in which particular it agrees with that 
of Madagascar. Sometimes they have no tail at all. This co- 
incidence with the Madagascar variety is the more remarkable, 
as the similarity between the language and customs of the in- 
habitants of Madagascar and the Malay islands has frequently 
been a subject of observation. 

Besides these, native accounts have been obtained of two other 
species existing in Sumatra, the Chigau or Jigau, jL=- and the 
Rimau dahan. 

The former, called the Rimau mang'in in the southern di- 
stricts, is described as larger than the Tiger, more dangerous and 
destructive, and as making his attack in a different manner, not 
crouching and darting from a covert, but rushing furiously and 
steadily forward, and even forcing his way into villages and 
houses. It is stated to have a mane of Ion q- hair on its head and 
neck, to have a tuft at the extremity of its tail, to be of a more 
uniform and dark colour, and to have a larger and longer head 
than the Tiger. All these particulars of form and habits indi- 
cate its being a kind of Lion. It has been seen in various parts 
of the country, but is by no means common. 

The Rimau Dahan, ^b y^j is about the size of a Leopard, 
but is of a darker colour and less regularly spotted. It lives 
principally on trees, pursuing and feeding on birds, &c, and is 
said by the natives to be in the habit of sleeping stretched across 
the fork of a large bough. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 251 

MEPHITIS Javanensis Desm. 

Te lag u of the Malays. Jls 

Found in Sumatra and Java. From the latter it has already 
been sent to Europe by Mr. Leschenault, and I believe by 
Dr. Horsfield. 

It is nearly related to the Viverra Mephitis Linn, of America, the 
type of this genus, but differs in having a very short tail not ex- 
ceeding an inch in length, and in having but one line of white 
along the back, which covers the whole crown of the head, and 
becomes narrower as it runs backward to the tail, which is 
also white. The rest of the body is of a dark-brown colour. 
The snout is long and pointed. The direction of the hair on 
the forepart of the body is peculiar, being directed forwards 
under the throat, and upwards and forwards on the back of 
the head and neck. The five toes of the fore-feet are fur- 
nished with long claws fitted for digging. It has six incisors, 
two canines, and five molars in each jaw, of which the first 
three are not tuberculated. 

When irritated, or in danger, it emits from its rectum a fluid of 
most insupportable stench. 

VIVERRA Z i beth a Linn. 

Tangalung of the Malays. $J&u 

This animal is kept by the natives for the purpose of obtain- 
ing the well known perfume, which they call jibet or dedes. It 
is contained in a double sac under the anus. 

The animal is above two feet long; the tail shorter than the body, 
and annulated. A black stripe runs the whole length of the 
back ; there are several longitudinal stripes on the back of the 

2k2 neck, 

2.V2 Sir T. S. Rapivles's Descriptive Catalogue 

neck, and a broad black band encircles the lower part of the 
throat. The sides of the body are spotted, and the spots be- 
come undulated in the limbs. The hair is rather short and 

The natives distinguish a smaller variety by the name of Tang- 
galung Padi. 

VIVERRA Gen etta Linn. 


This appears to be the true Genet. 

It is of a dark-grey colour, with stripes and spots of black. 
The tail is of the same colour mixed with black, but not white 
at the tip like the following. 

VIVERRA Musanga. 

Musang bulan of the Malays. Jy J--^ 

This animal, figured by Mr. Marsden in his History of Su- 
matra, is nearly related to V. Genetta, but must be considered 
a distinct species. 

It is of a dusky fulvous colour mixed with black ; the tail is of 
the same colour, except about two inches at the point, where 
it is white, and is about as long as the body. The space from 
the eyes to the ears is white ; there are some long black bris- 
tles above the eyes, and some other white ones a little way 
behind them. The nose is prominent at the extremity, and 
deeply furrowed between the nostrils. The muzzle is long 
and pointed. The feet are five-toed. The animal is about 
the size of an ordinary Cat. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 253 


Intermediate between Viveira and Vrsus is an animal called 
Binturong, c^Jcj found at Malacca by Major Farquhar, who 
communicated an account of it, accompanied with a specimen 
and drawing, to the Asiatic Society. It has not been made pub- 
lic, and it may therefore be interesting to give the following par- 
ticulars as furnished to me by that gentleman, in whose po; 
sion I saw a living specimen in 1819- 

The body of this animal is about two feet and a half in length ; 
tail nearly the same, bushy and prehensile ; height from twelve 
to fifteen inches. It is entirely covered, with the exception of 
the legs and face, with a thick fur of strong black hair. Its 
general appearance and habit is slow and crouching, the body 
long and heavy, «nd low on the legs ; the tail is thick at the 
root, gradually diminishing in size to the extremity, where it 
curls inwards. The muzzle is short and pointed, somewhat 
turned up at the nose, and is covered with bristly hairs, brown 
at the points, which lengthen as they diverge, and form a 
peculiar radiated circle round the face, giving the counte- 
nance a striking and remarkable aspect. The eyes are large, 
black and prominent ; and the ears are short, rounded, edged 
with white, and terminated by tufts of black hair. There 
are six short rounded incisors in each jaw, two canines, which 
are long and sharp, and six molars on each side : of these, in 
the upper jaw, the three first are pointed ; in the lower jaw 
the two first are pointed, and the last is smaller and imperfect. 
The molars are remote from the canines in the lower jaw, and 
approximate in the upper. The feet are five-toed, with large 
strong claws ; the soles are bare, and applied to the ground 
throughout the whole of their length ; the hind ones longer 
than the fore. The hair on the leos is short and of a brownish 


254 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

tinge. When at rest the animal coils himself, the tail encir- 
cling the bod}'. 
It climbs trees assisted by its prehensile tail, in which it has un- 
common strength. Major Farquhar kept one alive many 
years ; it lived both on animal and vegetable food ; was par- 
ticularly fond of plantains, but would also eat fowls' heads, 
eggs, &c. Its movements are slow, and it is rather of a timid 
disposition ; it sleeps much during the day, but is more active 
at night. 

This animal seems to have considerable affinity to the Viverra 
caudivolvula of America ; but in general appearance and noctur- 
nal habits it resembles the Ursus Lotor or Racoon. 


Of this genus there are two species in Sumatra known by the 
common appellation of Anjing Ayer, or Dog of the Waters. The 
largest is properly distinguished by the name of Simung, ^ 
and the smaller by that of Barang Barang, r &h or Ambrang. 

The latter appears to be nearly allied to the Lutra Lutreola 
(Mustela Lutreola Linn.), being about a foot and a half in 
length, of a beautiful glossy-brown colour, and white on the 
mouth and throat. The feet are covered with hair, but the 
toes are not of equal length. The tail is shorter than the body, 
covered with hair, thick at the base, and tapering to a point. 

URSUS Malayanus. Bruang. cUj 

This deserves to be ranked as a distinct species from the 
common Bear, and from that of the continent of India. The 
most striking difference is in the comparative shortness of its 
hair, and the fineness and glossiness of its fur ; in which parti- 

of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 255 

cular it appears to resemble the American Bear. It is further 
remarkable in having a large heart-shaped spot of white on the 
breast. The muzzle is of a ferruginous colour. It stands lower, 
but is a stouter and better proportioned animal than the common 

When taken young they become very tame. One lived for two 
years in my possession. He was brought up in the nursery with 
the children ; and, when admitted to my table, as was frequently 
the case, gave a proof of his taste by refusing to eat any fruit but 
mangosteens, or to drink any wine but Champaign. The only 
time I ever knew him to be out of humour was on an occasion 
when no Champaign was forthcoming. It was naturally of a 
playful and affectionate disposition, and it was never found ne- 
cessary to chain or chastise him. It was usual for this Bear, the 
cat, the dog, and a small blue mountain bird or Lory of New 
Holland, to mess together and eat out of the same dish. His 
favourite play-fellow was the dog, whose teasing and worrying 
was always borne and returned with the utmost good humour and 
playfulness. As he grew up he became a very powerful animal, 
and in his rambles in the garden, he would lay hold of the largest 
plantains, the stems of which he could scarcely embrace, and 
tear them up by the roots. 

A female of this species was sent to England last year by the 
William Pitt. 


Of this genus the collection contains a small variety of the 
S. cccrulescem, or Musk Rat of Bengal. In it, as in the Bengal 
species, the musky fluid is emitted from a single gland on each 
side of the body. 


256 Sit T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 


( \ i. x. C ir a r . Snout elongated. 

Teeth, Incisors above 4 remote. 

below 6 (or 4?) leaning forwards, 

the middle ones approximate. 

Canines two on each side both above and 

below, remote. 
Molars, three on each side both above and 
Feet five-toed. 
Habit and tail of a Squirrel. 


Tupai press. Malay ^Js ^Jy 

This singular little animal was first observed tame in the house 
of a gentleman at Penang, and afterwards found wild at Singa- 
pore and in the woods near Bencoolen, where it lives on the fruit 
of the Kayo Gadis, &c. It has the tail and general appear- 
ance of a Squirrel, united to the elongated head and dentition 
of a Sorex. It further differs from the latter genus in being a 
lively playful animal, with large eyes suited to day-light, and in 
not beino; nocturnal or subterranean in its habits. 

The head is prolonged into a conical snout ; the upper jaw and 
lip not however projecting much beyond the lower. Incisors 
four above, rather remote and sharp, six below, the middle 
ones smaller, the lateral ones inclining forwards. Canines 
four in each jaw, remote from the incisors in the upper. Six 
conical molars in each jaw. Eyes large and bright. Ears 
roundish. Colour of a rusty brown on the back and sides, 
whitish on the belly ; tail greyish-brown, the hairs being a 
mixture of black and white. Length of the body about six or 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 257 

eight inches. Tail not quite so long, hairy like that of a 
Squirrel, but rounder. Five toes on all the feet ; the middle 
three longest ; all furnished with curved claws. 

These animals are as tame and sprightly as Squirrels. The 
tame one above mentioned was suffered to go about at perfect 
liberty, ranged in freedom over the whole house, and never failed 
to present himself on the breakfast- and dinner-table, where he 
partook of fruit and milk. 


This species very dearly resembles the preceding one, but is 
larger, the length of the body being nine inches, and that of the 
tail about seven. Colour above nearly the same, but the lower 
parts of a ferruginous red. The tail in this species is flat like 
that of a Squirrel, and is of a reddish colour. 

In the only specimen yet procured of this last, there are but 
four incisors in the lower jaw, jet in every other respect the teeth 
agree with the former species. As the specimen was prepared 
by a native before it came into my hands, further examination 
will be necessary to ascertain whether this difference may not 
have been the effect of accident in the preparation. 

These animals are generally known by the country people 
under the name of Tupai tana ; and it is said they are always 
found on or near the ground, It is not impossible we may suc- 
ceed in finding further varieties ; at all events, the two noticed 
are sufficiently distinct to form separate species, and, I should 
presume, to justify the adoption of a new genus : most certainly 
they will not come under any of the genera yet noticed. 


Of this there are two species, one long-tailed, the ILfascicu- 

lata, the other the Landak, jjJJ, figured by Mr. Marsden in 

vol. xni. 2 l his 

2.58 *S7/' T S. Raffles' s Descriptive Catalogue 

his Historii of Sumatra, under the name of HustrLv kmgicauda. 
That figure is a good and accurate representation of the animal, 
with the exception of the fore-feet being delineated as five-toed, 
while in reality they are only four-toed, the place of the thumb 
being supplied by a tubercle. The name longicauda is perhaps 
objectionable, as the tail of this species is much shorter than that 
of the II. fatciculata. It seems questionable whether the II . ma- 
croura of Seba is really different from the Il.fasciciilata, and 
whether two species are not confounded under it. 

M U S S V M A T R E X S I S . 

A drawing and specimen of an animal, which appears related 
to the Mas Pilorides, was forwarded from Malacca by Major 
Farquhar to the Asiatic Society at the same time with the Bintu- 
rong. I am informed by him, that it is not uncommon at Ma- 
lacca, and is perhaps to be found in most parts of the Malay 
peninsula. It is called by the natives Dekan, jfo, and by Euro- 
peans in India the Bamboo Rat, from its being found principally 
about Bamboo hedges, and being said to live on their roots. 
The body is about seventeen inches in length, ten inches in cir- 
cumference, and the height at the shoulder about five. The 
tail is six inches long, tapering, and blunt at the points, naked 
and scaly. The body is covered with rough greyish hair, 
brownish on the back. The head round and lighter coloured. 
Incisors large, two in each jaw. Eyes small. Ears naked. 
Fore-feet four-toed ; hind-feet with a short fifth toe. 


Besides the Sciurus maximus, the Tupai Jinjang or Tankrawa, 
£-«*»■ ^Jy of the Malays, and the S. bicolov or Java Squirrel, 
which are frequent in the Malay islands, a third species, which 
may be named 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. \ '•< I 

SC1LRUS Affinis, 
was found abundantly in the woods of Singapore (on the occupa- 
tion of that station by the British in 1819), agreeing with the two 
former in having a flat nail on the very short thumb of the fore- 
feet, but differing in colour, being of a cinereous grey or brown- 
ish on the upper part of the head, body and tail, and on the out- 
side of the limbs, and being nearly white on the under and inner 
parts. It is about the size of the S. bicolor. The separation of 
the colours on the body is not so abrupt as in that species, a stripe 
of reddish-brown marking the transition. Grey is the most 
usual colour of the upper parts ; but it appears to vary consi- 
derably at different seasons (perhaps at rutting time), changing 
to a light brown, and even to a dusky yellow. The first speci- 
mens, that were procured in February, were of this latter colour ; 
five months after they were found of a grey colour. One of 
them, which has been in my possession about ten months, and is 
now alive, has not changed colour perceptibly in that time. This 
animal is remarkably tame, and has become a regular and very 
amusing guest at the breakfast- table. 

A sufficient number of specimens of the S. maximus and bicolor 
has not been examined, to decide whether they are subject to the 
same variations of colour. A young one of the latter, procured 
from the straits of Sunda, had the whole of the tail of the same 
fulvous colour as the belly, while in adult ones it is entirely black, 
like the upper part of the body. These facts indicate the neces- 
sity of caution in multiplying the number of species in this genus 
on mere diversities of colour, as intermediate varieties will often 
be found to connect species apparently sufficiently remote. 


This species, which appears to be related to the Sciurus gingi- 
nianus, is smaller than the preceding, and is frequent in the wood 

2 l 2 ©A* 

260 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

of Bencoolen, living principally on palm-trees. It pierces a hole 
in the coco-nuts for the purpose of drinking the contained milk. 
It is called Tupai, Jty which appears to be the generic name of 
the Squirrels. 

It is about eight inches in length, and the tail is about the same. 
The ears are round, resembling in form the human, and not 
bearded. The colour on the upper part of the body and on 
the tail is a mixed yellowish-grey, each hair being twice an- 
nulated with black and fawn-colour. The lower parts are 
brownish-red or fulvous. On the sides, from the shoulder to 
the hind-leg, is a stripe of white, separated from the fulvous 
part by one of black. The tail is round, and has the hair 
uniformly disposed, not spreading towards each side, in which 
particular it resembles the S. Guerlingus (Myoxus Guerlingus 
Pennant). It carries it erect like the other Squirrels, and it 
is of the same colour as the body, with the exception of the 
extremity, which is furnished with some fulvous hairs. The 
scrotum is very large and pendent. The eyes are surrounded 
by a fawn-coloured ring. The whiskers are black. 

There is another species nearly related to the preceding, but 
much smaller, being only about five inches in length. It has the 
same distinguishing characteristics of rounded ears, round tail, 
and large scrotum, but differs in wanting the white stripe on the 
sides ; in the under parts being of a greyish-white, not fulvous ; 
in the tail wanting the fulvous hairs at its point, and in ha vino- the 
light and dark colours more distinct and somewhat annulated. 
In other respects, and in the colour of the back, it exactly re- 
sembles the former, and is perhaps no more than a variety. 

Of Flying Squirrels there are two species. The S. Petaurista 
is, according to Major Farquhar, a native of Malacca, and there 
called Chin Krawa. The second species was lately sent to me 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. .(1 

from Singapore, and is without doubt the Sciurus Sagitta of Lin- 
naeus, but quite a different animal from that figured by Shaw 
(Gen. Zool.) under this name. The flying membrane does not 
extend from the head to the hands, but only between the limbs, 
and is beautifully ciliated. The tail is flat and distichous, of an 
oblong lanceolate form. The scrotum is particularly large. 


The Malays distinguish three species or varieties of this genus, 
viz. the Napu, yti the Kanchil Ja*u£ and the Pelandok. 

MOSCHUS Javaxicus Pallas, 

Napu. yj 
This is the largest of the three. It is about twenty inches long 
and thirteen in height. It stands considerably higher behind 
than at the shoulder. It is of a mottled ferruginous colour on 
the back, grey varied with white on the sides, and white below 
and on the inside of the thighs. The tail is from two to three 
inches long, tufted, white below and at the end. A white stripe 
runs along the base of the lower jaw on both sides to the poste- 
rior angle ; the space between is also white, and gives origin to 
three diverging white stripes, which run to the shoulders and 
middle of the breast. The top of the head is very flat, and of 
the same ferruginous colour as the back, which, however, be- 
comes darker on the back of the neck. A nearly black line 
runs from each of the eyes to the nose. A grey stripe runs for 
some way along the middle of the belly. It has short spurious 

This species frequents thickets near the sea-shore, and feeds 
principally on the berries of a species of Ardkia. It can be 
easily tamed if taken young, and will become quite familiar. 


262 Sir T. S. Raffles's Deicriptivt Catalogue 

MOSCHUS Kanciiil. Jj^ 

This species is smaller than the preceding, being about fifteen 
inches long by about nine or ten in height. In form it nearly 
resembles the Napu, but is lighter and more active. Its colour 
is very different, being of a deep-red brown, approaching to 
black on the back, and becoming of a bright bay on the sides. 
It is white on the belly and inside of the legs. It has three 
white stripes on the breast like the Napu, but differently dis- 
posed. The stripe on each side of the lower jaw is prolonged 
to the shoulder, becoming narrower as it goes backwards ; the 
middle stripe is broadest below, and narrows to a point above, 
never uniting with the lateral stripes. In the Napu, on the 
contrary, the three white stripes originate from one point be- 
tween the maxillary ones, which appear like the commence- 
ment of another pair ; and all three become broader behind. 
The head of the Kanchil is not so flat, and the muzzle is more 
curved above. The black lines from the eyes to the nose are 
wanting, but a well defined black line runs down the back of 
the neck, which is not present in the Napu. A brown line runs 
from between the fore- legs to the middle of the belly. This 
species is further distinguished by having long upper canines 
curving backwards ; while in the N apu they are short and 
straight. The tail is from one and a half to two inches lonw, 
tufted, white below and at the end. It has spurious hoofs like 
the former. 

These differences are constant at every age, and they differ 
not less in their habits and manners. This species is found in 
the depth of the forests, and feeds chiefly on the fruit of the 
Kayo briang (Gmelina villosa Roxb.). It will live in confine- 
ment, but never becomes tame like the preceding. If ever it 
succeeds in breaking its confinement, it endeavours to make its 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. \ 

escape to the woods. It is a much swifter and lighter animal, 
and is said to be so alert and cunning, that it is a common Ma- 
lay proverb to designate a great rogue, to be as canning as ;i 
Kanchil. Of this cunning many instances are related by the 
natives. If taken in the nooses laid for them, they will, when 
the hunter arrives, stretch themselves out motionless and feign 
to be dead ; and if he is deceived by this manoeuvre and unties 
them, they seize the moment to start on their legs and disappear 
in an instant. A still more singular expedient however is men- 
tioned : that when closely pursued by dogs, the Kanchil will 
sometimes make a bound upwards, hook itself on the branch of 
a tree by means of its crooked tusks, and there remain suspended 
till the dogs have passed beneath. No portion of this activity 
and quickness is ascribed to the Napu or Pelandok ; and to this 
difference of disposition is attributed the Kanchil frequenting 
the forests without fear of the Tigers and beasts of prey ; while 
the latter two, more timid, seek safety in the thickets nearer to 
human habitations, where they are less exposed to such enemies. 
The Pelandok is the least of the three in point of height, but 
has proportionably a larger and heavier body : it has also a 
larger eye. 


Of this genus there are three kinds frequent in Sumatra and 
the adjacent islands, viz. the Rusa, the Rusa ubi, and the Ki- 

Rusa. Ljj 
This is, no doubt, the greater Axis of Pennant, and is abun- 
dantly distinct from the common or spotted Axis. 
It is of a large size, often standing as high as an ordinary sized 
pony of the country, which is about four feet or twelve hands. 


2o4 Sir T. S. Raffles'* Descriptive Catalogue 

Its horns are large, furrowed and rugged, and, like the other 
kinds of Axis, three-branched. Its colour is pretty uniformly 
of a greyish-brown, darker on the belly ; the hinder parts and 
tail have somewhat of a ferruginous shade, and the inside of 
the limbs is whitish. The head is handsome ; the muzzle 
black, and soft at its extremity. The chin is whitish. The 
eyes have the usual lacrymal furrow. The female has no 
horns ; in the male they are large, frequently more than two 
feet in length, varying somewhat in the degree of divergence, 
and in relative thickness and proportions ; their colour is more 
or less dusky or brown. The burr at the base is tuberculated ; 
the lowest branch is directed forward, and the upper, which is 
shorter, looks backwards. The canines of the upper jaw are 
rather long in old individuals. The ears are large, rather 
naked, soft and whitish at the edges, and have some pencils 
of long hair at the lower and inner margin. 

This species is elegantly formed, and in its habits is peculiarly 
gentle and tractable. It is frequently kept tame, and has been 
commonly known among Europeans in these islands by the erro- 
neous name of Elk. The pair now in my possession were pre- 
sented to me by the King of Acheen. 

A variety of this is described by the natives as of a darker 
colour, being of a deep brown or nearly black, and called Rosa 
etam or Rusa Kumbang. It is rather smaller than the common 
kind, but has exactly the same horns, and in fact seems to dif- 
fer in nothing but colour. 

The spotted Axis met with in these islands appears to be the 
same as that of Bengal, and has probably been introduced from 

The middle Axis of Pennant is probably the small species most 
frequent in Java, and generally dried as an article of food, called 
Binding throughout the eastern islands. A white individual of 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 265 

this species was sent to me from Macassar in the island of Cele- 
bes, and lived some }^ears in my park at Buitenzorg. 

CERVUS Muntjak? Schrcb. 

KlJANG. i_sJ 

^ • •• 

The Kijang is smaller than the other species of deer, being less 
than four feet in length, and not exceeding two feet in height. 
The horns are seated on an elevated cylindric base or pedicel 
covered with skin and hair. The pedicel is about three inches 
long ; the horn about four, deeply furrowed, with a promi- 
nent burr at the base, immediately above which it divides into 
two branches, one short and pointing inwards ; the other erect, 
and curved inwards and backwards at the point. The pedi- 
cels are an elongation of the os front is, and their roots are 
continued forwards above the eyes to the nose, forming two 
strong prominent ribs on the face. On the forehead between 
these is a double longitudinal fold of the skin, forming in some 
sort a middle rib, .much less conspicuous than the lateral 
ones. The female has no horns, and the ribs of the face 
are obscure. The male has long canines in the upper jaw 
resembling tusks, sharp, and curved backwards. In form this 
deer is remarkably elegant ; the legs are slender and grace- 
ful ; the body is round, compact, and rather large in propor- 
tion to the legs. The fur is very fine, close and gloss}^. The 
colour is a bright bay or reddish brown, lighter below, and 
mixed with brown on the neck. The inside of the thighs, the 
region of the pubes, and the under-side of the tail, are of a 
pure white. The chin and lower jaw is whitish. The muzzle 
is nearly black, which colour extends along the middle rib, and 
from thence in a stripe running upwards to the extremity of 
each pediceL In the female the place of the horns is marked 

vol. xin. 2 H by 

266 Sir T. S. Raffles 's Descriptive Catalogue 

by a tuft of black hairs. The ears are rather small, and thinly 

covered with hair. Lachrymal furrows as usual. Spurious 

hoofs small and blunt. 

This species is found in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen, and 
is figured by Mr. Marsden in his History of Sumatra. That 
drawing, however, must have been taken from a young indivi- 
dual before the horns had fully formed or begun to branch. 
Even the burr, which afterwards becomes so conspicuous, ap- 
pears to have been wanting. 

Of the Rusa ubi, .jj! L^, called also Rusa saput, cuyL L*y 
and Rusa tunjuk, a specimen has not been procured ; but it is 
described by the natives to be inferior in size to the Rusa, of a 
reddish colour, and to have unbranched horns covered with hair 
to within a short distance of the point. 

None of these species of deer appear to shed their horns 
yearly like the European ones. The first horn is commonly a 
small and imperfect one, and falls early. It is replaced by the 
perfect one, which is permanent, and is never lost unless by ac- 
cident, when it is not replaced. This is probably the case with 
all the deer of tropical climates. 

ANTILOPE Sumatrensis Venn. 

Kambikg utax. ,J^ i-ju^ 

Wild Goat of Sumatra. 

The figure of this animal, given in the last edition of Mr. Mars- 
den's History of Sumatra is very accurate, but does not fully ex- 
press the character of spirit and vivacity which marks the living 
subject. I kept one for some months, but found it impossible to 
tame him ; and he finally died from impatience of confinement. 
It is a powerful muscular animal. The detailed description in 

Shaw's Gen. ZooL is generally correct. 


of a Zoological Collection wade in Sumatra. 1(u 


There is a very fine breed of cattle peculiar to Sumatra, of which 
I saw abundance in Menangkabu when I visited the capital of (hat 
country in 1818. They are short, compact, well made animals, 
without a hump, and almost without exception ol* a light fawn- 
colour relieved with white. The eyes are large and fringed with 
long black eye-lashes. The legs are delicate and well shaped. 
Among all that 1 saw I did not observe any that were not in ex- 
cellent condition ; in which respect they formed a striking con- 
trast to the cattle generally met with in India. They are univer- 
sally used in agriculture, and are perfectly domesticated. This 
breed appears to be quite distinct from the Banting of Java and 
the more eastern islands. 

Of the Buffalo, the white variety is the most frequent at Ben- 
coolen. It does not appear to differ from the black in any thing 
but the colour, which is a reddish white. 


The Sumatran horses are small, strong and hardy. Those of 
the northern parts of the island, particularly Acheen, are the 
most prized. The Batta horses are rather larger, very strong, 
but not handsome. They are distinct breeds from the horses of 
Java and Bima, which are nearly of the same size, about twelve 


Wild Elephants are extremely numerous in the forests of Su- 
matra; but few attempts have been made to catch and domesti- 
cate them. At Acheen alone have they been trained to the ser- 
vice of man ; and I have now in my possession a young one pre- 
sented to me by the King of that country. 

2 m 2 RHINO- 

268 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

RHINOCEROS Sumatranus. 

Badak. jpb 

Two-horned Rhinoceros of Sumatra. 

Dr. Bell's description and representation of this animal in the 
Philosophical Transactions are extremely correct. The drawing 
of the skull is however erroneous in one particular ; the incisor 
bone of the upper jaw is straight and horizontal, and not curved 
as there represented. It must also be remarked, that the original 
number of incisor-teeth is four in each jaw, the same as in the 
one-horned Rhinoceros of India. Of these incisors, two in each 
jaw are very small, and soon fall out, and were therefore pro- 
bably wanting in the adult head figured by Dr. Bell. The small 
incisors of the upper jaw are situated behind the large and per- 
sistent ones ; those of the lower jaw between them. The num- 
ber of persistent molars in each jaw is six on each side, as repre- 
sented by Dr. Bell ; but it appears that there is a seventh, which 
soon falls out. The number in the young subject is six, with the 
rudiment of a seventh behind. As this seventh advances, the 
first molar begins to be obliterated, and falls out before the last 
arrives at its full size ; so that at no period are there seven com- 
pletely formed teeth existing in the jaw. The skin of the Su- 
matran Rhinoceros is much softer and more flexible than that of 
the Indian one, and is not, like it, corrugated into plates of mail. 
It has however some doublings or folds, particularly round the 
neck, shoulders and haunches, rather more distinct and defined 
than in Dr. Bell's drawing. The natives assert that a third horn 
is sometimes met with ; and in one of the young specimens pro- 
cured, an indication of the kind was observed. The female has 
a larger and heavier head than the male, but is similar in other 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 

They are not bold, and one of the largest size has been seen 
to run away from a single wild Dog. 

The one-horned Rhinoceros of India is not known to the na- 
tives of this part of Sumatra ; and the single horns which are oc- 
casionally procured, appear to be merely the larger horns of the 
two-horned species separated from the small one. There is, 
however, another animal in the forests of Sumatra never yet no- 
ticed, which in size and character nearly resembles the Rhino- 
ceros, and which is said to have a single horn. This animal is 
distinguished by having a narrow whitish belt encircling the 
body, and is known to the natives of the interior by the name of 
Tennu. j^J It has been seen at several places ; and the de- 
scriptions given of it by people quite unconnected with each 
other, coincide so nearly, that no doubt can be entertained of 
the existence of such an animal. It is said to resemble in some 
particulars the Buffalo, and in others the Badak or Rhinoceros. 
A specimen has not yet been procured ; but I have several 
parties on the look-out, and have little doubt of soon being able 
to forward a more accurate description from actual examina- 

It should be remarked, that the native name, Tennu, has, until 
lately, been understood to belong to the Tapir. It is so applied 
at Malacca, and by some of the people at Beneoolen. In the 
interior however, where the animals are best known, the white- 
banded Rhinoceros is called Tennu, and the Tapir Gindol, and 
by some Babi Alu. It is not impossible, that, as both animals 
have white bands, the names may have been confounded by 
people little in the habit of seeing either, and deriving their in- 
formation solely from report. In a country like Sumatra, where 
the inhabitants, in a great measure shut out from general com- 
munication, are divided into an infinity of tribes, speaking diffe- 
rent dialects, a perfect consistency or uniformity of nomencla- 

270 $ir T. S. Raffles\s Descriptive Catalogue 

ture cannot be expected, and it is not always easy to reconcile 
the synonymy. 

TAPIRUS Malayanus. 

The first notice that I received of the existence of this animal 
was in the year 1805 ; a living specimen having been sent to Sir 
George Leith, when Lieutenant-Governor of Penang : it was 
afterwards observed by Major Farquhar in the vicinity of Ma- 
lacca. A drawing and description of it was communicated by 
him to the Asiatic Society in 1816, and a living subject was after- 
wards sent to the Menagerie at Barrackpore from Bencbolen. 
At this latter place the specimens contained in the present collec- 
tion have been procured. 

It is known by different names in different parts of the country. 
By the people of Limun it is called Saladang, cJl, by those of 
the interior of Manna, Gindol, JjAif in the interior of Bencoo- 
len, Babi Alu ; and at Malacca, Tennu. 

Little can be added to the original description of Major Far- 
quhar, the substance of which is as follows : 

The Malay Tapir resembles in form the American, and has a 
similar flexible proboscis. Its general appearance is heavy 
and massive, somewhat resembling the hog. It is particularly 
distinguished by its colour, the body having a broad defined 
belt or band of white, while the fore and hind parts are black. 
This band extends circularly round the body from behind the 
shoulders to the root of the tail, and contrasts strongly with 
the glossy black of the rest of the animal. The skin is thick 
and firm, thinly covered with short hair. There is no mane 
on the neck as in the American species. The head is black, 
and furnished with a proboscis of six or eight inches in length. 
The eyes are small. Ears roundish and bordered with white. 
The teeth are forty-two in number. In the upper jaw there 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. '2 ?. I 

are seven molars on each side, one small canine inserted 
exactly on the suture of the incisor-bone, and in front six in- 
cisors, the two outer of which are elongated into tusks. In the 
under jaw there are but six molars, the canines are targe, and 
the number of incisors, the two outer of which are the smallest, 
is the same as in the upper jaw. There is a vacant space of 
about two inches between the molars and canines in each jaw. 
The tail is very short, and almost destitute of hair. The legs 
are short and stout ; the fore-feet furnished with four toes ; the 
hind-feet with three. 

These animals are large, particularly in the body, which is 
equal to that of the Buffalo, it may be interesting to give the 
exact dimensions of two, one a male, described by Major Far- 
quhar ; the other a female, killed at Bencoolen. It is remark- 
able that all the females that have been procured have been 
considerably larger than the males. 

Extreme length from the nose to the tail, Ft. Tns 

measured along the back .... 6 10^- 

Circumference of the body .... 6 

Height of the shoulder 3 2 

Ditto at the Haunch 3 4 

In a subsequent communication to the Asiatic Society, Major 
Farquhar gave an account of a very young Tapir which he had 
alive in his house. It appears that until the age of four months 
it is black, and beautifully marked with spots and stripes of a 
fawn colour above, and white below. After that period it be- 
gan to change colour, the spots disappeared, and at the age of 
six months it had become of the usual colour of the adult. Ma- 
jor Farquhar says that he found this animal of a very mild and 
gentle disposition, that it became as tame and familiar as a dog, 












272, Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

fed indiscriminately on all kinds of vegetables, and was very 
fond of attending at table to receive bread, cakes, or the like. 
The living specimen sent from Bencoolen to Bengal was young, 
and became very tractable. It was allowed to roam occasionally 
in the park at Barrackpore, and the man who had the charge of 
it informed me that it frequently entered the ponds, and appear- 
ed to walk along the bottom under the water, and not to make 
any attempt to swim. 

The flesh is eaten by the natives of Sumatra. 

SUS Scrota. 
Babi. ^b 
The Wild Hog of Sumatra offers nothing peculiar. 


Duyong of the Malays, c^j 

Of this singular and interesting animal I have already sent 
an account to England. The specimen which accompanied it 
was procured at Singapore, and presented to me by the Sultan. 
They are occasionally met with in the bay of Tappanuli on the 
west coast of Sumatra. 

Since writing the above a new and very singular animal has 
been brought to me, which agrees with Viverra in the number 
of incisors, but differs in their proportions and disposition. The 
naked rat-like tail is also peculiar. If it be considered as a Vi- 
verra, the specific name of gymnura would be appropriate. 
It is above a foot in length from the nose to the root of the tail, 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. 273 

which is ten inches more. The body, legs, and first half of 

the tail are black. The head and neck to the shoulders are 
white. There is a black stripe above the eyes, and there are 
black hairs intermixed with the white on the top of the head 
between the ears. The tail is nearly naked, somewhat scaly, 
black to the middle, and white from thence to the tip. The 
body is covered with two sorts of hair, one short, silky and 
dense, forming a fine coat of fur ; the other longer and coarser. 
The muzzle is elongated, and the snout projects nearly an inch 
beyond the lower jaw. The nostrils are prominent, and ha\ e 
their margins convoluted. There are in the upper jaw six 
incisors, the first, two largest and remote from each other, the 
last pair very small; two canines about the same length ;is the 
first incisors, and six molars on each side, the first of which is 
small and has two points, the second is larger and has one point. 
The fourth and fifth molars are the largest, and are marked with 
four tubercles; while the last is imperfect, and lias only three. 
In the lower jaw there are six incisors, of which the last pair 
is the smallest; the others nearly equal, and with a space be- 
tween the first two as in the upper jaw. There are two long 
canines, and six molars, similar to those above. Tongue large 
and soft. Eyes small. Ears rounded, erect and bare. Whiskers 
long, some of the hairs white, some black. Legs and feet 
scantily covered with short hair, the fore-ones thick and mus- 
cular. Eeet five-toed, with compressed, curved, sharp claws. 
The animal emits a strong musky smell. 

An animal was brought to Major Earquhar some years ago 
from the woods in the interior of Malacca, under the name of 
Tikus Ambang bulan, which appears to be the same as the 

vol. xni. U Jn 

274 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue, §c. 

In concluding this part of the catalogue, it may be proper to 
observe that I have information from the natives, of several ad- 
ditional Mammalia existing in Sumatra, but which I have not 
felt myself justified in noticing until that information is more 
full and complete. The King of Acheen assures me that there 
is an animal called Jumbing nearly the size and make of a horse, 
with two unequal horns, to be found in the eastern part of his 
dominions ; and several smaller animals, which appear to be yet 
undescribed, are mentioned by the natives as existing in the 
forests of the interior of Bencoolen, which I hope in time to 













( iii ) 



I. Observations on the Natural History and Anatomy of 
the Pelecanus Aquilus of Linnceus. By Edward Bur- 
ton, Esq. F.L.S. ----- p. l 

II. The Characters -of Otiocerus and Anotia, two new Ge- 
nera of Hemipterous Insects belonging to the Family of 
Cicadiadcs : with a Description of several Species. By 

the Rev. William Kirby, M.A. F.R.S. and L.S. p. 12 

III. Observations on the Germination of Mosses : in a Letter 
to William Jackson Hooker, Esq. F.L.S. By Mr. 
James Drummond, A. L.S. - - - p. 24 

IV. Observations on some Animals of America allied to the 
Genus Antilope. By Charles Hamilton Smith, Esq. 
A.L.S. - - - - - - - p. 28 

V. Characters of a new Genus of Coleopterous Insects of the 
Family By rr hides. By William Elford Leach, M.D. 
F.R.S. and L.S. ----- p. 41 

VI. Description of some Shells found in Canada. By the 
Rev. Thomas Rackett, F.R.S. A.S. and L.S. p. 42 

VII. On 



VII. On the Indian Species of Menispermum. By Henry 
Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S.and L.S. - p. 44 

VIII. The Characters of three new Genera of Eats without 
foliaceous Appendages to the Nose. By William Elford 

Leach, M.D. F.R.S.and L.S. -. •- - p. 69 

IX. The Characters of seven Genera of Bats with foliaceous 
Appendages to the Nose. By William Elford Leach, 
M.D. F.R.S.and L.S. p. 73 

X. On two new British Species of Mytilus, in a Letter to the 
Rev. E. J. Burrow, F.R.S. and L.S. By the Rev. 
Revett Sheppard, F.L.S. p. 83 

XI. Observations on the natural Group of Plants called 
PoMACEiE. By Mr. John Lindley, F.L.S. p. 88 

XII. Account of some new Species of Birds of the Genera 
Psittacus and Columba, in the Museum of the Linnean 
Society. By M. C. J. Temminck, F.M.L.S. $c. p. 107 

XIII. Descriptions of three Species of the Genus Glareola. 

By William Elford Leach, M.D. F.R.S. and L.S. p. 131 

XIV. Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from 

the Island of Java. %Thos. Horsfield, M.D. F. L.S. p. 133 

XV. An Account of a new Genus of Plants, named Rap tle- 
sia. By Robert Brown, Esq., F.R.S. Libr. L.S. p. 201 

XVI. Descriptions of the Wild Dog of Sumatra, a new Spe- 
cies of Viverra, and a new Species of Pheasant. By 
Major-Gen. Thomas Hardwicke, F. R.S. and L.S. p. 235 

XVII. Dc- 


XVII. Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological Collection, 
made on account of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, in the Island of Sumatra and its Vicinity, under 
the Direction of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Fort Marlborough; with additional 
Notices illustrative of the Natural History of those 
Countries. By Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt. 
F.R.S. Communicated by Sir Everard Home, Bart., 
F.R.S. andL.S. _____ p . 239 


XVIII. Second Part of the Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoo- 
logical Collection made in the Island of Sumatra and 
its Vicinity. By Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt., 
F.R.S. ------- p . 277 

XIX. A Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. By Mr. Da- 
vid Don. Communicated by A. B. Lambert, Esq. 
V.P.L.S. ------- p. 341 

XX. On a Fossil Shell of a fibrous Structure, the Frag- 
ments of which occur abundantly in the Chalk Strata and 
in the Flints accompanying it. By Mr. James Sowerby, 
F.L.S. 4-c. _ . * _ . . p . 453 

XXI. Remarks on Hypnum recognitum, and on several new 
Species ofRpscoea; in a Letter to William George Ma- 
ton, M.D. F.R.S. V.P.L.S., from Sir James Edward 
Smith, M.D. F.R.S. Pres. L.S. p. 459 

XXII. Remarks on the Genera Orbicula and Crania of 



Lamarck, with Descriptions of two Species of each Ge- 
nus ; and some Observations proving the Patella distorta 
of Montagu to be a Species of Crania. By Mr. George 
Brettingham Sowerby, F.L.S. - - - p. 465 

XXIII. A Commentary on the Ilortus Malabaricus, Part I. 

By Francis Hamilton, M.D. F.R.S. and L.S. p. 474 

XXIV. Observations on the Chrysanthemum Indicum ofLin- 
nceus. By Joseph Sabine, Esq. F.R.S. andL.S.fyc. p. 56l 

XXV. Account of the Marmots of North America hitherto 
known, with Notices and Descriptions of three new Spe- 
cies. By Joseph Sabine, Esq. F.R.S. and L.S. fyc. p. 579 

XXVI. On certain Species of Carduus and Cnicus which 
appear to be dioecious. By Thomas Smith, Esq. F.R.S. 

and L.S. - - - . - ' - - - p. 592 

XXVII. The Natural History of Lamia Amputator of 
Fabricius. By the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, A.B. 
F.L.S. $c. ------ p . 604 

XXVIII. Description of two new Genera of Plants from 
Nepal. By Nathaniel Wallich, M.D. F.L.S. fyc. p. 608 

XXIX. Extracts from the Minute-Book of the Linnean 
Society of London - - - - p. 615 

Catalogue of the Library of the Linnean Society. Con- 
tinued from Page 594 of Vol. XII. of the Society's 
Transactions - - - - - - . p. 628 

List of Donors to the Library of the Linnean Society p. 633 

Donations to the Museum of the Linnean Society - p. 636 


( 277 ) 

XVIII. Second Part of the Descriptive Catalogue of a Zoological 
Collection made in the Island of Sumatra and its vicinity. By 
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Knt., F.R.S. 

Read March 20, 1821. 

A V E S. 


Vultures are rare on the west coast of Sumatra, but are oc- 
casionally seen on the Malay peninsula and at Penang. 

Ha lang or Lang of the Malays. JJa 

In this genus the species are so numerous and so liable to 
variation, that it is not easy to determine them with certainty 
without ampler means of reference than are obtainable in India. 
Those contained in this collection appear reducible under the 
following species. 

1. FALCO Ossifragus, Linn. Var. 
Lang Boomboon. ^^cj $1i> 

2. FALCO dimidiatus. 
Lang Laut, or Sea Eagle. c-»jD £Ja 
Resembles the preceding in size and general appearance, but 
has the head, under part of the body, and end of the tail white, 
with bill and cere blue. Both species live chiefly on fish. 
vol. xiii. 2 o 3. FALCO 

278 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

3. FALCO Bacha. 

This species, described by Le Vaillant, has been found in 
Sumatra both at Bencoolen and at Acheen. 

4. FALCO Pondicerianus, Gmcl. 

Lang Bondol. J.jcj J-b> 

This species of Kite is frequent throughout India and the 
eastern islands, and is very useful in devouring carrion. It is 
commonly called in India the Bramini Kite. 

5. FALCO communis, Gmel. Var. 

Rajawali of the Malays. ^Jy^j 

Sikap Lang of the Sumatrans. £-U c&U_- 

Laki Angin of the Passummahs. J& ^U 

This Falcon is in high estimation among the Malays, who 
consider it as the prince of birds, and have frequent allusions to 
it in their poetry. 

6. FALCO Nisus, Linn. 

Sikap Balam. Jb <*J£^ 

Of this there are several varieties. The smallest kinds are 
called Sikap belalang, or Mangkas. 


Lang Tambikar. ^LxcJ J_l& 
Is a large, and perhaps a new species. 

It is above two feet in length, and more than three feet across 
the wings. Bill and claws blueish-black ; cere blueish. Legs 
covered with short feathers down to the toes, which are pale 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part 11. 27<) 

yellow. The colour on the back and wings is fulvous brown, 
the edges of the feathers being lighter coloured, and the 
wing-feathers having darker transverse bands. The lower 
parts are white, with a lanceolate brown spot in the middle of 
each feather ; on the abdomen and thighs these become trans- 
verse stripes. The bill is straight at the base, curved at the 
point, and the upper mandible has an obtuse dent in the 
middle. The feathers on the head rise into a kind of crest 
behind, and are lighter coloured than those of the body. The 
cheeks are whitish, with brown spots. The rectrices are 
brown, with several dark transverse bands. The wings are 
shorter than the tail, and their fourth feather is the longest. 


Bueong Hantoo, or Pongo. fUa ^ ?£l 
Also called Too hook jukjj by the Sumatrans. 

Hantoo and Pongo are both names given by the Malays to 
certain imaginary beings of evil omen, or in one word, hobgob- 
lins. Owls are also called birds of the moon ; and are fabled to 
be in love with that planet, because they are said to be particu- 
larly vociferous just before she appears, and to become silent the 
moment she rises above the horizon, as if they had then attained 
the object of their wishes. There are three species in the col- 


The first and largest resembles in colour the S. nyctea, or 

Snowy Owl, but is a horned species. 

It is about fourteen inches in length; its plumage white, and 
each feather marked with transverse stripes of brown, which 
are fainter below than on the back. The great wing-feathers 
are black ; the secondary deep brown, with yellowish bands 

2 o 2 mixed 

?80 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

mixed with white, particularly on the inner side, and at the 
points. The horns are not very remarkable. The eyes are 
surrounded with a well-marked circle of white, stiff, bristly 
feathers ; the eyelids are fringed with black ones. The ears 
are oval and small. The bill is yellow, curved, and sur- 
rounded at the base by bristles, which are directed forwards, 
and are as long as the bill ; those on the upper mandible 
black, on the lower white. The legs are feathered to the 
toes. Tail rather short, with white bands and tips. Wings 
equal in length to the tail. 

This species agrees generally in character with the Striz Bubo, 
but has the colour of S. nyctea. 

2. SRIX Lempiji*. 

The second species resembles the 5. Scops of Europe, being 
of the same size, but differs in some degree in its colours, which 
are a mixture of brown and buff, darker on the back and lighter 
on the breast, which is moreover marked with narrow arrow- 
shaped spots of black. 


The third is a hornless species, about ten inches in length, 
brown above, lighter and variegated with white below : the tail 
with black bands ; legs feathered to the toes ; yellow irids ; and 
wings shorter than the tail. 


The species of this genus are much less numerous in Sumatra 
and the Malay peninsula than in the more eastern islands, par- 
ticularly the Moluccas. The following are natives of the former 

* S. Lempiji. Dr. Horsfield, page 140 of this volume. 

1. PSIT- 

of a Zoological Collection made m Sumatra. Part II. 281 

1. PSITTACUS ornatus, Linn. 
Is found on the Malay peninsula. 

2. PSITTACUS erubescens, Shazc. 

BlTRONG BAYAU. y\i c. jy i 

This species is not unfrequent in Sumatra. The specimens in 
the collection are from the vicinity of Bencoolen. It is this 
species that figures in the fables and poetry of the Malays, in 
which it is represented to be endowed with a supernatural de- 
gree of intelligence. 

3. PSITTACUS Galgulus, Linn. 

SeRINDIT. i^jJcj^ 

Found in the interior of Bencoolen. 

4. PSITTACUS Malaccensis, Lath, 

TaNOW, Or PlALLING. J-JUs jjfc 

5. PSITTACUS Sumatranus. 
Keke. ^JJ 

This species is about twelve or fourteen inches in length, entirely 
green, and with a moderately long even tail. The bill is light 
flesh-coloured ; the feet blueish or lead-coloured. A naked 
blackish space surrounds the eye, which has the irids white. 
The feathers on the neck have a yellowish tinge, and those of 
the rump are blueish. On the rest of the body the green is 
pretty uniform, but is brightest on the head. The inside of 
the wings is blackish. 



Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

Besides these, there are numerous species met with in capti- 
vity, which have been brought from the more eastern islands, 
such as the Psittacus Gigas, cristatus, sulphiireus, Dominicella, 
&c, which it is unnecessary to particularize, as they are for the 
most part well known. One of the most beautiful of these is the 
P. cyanogaster : an individual of this species has long been a 
familiar inmate of my house, and is remarkable for its extreme 
degree of familiarity and domestication. It is always left at per- 
fect liberty, and associates freely with all the other animals in 
the house. It attends regularly at table, courts the caresses of 
all, and shows an extraordinary degree of jealousy if the slight- 
est attentions are paid to any other favourite. 

TROGON Kasumba. 
Burong Kasumba. Uc«i 


Appears to resemble T. fasciatus. 

The bill is strongly notched near the point, not serrate, as in the 
rest of the genus. This beautiful species is about ten inches 
in length, and appears to vary somewhat in colour accord- 
ing to age and sex. In the larger specimens the colours are 
less bright. The back is there of a yellowish-brown ; the 
lower parts yellowish mixed with red. The head and neck 
are covered with filiform feathers, partly black, partly grey. 
A whitish band divides it from the breast. The wino--coverts 
are black, with white fasciae, which are wider and greyish on 
the larger coverts. The remiges are black, with a narrow 
edging of white on some of the feathers. The two upper tail- 
feathers are fawn-coloured tipped with black ; the next black, 
sometimes tipped with brown; and the lower ones partly 
white. The bill is dark blue, approaching to black, short, 
broad at the base, with a prominent arched keej above, 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part TI. 283 

strongly notched near the point. The lower mandible is in- 
curved at the edges, turned upwards at the point, and notched. 
The nostrils are oval, situated near the base of the bill, and 
partly covered by the feathers ; above each is a fascicle of 
strong black bristles : there is another fascicle on each side of 
the lower mandible, and a single one on the chin. The tarsi 
are short, and covered with blackish feathers tipped with red- 
dish-white, which radiate in such a manner as to form a kind 
of ring or circle above the toes. The feet are formed for 
climbing. In young and smaller specimens the colours are 
much more brilliant ; the head is of a velvet-black ; the neck, 
breast, abdomen and rump are bright red, and the back is 
ferruginous. The whole of the wing-coverts are finely and 
delicately striated with white. The arrangement of the co- 
lours of the tail is the same as above described. The bill ap- 
pears to be rather more depressed. In both old and young 
there is a naked space of the same blue colour as the bill 
behind the lower mandible, and another above the eyes. The 
irids are brownish-red. The skin is thin, and the feathers 
weakly implanted in it, so as easily to be pulled out; and 
hence it is not easy to prepare good specimens. 

1. BUCCO Philippensis, Linn. 

Chanda. ^j^ 


This species does not appear to be different from the B. Indi- 
cus ; and the latter name would probably be preferable, as being 
more general. 

It is found in Sumatra. 


284 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

2. BUCCO Lathami, GmeL 

Am pis. u^xLA 

Is about six inches in length. Bill more compressed and arched 
than in the other species of the genus, and wanting the bris- 
tles at the base ; almost black in the male, but yellowish in the 
female. The legs are red, but become yellowish by drying. 

Found at Singapore, and also in the interior of Sumatra. 

Takoo. <f\» 

Is a large species found at Singapore and in Sumatra. 

About 10^- inches in length. General colour green ; dark above 
and lighter below. Crown of the head red. Throat blue ; 
sides of the head black, separated from the red on the top by 
a blue stripe. There are besides a spot of red behind the 
eyes, a second larger of orange-yellow on the side of the 
neck, and a third of red on the side of the breast. These 
colours are liable to vary, and some of the spots are often 
entirely wanting. Bill black, with the bristles at the base ; 
the upper mandible curved a little outwards near the base. 
Wings and tail green above and brown beneath. Legs black- 
ish-blue. Behind the upper articulation of the tarsus are 
sometimes found a few hard sharp tubercles, which may pos- 
sibly assist the bird in climbing. Only males of this species 
have been found, and among them scarcely any two were 
perfectly alike ; in some the breast was entirely black or grey ; 
in others marked with a white spot ; in some the crown of the 
head is grey, and the lateral red spot is frequently wanting. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 285 

4. BUCCO ;\rsTii.\Lis*. 

Is about the size of the Bucco Philippensis, or5± inches in length. 
The female only has been yet met with, and is of a green co- 
lour, somewhat lighter below. The throat is a greenish-blue. 
There are two red spots behind the eye, one rather above it, 
and the other larger below it. There is sometimes a black 
patch on the breast. Legs black ; in which it differs from the 
B. Philippensis, whose legs are red. 


1. CUCULUS flavus, Gmel. 

In the present specimen (a female) the tail is barred with brown- 
ish-yellow instead of white, as commonly described. The grey 
of the head extends to the breast. The nostrils are perfectly 
round and tubular, their edge forming a prominent ring. 

Found at Pulo Penang. 


Kradok, or Booboot. <^fj. o J \fi 

The colours of this bird vary considerably at different ages. 
When young it is of a greenish- black, with rufous wings. As 
it becomes older, the belly becomes whiter, the shafts of the 
feathers on the head and back acquire a light colour, and the 
upper feathers of the tail become barred with grey. It lives on 
insects, is chiefly observed on the ground, and has a weak 

* Bucco australis. Horsfield, p. 181. t Centropus lepidus. Ibid. p. 180. 

vol. xin. 2 p 3. CUCULUS 

<2S6 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

3. CUCULUS Malayanus. 

This species has some affinity to the C. lucidas. 

It is about seven inches in length ; brown above, with a 
greenish gloss, particularly on the scapulars. The whole 
under parts are transversely barred with white and brown un- 
dulations. The wings are long, extending to about the middle 
of the tail ; the coverts edged with ferruginous. The tail 
consists of ten feathers, of which the upper are greenish- 
brown, and the lower barred with brown, black and white. 
The bill is somewhat compressed at the base, and the nostrils 
are prominent. There is a row of white dots above the eyes. 

Native of the Malay peninsula. 

4. CUCULUS Bubutus*. 

This is one of the largest of the genus, being not much less than 
two feet in length. The whole body is of a deep blue colour 
with a greenish gloss. The wings are of a bright-red brown. 
The bill is black, compressed and arched. The nostrils nar- 
row and oblique. The eyes are surrounded by a circle of 
black bristles. The irids are crimson. The tail, which is 
blueish-black, without spots or bands, is cuneated, and con- 
sists of ten feathers. The claw of the thumb-toe is longer 
than that of the others, but not proportionally so long as that 
of the C. Tolu. 

It is a native of the forests of Sumatra, and feeds principally 
upon grasshoppers. 

* CerUrupus Bubutus. Horsfield, p. 180. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 887 


> > 

It is about 17 inches long. Back and wings blueish-grcen with 
a metallic gloss. The first half of the tail is of the same co- 
lour, but the extremity is of a deep sanguine brown. The 
throat, breast and uropygium are also brown ; the abdomen 
is blackish. The head is covered with stiff bristly feathers, 
of a greyish-black. The bill is of a glaucous-green colour, 
compressed, arched, and somewhat hooked at the point. The 
lower mandible is red, and similarly curved. The nostrils 
are round, situated near the edge of the upper mandible, 
and surrounded by a fascicle of stiff erect bristles. A large 
naked red space surrounds the eyes, and extends forward to 
the bill. The irids are black. The feet are lead-coloured. 

It lives on insects, and not, as has been stated, on fruits. It 
is found on the hills of Sumatra and the neighbouring islands ; 
but is not easily procured, as it commonly perches on the sum- 
mits of the highest trees. 

6. CUCULUS Sumatranus. 

Sep an do of the Sumatrans. j.juL~- 

Is a smaller species, nearly related to the preceding. 
It has the same yellowish- green curved bill and naked red space 
round the eyes, and the same colours on the back and wings. 
The nostrils are similarly situated, but are not so round, their 
opening being somewhat elongated upwards. The length of 
this is about 15 inches, and the tail is nearly twice the length 
of the body. The head, throat, and breast are of a uniform 

* Phankophaus metanognathus. Horsfield, p. 178. 

2 p 2 dark 

288 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

dark grey. The tail, like the back and wings, is of a metal- 
lic blueish-green, and each feather is tipped with white. The 
abdomen is nearly black, shading into rufous towards the 
breast and vent. 

Inhabits Sumatra and the adjacent islands, and lives on in- 
sects. It appears to resemble very nearly the C. pyrocephalus. 

7- CUCULUS c n lor op u eus. 
Boo boot. <^->jJ^ 

The characters of this species are in some degree intermediate 
between the true Cuckows and those of the two preceding, which 
belong to the division called after Le Vaillant Malcoha. 

The eyes are surrounded by a naked space of the same green 
colour as the bill, which however is nearly straight, strong, 
and hooked at the point. The bird is about 13 inches in 
length, and the tail is longer than the body. The general 
colour is fawn or ferruginous, lighter on the under-parts, and 
passing into black at the extremity of the wing-feathers. The 
abdomen is blackish. The tail is dark coloured, regularly 
marked with numerous bands of black, while the extremity 
of each feather is white. The legs are blueish. 

This species inhabits the forests of Sumatra, but is not com- 
mon. It feeds on insects, like the rest of the genus. 

PICUS. Tukki. J3 


Is related to the Picus viridis, differing, however, in several 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part J I. 289 

This species is about 10 or 11 inches in length, dusky green 
above, with a shade of yellow on the lower part of the back ; 
cinereous or slightly ferruginous below, mixed with brown on 
the abdomen. Quill-feathers brown spotted with white. Tail- 
feathers brown, pointed as usual in this genus; the two upper- 
most with a few lighter-coloured spots along their inner mar- 
gin. A grey patch encircles the eyes, bounded below by a 
black stripe mixed with white spots, which runs from behind 
the lower mandible. 

In the male the crown of the head is red, often variegated with 
black, each feather being black at the base and red at the tip: 
in the female it is entirely black. The bill and feet are black- 

2. PICUS PUNicr.cs*. 


This species is about nine inches in length, of a dusky green 
above, shading into yellow on the lower part of the back ; 
dark brown below, with lighter-coloured undulations and a 
slight green tinge on the sides of the throat and abdomen. It 
is remarkable in having the wings of the same crimson-red as 
the crown of the head. The two outer wing-feathers and the 
tips of the others are brown ; and the inside of the wings is of 
the same colour, spotted with white. The tail-feathers are 
black. The bill is blueish-black, and the legs are cinereous. 

TUKKI KaLABU. yll£s \Ja 

This appears to have a considerable resemblance to the P. un- 
datus and P. rufus of Cayenne. 

* Picas pumeemt. Horsfield, p. 176- 


Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

It is little more than eight inches in length, and is throughout 
of a ferruginous-brown colour waved with black, scarcely 
varying in intensity on any part of the body. Below the eyes 
are several small red spots or dots. The bill and legs are 

TUKKI BOREH. <L' it) , Jj 

Is only six inches in length ; black, with transverse white undu- 
lations, which are numerous, and fine on the head and breast ; 
larger and fewer on the back, abdomen, wings and tail. The 
rump is whitish, and there is a red stripe behind the lower 
mandible. The bill is black, and the Ws blueish. The fe- 
male has more of a brown tinge, with finer and more nume- 
rous undulations, which become scarcely perceptible on the 

5. PICUS minor. Var. Tukki lilit. c^JjJ ^Jj 

6. PICUS Tig At. 

Tukki besar, or T. rufa. ^j ,^Jj 

This is a very singular three-toed species of Picas, remark- 
able for wanting the thumb-toe, and differing therein from the 
Picas tridactyla, which is deprived of the outer toe. 

It is above ten inches in length, orange-coloured on the back 
and wings, red on the rump, and variegated with white and 
black below. The outer quill-feathers and the tail are brown- 
ish-black. The nape of the neck is black, the sides white, 
with a black stripe from behind the eyes. The male has a 
red crest. In the female the head is black, with white spots, 

* Picus tristis. Horsfieid, p. 177- 

t Picus Tiga. Ibid. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 'Jul 

and is not crested. The bill is blueish-black, and the loirs an 


Of this genus, three species are abundant in Sumatra and the 
adjacent countries. 

1. BUCEROS Rhinoceros, Linn. 

Inggang Dakto of the Malays, u^ij jjlcl 

The female diffe/s from the male in being rather smaller, the 
horn being more recurved, and in having the iris white, while 
that of the male is red. 

2. BUCEROS cavatus. 

1\GGANG PAPA\. .^Jli LXtl 

Burong Oondan (Malay). U X^\ c^j 

3. BUCEROS Moxoceros. 

Kiki at Malacca. JL^= 

BUCEROS Malabaricus, Gmel 

Angka Angka. f C&\ of the Sumatrans. 

All these species vary considerably at different ages in the 
colours of the plumage, and the form of the prominences on the 
bill. They inhabit the forests, and live principally on wild 
fruits. They are occasionally kept tame, and the last in parti- 
cular is easily domesticated. 

4. BUCEROS galeatus, Gmel 
Besides these, I have recently procured heads of another spe- 
cies, wliich is probably the B. galeatus, differing from most of 


2.9? Sit T. S. RaIvFLes's Descriptive Catalogue 

the genus in the comparative shortness and the greater solidity 
and strength of the bill. The prominence, which is somewhat 
squarish, is rounded at top and truncated in front. 

In Major Farquhar's collection of drawings, made at Malacca, 
is one of this species taken from a living specimen, which ap- 
pears to differ in some respects from the description of that con- 
tained in the British Museum, particularly in having the two 
middle feathers of the tail more than twice as long as the rest. 
'J 'hey are all white, and crossed by a black band near the tips. 
On the throat below the bill is a loose, naked, red skin. The 
naked space round the eyes and the legs are also reel. The iris 
is orange-coloured. The head is black, with a spot of reddish- 
brown on the sides behind each eye. 

This species is called Toko j/y ; and Burong Gading £j JT l,^ 
in Sumatra ; and Tibbang Mantooa Uii« £-J at Malacca. 

5. BUCEROS Malayanus. 

In a paper (already quoted) sent by Major Farquhar to the 
Asiatic Society, and accompanied by drawings and specimens, 
is an account of several species of Hornbills found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Malacca. Among these is a species very nearly 
resembling the B. coronatus of Africa. 

It is about the size of a Raven, and is particularly distinguished 
by a white stripe extending from behind each eye to the back 
of the neck, and so encircling the head. The bill is yellowish- 
white, and surmounted by a moderate sized crest, which 
slopes gradually in front to the curvature of the bill. The 
whole of the body is black, with the exception of the stripe 
above mentioned, and the tips of the three outer tail-feathers 
ou each side, which are also white ; the middle ones are black 
to the ends. The legs are of a greenish colour. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 2[)o 

6. BUCEROS Pmaean. 
The Sumatrans distinguish another species by the name of 
Pusaran ^Uy of which I have a living specimen, as yet too 
young to allow of being accurately distinguished, the horn being 
only partially developed. On its throat is a bag capable of being 
distended with air, of a bright yellow colour. 


Of this genus there are six species in the collection. 

1. ALCEDO leucocepiiala, Gmcl. 
Bang Kako. £\£* y 
The belly is generally of a fawn-colour. 

2. ALCEDO atricapilla, Gmel. 

BlJRONG UdaNG. £j,\ ^ 

In this species the wings are crossed at the middle by a band 
of light whitish-blue, which is only observable when the wings 
are expanded ; below them is a similar band of white. 

3. ALCEDO chlorocepiiala, Gmel. 
Bang Kako. /K Jj 

4. ALCEDO ispida. Var. Bengalensis. 

5. ALCEDO cyanocephala Shaw. 

6. ALCEDO tridactyla, Linn. 

Binti Abang. y ,/cuj 
vol. xin. 2 q MEROPS. 

294 Sir T, S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 



The upper parts of the head and neck, and the back between 
the shoulders, are of a beautiful chesnut colour. The poste- 
rior part of the back, the wings above, and the belly, are pure 
emerald-green. The plumes of the throat, as well as of the 
rump and vent, have a pale azure tint with a reflection of 

By the blue colour of the throat, as well as by the pure green 
of the back, wings and belly, it is sufficiently distinguished from 
the Senegal Bee-eater of Shaw, or the chesnut Bee-eater of 
Gmelin, which it resembles in the chesnut colour of the head, 
neck, and anterior portion of the back. 

The extremities of the quill-feathers and the tail beneath are 
blackish-brown. The tail above is blue, with a diluted tint of 
sea-green ; the two middle tail-feathers are greatly elongated, 
and towards the extremity the blueish tint is diluted : this is 
also the case with the vent-feathers. The wings underneath 
are ferruginous. 

2. MEROPS Javanicus*. 

BlRI BlRI ?t&& 

In the specimens found here there are light blue streaks above 
the eyes, but I have not observed white lines. Both species are 
frequent in Sumatra and the eastern islands. 

There are three birds belonging to the division of Pica gres- 
sorics, which differ essentially from all hitherto described, and 
must constitute two new and distinct genera in that order. 

* Merops Javanicus. Horsfield, p. 171. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 2Q5 

The first, which I propose to name Calyptomcna (d xaXwrv, 
veto), is characterized as follows ■ 

Bill depressed and broad at the base, hooked at the point, and 
almost concealed by the feathers of the head. Nostrils round 
Tongue short. Feet gressorial. 


Burono Tampo Pinang 

«_a-j y*QJ Cj 


This very singular and beautiful bird is about six inches and a 
half in length. Its colour is a brilliant, green, like that of the 
Parrots. The head is rather large, and its feathers are di- 
rected forwards from each side in such a manner as nearly to 
conceal the bill, giving the face a very peculiar appearance. 
A little above and before the eyes the feathers are of a deep 
velvet-black at their base, and only tipped with green ; and 
there is a similar spot of black immediately over the ears. 
The wings are scarcely longer than the body, green, but 
crossed on the coverts by three velvet black bands ; the pri- 
mary feathers, as well as the whole under-side of the wings, 
are dusky approaching to black, with the exception of the 
outer margins of some, which are edged with green. The 
tail is short, rounded, composed of ten feathers, which are 
green above and blueish-black below. The whole of the 
under-parts are green. This colour is lightest on the sides of 
the neck and round the eyes. The bill is short, wide, much 
depressed at the base, deeply cleft, and hooked at the point. 
Nostrils oval at the base of the bill, and concealed by the 
filiform feathers that project over them. The eyes are rather 
large ; the irids blueish. Legs blueish-black. A few feathers 
come down over the upper part of the tarsi. Feet gressorial ; 

2 q 2 outer 

290 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

outer toe not much shorter than the middle one, with which it 
is united as far as the last joint. 

The stomach of this bird contained nothing but vegetable 
substances, chiefly wild grains. It is found in the retired parts 
of the forests of Singapore and of the interior of Sumatra ; and 
being of the colour of the leaves, and perching on the higher 
branches of the trees, it is not easily procurable. The female 
does not differ in appearance from the male. 

The second genus*, also belonging to the order of Pica gres- 
soricB, is characterized by a very large, thick, strong bill, wide 
and rounded at the base, hooked and slightly notched at the 
point. The edge of the lower mandible is incurved under the 
upper. Nostrils not covered. Feet gressorial. 

Of this genus there are two species. 

1. EURYLAIMUS lemniscatus. 


It is about eight inches in length, of a thick, stout and rather 
heavy make. Above it is of a full black colour, beneath 
dark red. The head, chin and breast are black ; the throat is 
encircled by a broad red band of dense, stiff, filiform feathers, 
which extends upwards on each side to behind the eyes. The 
lower part of the breast, abdomen, rump and upper tail- 
coverts are dark red. The scapular feathers, which are Ion a- 
and very acute, are of a pure white colour, contrasting 
strongly with the deep black of the back and wings. There 
is an orange line at the upper angle and edge of the wing, and 
a white spot on its inside. The tail is black, three inches in 
length, and cuneate. On each side of the bill are two or three 

* The genus Eurylaimus of Horsfield, p. 1 70 


of a Zoological Collect ion made in Sumatra. Part II. 297 

stiff bristles, which turn upwards. The bill is of a bright-blue 
colour, large, thick and strong, wide at the base, arched 
but scarcely carinate above, hooked at the point, where it 
forms a kind of rounded unguis, behind which is a slight 
notch. The lower mandible is scarcely shorter than the upper. 
The nostrils are narrow and horizontal, situated about the 
middle of the bill, and a furrow is continued both backward 
and forwards from them. Irids green. The leathers on the 
thighs are blackish ; the legs are blue. The tarsi are rather 
long ; the outer toe is connected to the middle one beyond the 
middle of the second phalanx. The claws are strong and 

This species is found in the interior of Sumatra, frequenting 
the banks of rivers and lakes, and feeding on insects and worms. 
It builds its nest pendent from the branch of a tree or bush which 
overhangs the water, and is said to lay only two eggs. • 

2. EURYLAIMUS ociiromalus. 

The second species is considerably smaller, being scarcely six 
inches in length. The head and chin are black, the back and 
wings black variegated with bright yellow. The scapulars are 
less distinct than in the preceding, and chiefly yellow. A 
white band surrounds thei throat, divided from the breast by 
a similar one of black, which is incomplete in the female. 
The breast and abdomen have a light vinous-red tint ; the 
uropygium is bright yellow. The tail is one inch and a half 
in length, composed of ten feathers, which are black, with a 
round white spot near the extremity of each. There arc no 
bristles at the base of the bill, which is blue, like the preced- 
ing, but is more depressed at the base. It is somewhat 
arched, hooked, and notched at the point. In this, as in the 


298 Sit T. S. Rafples's Descriptive Catalogue 

former, the upper mandible overlaps the lower, whose edges 
are incurved for the purpose. In this species the nostrils are 
round, and situated near the base of the bill. The feathers on 
the thighs are blackish, the legs reddish ; the tarsi rather 
long ; the outer toe united to the middle one as far as the last 

Found at Singapore and in the interior of Sumatra. They are 
seen in small flocks, and feed on insects, like the preceding. 


Of this numerous and beautiful genus there are several spe- 
cies in the collection ; but it is not easy, without extensive refe- 
rence to figures, to determine them all. They are known to the 
Malays by the general name of Chechap <^s>=- or the Suckers , 
as they are said to suck the juices of flowers. 

1. CERTHIA Sperata, Linn. 
Chirichit, Chechap, or Siap. tJL* cjjs^. u^aaj,*. 

This is probably a variety of the C. Sperata, but has also a con- 
siderable resemblance to the C. Brasiliana, the sides and back 
of the neck being of a velvet-black, and the tail having a tinge 
of blue. The head is of the most brilliant golden-green, the 
throat of a splendid purple, the breast and abdomen dusky- 
red, and the shoulders and tail-coverts black, with a change- 
able shade of green and purple. 

2. CERTHIA erythronotos, Lath. 

SlKRAT, Or SlPA PUTRI. ^jjj \L» C^L* 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 299 

3. CERTHIA Siparaja. 

Sipa Raja. AIL 

This species has a blue patch on the forehead, and a stripe of the 
same colour on each side of the neck. The back of the head, 
neck, and upper part of the back are dark-red ; the breast of 
a lighter red; the abdomen, wings, and middle tail-feathers 
brown, while the tail-coverts and outer tail-feathers are blue. 

4. CERTHIA Javanica*. 

This appears to have a considerable resemblance to the Certhia 
lepida. The head and neck are blue, with a gloss of green and 
gold, the tail-coverts and some of the tail-feathers bright blue, 
the wings brown, with a tinge of ferruginous red on some of 
the lesser coverts. Throat ferruginous, with bright-blue stripes 
along the sides, which almost meet on the breast. Abdomen 
and breast yellow. Sometimes the head and neck have more 
of a green colour. 

5. CERTHIA longirostra+, Latham. 

SlAP JaNTUNG. cyii^vJU-i 

This is larger than any of the preceding, and has a bill an inch 
and a half in length. Colour olive-green above, greenish- 
yellow beneath ; a yellow patch below the eyes. 

In all the Certhice the colours of the females are duller than 
those of the males. 

* Nedarinia Javanica. Horsfield, p. 167. 
f Cinnyris longirostra. Ibid. p. 167- 



Sir T. S. Ratflks's Descriptive Catalogue 

Burong Dew att a. ct*tgj c^t 

All the species of this genus are natives of the Papuan archi- 
pelago, whence they are occasionally brought alive. I have had 
in my possession living individuals of the common species, the 
P. apoda. They were fed on grasshoppers, and lived with me 
several months. I have specimens of the P. sanguinea Viell., 
whose description is very exact, as is also the figure, with the 
exception of the wings, which are represented too short. They 
are, in fact, nearly as long as the true tail. In the specimen 
from which Viellot's figure was taken, the wings were wanting ; 
which will account for this little inaccuracy. 


CORVUS Corax, Linn. 

Gag ah of the Malays, jflf 

This is not uncommon in the interior, but is scarcely ever seen 
on the coast near Bencoolen. 

The other species belong to the short-tailed division, which 
has been separated from the true Corvi, under the name of 
Myiothera. . ggHgjj 

1. MYIOTHERA brachyura, Illig. 
Corvus brachyurus, Linn. 

2. MYIOTHERA affinis* 

SlNTAR. jx~~> 

It differs in having the pectoral band and transverse lines 

* Myiothera affinis. Horsfield, p. 154. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra, Part II. .'301 

3. MYIOTHERA cxrii.ea. 

It is much larger than the former species, being above two inches 
in length, and seven or eight in height. It is of a thick heavy 
form, with a very short tail. The whole of the back, tail, 
and secondary wing-feathers are light-blue. The under-parts 
are brown, t cinereous on the throat, with a greenish tinge on 
the breast, and a ferruginous one on the abdomen. A black 
collar surrounds the neck immediately above the shoulders. 
The crown of the head and back of the neck are also black, 
and a stripe of the same colour runs along its sides from behind 
each eye. The quill-feathers are black, with blueish tips. 
Bill blackish, strong, rather straight, curved at the point with 
a scarcely perceptible notch. Irids reddish. Tarse high, and 
of a dark colour. Claw of the hind-toe longer than the others. 

The female differs so considerably from the male, that it might 
be taken for a different species. It is somewhat smaller, of a 
reddish-brown or chesnut-colour above, with blue only on the 
tail and tail-coverts. Below it is of the same cinereous-brown 
as the male, and has the same black collar round the neck, 
and lines behind the eyes ; but the crown of the head and 
neck have only transverse black lines on a ferruginous ground. 

Here may be mentioned a bird that appears to differ very 
little from the Corvus Papne?isis, now referred by Cuvier to the 
genus Lanius. It is very uniformly of a blueish-grey colour, 
with the exception of the wing- and tail-feathers, which are black. 
In the male the breast is often marked with transverse undula- 
tions of a dark colour*. 

* This bird appears to belong to the genus Ceblephyris of Cuvier. 



302 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 


In this genus, the most remarkable is the beautiful Fairy 


1. CORACIAS Puella, Lath. 

BlANG KAPOOR. jj-l£= cLt 

Nothing can surpass the richness of the colours which distin- 
guish the male of this species , they far exceed what any paint- 
ing can convey. The crown of the head, back, smaller wing- 
coverts, and upper and lower tail-coverts are of the most 
resplendent smalt-blue, while every other part is of the finest 
velvet-black. The bird is above nine inches in length. The 
bill black, strong, somewhat curved, compressed, strongly 
carinate above, and notched near the point ; surrounded with 
short bristles at the base. Nostrils roundish, and partially co- 
vered by the feathers. Irids crimson. Legs short and black. 

In the female there is no trace of the brilliant colours of the 
male ; and the whole body, with the exception of the wing- 
and some of the tail-feathers, is of a dull blue. 

Adverting to the form of the bill, compressed, carinate and 
notched, it seems doubtful whether this bird be truly a species 
of Coracias ; and it is remarkable, that the Malays class it with 
the Biang, a species of Lanius. 

It is found in the interior of Sumatra and the adjacent islands, 
and lives on wild grains and fruits. 

2. CORACIAS orientalis, Linn. 

Tiong Batu. Jli £%J 


This bird is classed by the Malays with the Gracula religiosa ; 
and the affinity of the latter to the genus Coracias seems recently 
to have been noticed in Europe. 


of a Zoological Collection tnade in Sumatra. Part II. 303 

3. CORACIAS Sum a -ii; :\\rs. 
This is a singular species of Coracias, which appears to be 
undescribed. It was found in the interior of Sumatra, and is 
rather less than the C. orient alis. 

The bill is red, and unusually large and wide, depressed at 
the base, arched, hooked at the point and notched. There 
is a naked space round the eyes, which is also red. It is 
black above and on the abdomen, with orange-coloured throat 
and scapulars. The quill-feathers are black, with a white 
band near the middle : tail black. Thr nostrils are round, 
situated near the commencement of the featheiB, but not 
covered by them. Irids brown. Legs blackish. 

GRACULA keligiosa, Linn 

TlONG. fjJ 

A variety of this is sometimes found with whitish spots on 
different parts of the body. 

It is remarkable, that the smallest quantity of salt occasions 
the sudden death of these birds. The natives also affirm that the 
mere sight of blood is equally fatal to them. 

ORIOLUS Chinensis, Linn. 
Tiong a lou, or Punting alou. J\ ^aS .}\ foj 


The limits of this genus not being accurately defined, it is 
difficult in many instances to determine the true place of some 
of the species, particularly where they graduate into the genus 

2 r 2 Turdus. 

304 Sir T. S. Raffles\s Descriptive Catalogue 

Turclus. A more accurate comparison in Europe can only de- 
termine this point ; and in the mean time the following notice 
of the specimens in the collection may be sufficient for general 

1. LANIUS Bentet*. 

Burong Papa, orTiup Api. ^\ UL> US £yj 

Is perhaps a variety of the Lanius Excubitor, and is very com- 
mon in the Malay countries and islands. 

Bill very strong, and deeply notched ; sides of the abdomen 
and lower part of the back tinged with ferruginous. Total 
length about nine inches ; tail longer than the body. 

2. LANIUS superciliosus, Lath. 

Has the same strongly- notched beak as the preceding; and, 
like it, has also the point of the lower mandible turned upwards, 
which approximates them to those called Vauga by Buffon. 

It is smaller than the former, being little more than seven inches 
in length, and is diiferently coloured. The upper parts are 
of a light fulvous or ferruginous-brown ; the lower white, with 
a ferruginous shade towards the vent. The back and wings 
are sometimes mottled. The cheeks are marked with a broad 
black stripe, from the bill extending behind the eyes. Tail 
not so long as the body. 



Is about seven inches in length, and has the bill straighter, 
weaker, and less deeply notched than the two former. Co- 
lour above a cinereous or blueish-grey ; beneath white, and 

* Lanim Bentct. Horsfield, p. 144. 


of a Zoological Collect io?i math in Sumatra. Part II. 305 

without ferruginous shade. Upper tail-coverts also white. 
A black stripe on the cheeks. Tail rather short, and without 
white. Wings extending to half the length of the tail. 

4. LANIUS Stbiga*. 

BuRONG KAPAS KAPAS. ^ u J\£= Zj*s 

Is a smaller and more delicately-formed bird than the last, six 
inches and a half in length, and has the tail proportionally 
longer. Bill considerably shorter, smaller, and slightly arched. 
The crown of the head and back are of a shining blueish- 
black. The wing-coverts are of the same colour, but edged 
and tipped with fine white. The remiges are black, with a 
very narrow line of white on their outer edges ; the rectrices 
also black, with white tips. The rump and upper tail-coverts 
light blueish-grey ; a shade of which colour also appears on 
the breast, while the throat and abdomen are white. The 
cheeks are white, crossed by a black stripe from the bill to the 
neck. In the female the colours have a browner tinge, are 
less defined, and the glossy black of the head and back is 
entirely wanting. 


About seven inches in length ; tail as long as the body, and 
forked ; upper-feathers blackish ; lower ones white. The bill 
is straight, hooked, and notched at the point. The colour 
above is grey, becoming brown on the wings ; below white. 
A black stripe from the bill to the eyes. 
Found at Singapore ; but it is also known in Sumatra. The 

above is the description of the female. 

* Ceblephyris Strisa. Horsfield. p. 145. 


306 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

6. LANIUS leucorhynciios, Linn. 

Is seven inches and a half in length, and of a thick form and 
make. Bill light blue, darker at the point, strong, conic, 
somewhat arched, slightly notched, and scarcely hooked at 
the point. This species is peculiar in having the wings as long 
as the tail, and the first feather the longest. In most others it 
is the fourth feather which is the longest. The back, head 
and throat are of a greyish-brown ; wing- and tail-feathers 
darker ; breast, abdomen, rump, upper and lower tail-coverts 
white. Sides of the abdomen, under the wings, grey. Legs 


BuRONG J'rI. *y>. £jJ 

This is rather a large species, being upwards of ten inches in 
length. The feathers of the head rise into a kind of cone be- 
hind, and two of them are particularly elongated, being two 
inches in length, and form a crest, which is directed upwards 
and backwards. The bill is black, strong, straight, com- 
pressed, hooked and notched at the point, roundly carinate 
above. Nostrils large and roundish. Five or six strong bris- 
tles at the angle of the upper mandible. The colour of the bird 
is an uniform chesnut-brown, which becomes darker on the 
feathers of the tail and crest. There is a remarkable white 
spot on each side of the neck, immediately above the shoulder. 
Tail about four inches long ; the wings extend nearly half its 
length. Legs blue ; claws very strong. 

8. LANIUS Malabaricus, Lath. Saw eh = oj^ cjyi 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra Part 1 1 307 

9. LANIUS Insidiatok* 
Biang, or Kalaloyang. w>JI)l^ .cL- 

Also BURONG KLING. wji^ fj# 

Is allied to the L. Malabaricus, particularly by the form of its 
bill, which is regularly curved, slightly notched at the point, 
and not hooked, carinate and arched above, the curve of the 
lower mandible corresponding with that of the upper. The 
tail-feathers are nearly equal, none of them elongated as in 
the preceding. The whole bird is of a greenish-black, with a 
glossy metallic lustre, exhibiting according to the light chan- 
ging shades of copper and green. The wings extend to about 
half the length of the tail, and have the three first feathers of 
about equal length. The bill and legs are black. The irids 

The name of Burong Kling has been appropriated to this bird, 
because he is black and has red eyes ; sure signs, it is said, of a 
bad character ; and also because, when he settles on a tree, he 
generally leaves behind him the seed of the fig or other parasitic- 
plant, which, growing, in time chokes and destroys the tree that 
nourished and protected it. Such is said to be the conduct of 
the men of Kling or Coromandel to those who receive them. 

10. LANIUS musicus. 

MOORAI, Or MOORAI KlCIIOU. ^f>~£= cSjy< 

The Dial Bird, or Tardus Mindanensis of Gmelin and Gracula 
saalaris of Linnaeus ; now with more propriety placed under 

It is one of the few singing-birds of India, and its note is pleas- 
ing. It is about eight inches and a half in length. In the 

* Turdus chalybeus. Horsfield, p. 148. 


308 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

female the feathers of the throat and breast are whitish mot- 
tled with grey and brown ; and several of the wing-coverts are 
also white with reddish-brown shades. All the colours are 
duller than in the male. 


Turdus macrourus, Gmel. 

Chang chooi of the Sumatrans. i_?jf-^ 

Nearly resembles the preceding, but has the abdomen of a bright 
ferruginous colour, while the rump and lower tail-feathers are 
white. The tail is considerably longer than the body ; in the 
former it is of about equal length. This species also wants 
the white spot on the wings. It is about ten inches and a half 
in length, and has even a finer and sweeter note than the last. 
They are, in fact, the Nightingales of the eastern islands. 
Both kinds throw up and spread their tails in the manner of 
the Wagtails. 

12. LANIUS*. 

Is also nearly related to the two preceding, but is much smaller, 
being only five inches and a half in length. It is of the same 
shining blueish-black above, but is white on all the under- 
pays. The throat and abdomen are pure white, while the 
breast is shaded with a light grey. The rump is white, as in 
the preceding species, but the whole of the tail-feathers are 
black. The tail is rather shorter than the body. In all these 
three species the bill is straight, somewhat compressed, curved 
at the point, and moderately notched. 

The two first are frequent in all the Malay countries ; the lat- 
ter I have only very recently procured ; but it is probably not 

* Muscicapa ubscura. Horsfield, p. 146. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 309 

13. LANIUS ruficeps. 

This species appears to resemble the L. olivaceus. 

It is about nine inches long, with a compressed rather curved 
bill, scarcely notched at the point : the curve of the lower 
mandible corresponds to that of the upper. Head of a light 
ferruginous colour. The upper parts of a light olive-brown, 
the lower grey, almost white under the chin. Wings a little 
longer than the body, the outer edge of their quill-feathers 
yellowish-green. The tail is about four inches in length. 


Is a small but beautiful species, about seven inches in length. 
Bill rather straight, compressed, hooked and notched at the 
point. Upper part of the body and head of an olive-grey ; 
lower parts and sides of the forehead yellow. \Ving-feathers 
black, edged with yellow. Upper tail-feathers black, lower 
yellow. A black line runs from the bill to the e}*es, and there 
is a yellow spot on the wings. Bill and feet black. Nostrils 
covered with feathers. 

1. TURDUS Cociiinchinensis, Gmel. 

BURONG DaUN\ jJj c^j 

This appears to be the same bird as the T. Malalaricus, 125 
Gmelin, which latter name ought therefore to be cancelled. 

The female is of an uniform bright green, wanting the yellow 
and black of the male, but having the blue spots at the base 
of the bill. There is a variety of this bird found in Sumatra 
which is nearly twice as large, and exhibits less brilliancy of 

vol. xin. 2 s colour. 


Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

colour. It is nearly of an uniform green, with the exception of 
the blue spots behind the bill, and the black face and throat. 
It wants the tinge of the wing and tail feathers. In the female 
the chin and face are of a light yellow, not black as in the 


3. TURDUS analis*. Two varieties. 

BlRIBBA. hj> 

The Biribba is said by the natives to elevate the feathers of the 
head when irritated. 


About seven inches and a half in length ; yellowish-olive on the 
back, orange-coloured on the breast, shading into yellow to 
the vent. Head black ; throat furnished with remarkable 
crimson feathers. Wing- and tail-feathers dark brown. Bill 
rather compressed, and very slightly notched. Irids red. 


Burong LILIN. ^^U £jO 

Has considerable resemblance to the preceding, but is smaller, 
being six inches and a half in length. It is greenish-yellow 
on the back and breast, yellow on the abdomen and rump. 
Head of a glossy blueish-black. Tail-feathers yellow, with a 
black band near the end. Outer wing-feathers nearly black. 
Bill and legs black. 

* Turdus analis. Horsfield, p. 147. 

t Turdus dispar. Ibid. p. 156. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 311 


Head, shoulders and breast blueish-grey, passing into white on 
the abdomen ; back and wings yellowish-green ; vent-feathers 
yellow. Outer wing- and tail-feathers deep brown or black. 
Bill and feet black. Irids reddish. 


Seems to resemble the T. chrysogaster, except in being much 

Head and back yellowish-green. Throat and breast golden- 
yellow. Vent-feathers white. Wing-feathers black, variegated 
with white, and tinged with green. Tail green and black. 

8. TURDUS Striga. 

Seven inches in length, with rather a thick heavy body. Back, 
wings, and crown of the head of a shining blue-black ; under- 
pays, forehead and neck greyish-white. Wing-coverts edged 
and tipped with white. Bill short, nearly straight, and 
scarcely notched. The colours of the female are much duller, 
and the upper parts are brown. 

9. TURDUS ambiguus. 

A very small species, scarcely five inches in length ; general 
colour blueish-grey, inclining to black on the head, breast, 
wing-feathers and tail, and nearly white on the belly and 
edges of some of the wing-feathers. There is a broad white 

stripe below the eyes. Bill short, curved, and without any 
perceptible notch. 

* Jora scapularis. Horsfield, p. 152. 


312 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

1. MUSCICAPA ciEituLEA, Gmel 

2. MUSCICAPA Javanica, Spam. Mas. Carls. 



Dark blue above, passing into black on the wings and sides of 
the head. Under-parts ferruginous. Bill and legs nearly 
bl Pie k 


Is remarkable for the extreme breadth of its bill. It is a very 
small bird, less than five inches in length, of a light brown 
above, and whitish beneath. 

1. MOTACILLA Indica? Gmel 
Resembles the M. Indica, but is white beneath. 

2. MOTACILLA bistrigata. 

From six to seven inches in length. Tail as long as the body. 
Back greenish-brown ; head dark grey ; wing- and middle 
tail-feathers brown ; breast and belly yellow, sometimes pass- 
ing into white on the throat. Two feathers on each side of the 
tail white. 

3. MOTACILLA gularis. 


Brown above, yellowish beneath ; head, wings and tail ferrugi- 
nous ; throat and breast marked with longitudinal black spots. 
Five inches in length. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 313 

4. MOTACILLA olivacea. 

Olive-brown above ; throat and breast white ; abdomen yellow ; 
wings and tail brown, the latter with a black band near the 
tip. Is five inches and a half long. 

5. MOTACILLA sepium. 

Four inches and a half in length. Back, wings and tail dusky- 
green; under-parts white. Head ferruginous red ; bill brown ; 
legs reddish. 

6. MOTACILLA frontalis*. 

The whole of the upper parts are a fine blue ; the throat is 
nearly white ; the belly of a dirty reddish-white. The fore- 
head is black, and the eyes are encircled with the same. 
Irids nearly white. Bill red, straight, without notch, broader 
at the base. Legs dusky. Hind-toe remarkably long. 


1. LOXIA Piiilippina, Linn. 

This species, well known by its curious hanging nests, is called 
by the Malays Tampooa, \JU3 ; and by the Sumatrans Pintau, 
^XJ. It is the same as the Bayah of Bengal. 

2. LOXIA Malacca, Linn. 

* Sitta frontalis. Horsfiek), p. 1G2. 


314 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

3. LOXIA oryzivora, Linn. 
Gelatik. <l£j\lf. The Java Sparrow. 
This species is comparatively rare in Sumatra. 

4. loxia leucocephala. 
Pipit bondol. Jjjcj cuJj^ 

Is about the size of the L. Malacca, of a reddish-brown or ches- 
nut colour, growing darker towards the tail, and becoming 
almost black on the abdomen. Head and neck almost white. 
Bill blueish ; legs black. 

5. LOXIA prasina, Sparm. Mus. Carls. 

RANNAS. fjj\j 

This is a very beautiful species, in some degree intermediate 
between Loxia and Fringilla. 

It is of a bright green on the head, back and wings ; blue on 
the throat and forehead ; dirty green on the breast ; red on 
the middle of the abdomen ; and passing into a rusty yellow 
towards the vent. Tail-coverts and base of the tail-feathers 
vermilion, their extremity black, as are also the outer wing- 
feathers. The two upper tail-feathers are nearly twice as long 
as the rest. Bill of a fine black, conical, round at the base ; 
both mandibles a little scolloped towards the middle, which is 
not very apparent when they are closed, as the lower is then 
received within the upper. 

They are frequently seen in the rice-fields, and are great 
destroyers of the grain, as well as the other Loxice. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. .315 


1. ALAUDA pkatknsis. Linn. 

Lancha Lanciia. r^ffJ 
Or, Hamba Puyu. ^J ^^ 

Letti Letti. r^J 

Smaller than the former : brownish above, yellow beneath. 

Layang Layang. ryi 

1. HIRUNDO esculenta, Linn, 

Little can be added at present to the accounts already given 
of this bird, and the edible nests for which it is so celebrated. 
There are caves in various parts of Sumatra to which these birds 
resort, but from want of care and management they are not 

2. HIRUNDO rustica, Linn. 



CAPRIMULGUS Eubopjeus, Linn. 

Sang Sagan. J~>t~> 

Of this there are two varieties, one with much brighter and 
more marked colours than the other. They are very abundant 


316 &V T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen, and are always seen fly in 2; 
about in the evening. They make no nests, but lay their eggs 
on the bare ground. 



\. COLUMBA Jambu, GmeL 

Poonai Jambu. yf**-tfj> 

A most beautiful species, about ten inches in length, green 
above, pure white beneath. Head crimson, a stripe of deep 
cinnamon colour on the throat below the bill. A softened 
crimson spot on the middle of the breast. Tail-feathers equal, 
green, like the back, with whitish or cinereous tips. Lower 
tail-coverts fulvous. Bill yellow, nearly straight. A yel- 
lowish naked space round the eyes. Irids orange. Legs 
feathered nearly to the toes, which are red. 

This species varies considerably at different ages. When very 
young it is almost entirely green. The head first assumes its 
red colour by degrees, the lower parts next become lighter, and 
it is not till the period of maturity that they acquire their full 
whiteness. The red spot on the breast is the last colour that 
appears ; and it is doubtful whether the female ever has it. 

2. COLUMBA iENEA, Linn. 


This is a very large and beautiful species, exceeding fifteen 
inches in length. The back and wings are of a brilliant deep 
green with a variable gloss of gold and copper. The head, 
neck and under-parts are of a claret-coloured grey. The tail 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 317 

above is nearly of the same colour as the back, but with more 
of a blueish tint ; below it is brown, and the lower tail-coverts 
are of a deep red-brown. The upper part of the tarsi is 
feathered; the feet are red. The bill is generally blueish, 
rather straight, hooked and gibbous at the point. Irids blue. 

The female scarcely differs in colour from the male. 

3. COLUMBA badia. 
Lampattu, or Pergam Kai.ahc. <J^i 

A larger species than the preceding, to which it seems to have 
considerable affinity. It is sixteen inches in length, of a ches- 
nut-red on the back and wing-coverts. The under-parts are 
of a blueish vinous tint, which extends round the neck, and 
becomes a blueish-grey on the head and cheeks. The wing- 
feathers are of a deep brown approaching to black ; those of 
the tail, which are long and nearly equal, are almost black, 
with a cinereous tinge at the tips. The lower tail-coverts are 
white. Bill and feet red. Legs feathered nearly to the toes. 
There is no naked space round the eye, but the circle of the 
eyelids is bright red. The iris is white. 

4. COLUMBA Jayamca? Gmet. 

P O O X A I ' V A N X A . *j \j ^JjS 

Li moo-am of the Suinatrans. J^*l 

Back and wings of a bright metallic-green, with a gloss of gold. 
Lower parts of a vinous red, paler on the abdomen. The back 
of the head and neck are of a cinereous blue, becoming 
whitish on the forehead and temples. The wing- and tail- 
feathers are black. The bill and feet are red. 

VOL. XIII. 2 t l f 

318 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

It is called Poonai Tanna, because it is generally seen on or 
near the ground, and rarely upon trees. They are caught by 
means of the following device : A small mat shed is erected 
sufficient to conceal the fowler ; a space is cleared in front of it, 
and a tame Pigeon placed on it : a trumpet is then blown within 
the hut, and the wild Pigeons are attracted by the sound ; when 
they alight they are taken by a running-noose at the end of a 
wand, which the fowler manages without being seen by the 

5. COLUMBA vernans, Linn. 

PoONAI. ^sJy 

The common Green Pigeon. 

The female is nearly of an uniform green colour. In the male 
the head is of a blueish-grey, becoming vinous on the neck, 
and with an orange patch on the breast. There is no naked 
space round the eyes. 

6. COLUMBA curvi rostra, Gmel. 

Poonai Ubar. jij\ ^jj 

The female wants the chesnut colour on the back. There is a 
naked space about the eyes of a bright glaucous colour. 

7. COLUMBA Am bo in en sis, Linn. 

8. COLUMBA Turtur,,Z;wi. 
Balam, or Terkooku. cJ£j Jb 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 319 

9. COLUMBA Bantamensis, Sparm. Mus. Carls. 

Katitiran. Jj^Sjm 

About eight inches in length. The colour on the breast is of a 
vinous red, much less bright in the female than in the male. 
The natives reckon three varieties of the Katitiran, differing 
in size. They are very generally kept tame, and, as well as the 
Balam or Turtle, are trained to fight with each other. Poonai 
is the generic name of the Doves which the Malays distinguish 
from the Balam or Turtle family by being less exclusively gra- 
nivorous. The Dove is a subject of Malay poetry as much as it 
is of European. 


1. PAVO crist at us, Linn, 

M'ra, or Marak. ^ 

The common Peacock is a native of the Malay peninsula and 
of Java, but is not common near Bencoolen. 

2. PAVO bicalcaratus, Linn. 

Kuaow Chirmin. ^j^ £]£=> 

This beautiful bird is frequent throughout the Malay penin- 
sula, and is also known in Sumatra. 


1. PHASIANUS Gallus, Linn. 

Ayam Utan, or Brooga. J^> ^j* J\ 

This is the Gallus Bankiva of Temminck, and is frequent in 
the forests of Sumatra. 


320 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

2. PHASIANUS ignitus, Latham. 


This species is larger than a Cock, and is of a fine steel-black 
colour. The lower part of the back is of a fiery ferruginous 
tint. The four middle tail-feathers are white, and there are 
narrow Avhite streaks along; the middle of the feathers on the 
sides of the breast. The head is ornamented with a crest of 
tufted feathers, and the naked cheeks are of a fine ultrama- 
rine blue. The legs are armed with long and remarkably 
strong spurs. 

The female is smaller, and has none of the brilliant colours of 
the male. It has no crest, and the whole plumage is of a 
mixed brown and black ; there are no white feathers in the 
tail, and the flame-coloured patch on the back is wanting. In 
the young of both sexes the colours are equally dull. 

3. PHASIANUS Argus, tinn. 

KUAOW. *\*£=3 

This magnificent bird, the pride of the Malayan forests, in 
elegance of form and richness of attire is perhaps unequalled in 
the feathered race. They are found in the deep forests of Su- 
matra, generally in pairs ; they are said by the natives to make 
a galangan, i. e. to dance and strut about each other in the 
manner of the Peacocks. The plumage is too well known to 
require description. Their total length is frequently five feet, 
and the two middle tail-feathers exceed three. 

In a Malay poem, descriptive of the birds of Sumatra, the 
Argus Pheasant is thus shortly but aptly characterised : " In the 
superb and many-coloured Kuaow, it is impossible to discover a 
single fault save one, the difficulty of pronouncing its name." 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 391 


M i r \ Mat a. cl?L *jX« 

This species is as large as a common fowl. The plumage is 
black, with a blue and green gloss ; on the back and wings it 
is finely undulated with white or grey. The wing-feathers are 
brown. The feathers of the tail, disposed as usual in two 
inclined planes, are of a bright rufous or ferruginous colour. 
The tail-coverts are tinged with purple or violet. The naked 
space on the cheeks is of a bright red. There arc do u attics 
or crest. The bill is blackish and strong: legs blueish, and 
armed with strong spurs. 

The female differs from the male in being entirel) of a iteel- 
black, without white undulations or rufous tail, hi the jroung 
ones also the tail is black. 

5. PHASIANUS kuius. 
Bub o n g T r a u . t-y &qi 

This, which does not appear to hare been hitherto described, is 

larger than a common Cock, being about twenty inches in 

length. The plumage above is of a deep ferruginous colour, 

finely mottled with black. The feathers of the breast are also 

ferruginous, but each has a black band, and is edged with 

white, while those of the abdomen are principally white and 

dusky. The chin is nearly white. On the head is a crest, 

which lies backward, but can be elevated in some degree. 

The naked space on the cheeks is blue. The irids are red. 

The tail is not long, and is similar in colour to the back. 

The legs are sometimes reddish, sometimes blueish, and are 

unarmed, there being only a small tubercle in place of a spur. 

The female differs but little from the male. 


322 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 


1. TETRAO vi rid is, GmeL 

Beniol. JjjJl' 

The male of this species has been described under the name of 
Cohtmba cristata, but its proper place is under Tetrao. I am at 
a loss to perceive any good reason for placing it under Phasianus, 
as Cuvier has lately done. 

It is rather smaller than the common Partridge. The whole 
plumage of the male is of a glossy deep green, approaching 
to black. The quill-feathers are brown mottled with black. 
On the head is an elevated crest of filiform feathers of a bright 
red brown colour, in front of which are a patch of white and a 
small fascicle of erect black bristles. The eyes are surrounded 
by a narrow circle of red imbricated scales ; and there is a 
small naked red space behind them. Irids yellowish. Legs 
red, unarmed ; hind toe without a claw. 

The female differs from the male in having no crest, and in being 
of a grass-green colour with the exception of the head, which 
is nearly black. There are sometimes a few long plumose 
bristles on the forehead. 

2. TETRAO ocellatus. 

BURONG TrOOXG. fry c^ 

This beautiful species is of the same size as the preceding. The 
head, neck, breast and belly are of a bright rufous or ferru- 
ginous colour, barred on the sides with black. The back is 
black, with yellowish bands across the upper part, and marked 
behind with arrow-shaped spots of the same rufous colour as 
the lower parts. The wings are blackish, each covert marked 


of a Zoological Collect iun made in Sumatna, Part II. 333 

with a round black spot. The tail is short and black, with 
rufous variegations. The top of the head is marked with black, 
and there is a black stripe over the ears. There is no naked 
space about the eyes, in which it agrees with the Coturtiices, 
but the legs of the male are armed with blunt spurs, sometimes 
double. The bill is black; the irids yellowish-grey. The 
hind toe has only a very small horny tubercle in place of a naih 
which approximates this species to the T. viiidis. 

3. TETRAO cuRviRosTius. 
Lanting. J_vJU! 

This approaches nearest to the T. Gingicus, but must be con- 
sidered a distinct species. 

It is larger than the common Partridge, and is remarkable by 
having the upper mandible arched, and much longer than the 
lower, often forming a nail-like hook at the point. The top 
of the head and neck are dark brown ; the throat and cheeks 
rufous. The upper part of the breast is of a blueish-grey or 
lead-colour, which extends nearly round the neck ; the back 
and upper part of the wings are brown variegated with black 
and grey, while the shafts of the feathers are yellowish. The 
lower part of the back, wing- and tail-feathers are dull yellow- 
ish finely mottled with grey, and marked with some black 
points. The abdomen is light ferruginous, passing into white 
behind. The bill is black ; the legs whitish or lead-coloured, 
armed with short thick spurs. There is a naked space behind 
the eyes ; irids orange. The female is a little smaller than the 
male, and the young ones want the lead-grey on the neck. 


324 Sir T. S. R a eel es's Descriptive Catalogue 

4. TETRAO Sinensis, Linn. 


The male of this has been fully described ; the female differs 
considerably, wanting entirely the white on the throat. Its 
upper parts are grey mottled with black, and the shafts of the 
feathers white. The throat is yellowish-grey; and the under- 
pays are the same, with black bars. 

They are seen in flocks, often a hundred together. 

5. TETRAO Luzon i en sis, Gmel. 

Puyu. ^J 

This is a tridactylous species of Quail. The colours vary much 
in different specimens. The head, back and wings are varied 
with black, brown, and fawn-colour, of which sometimes the 
one, sometimes the other predominates. In full-grown birds 
the head is generally black, spotted with white, particularly 
at the sides, while the back is more of a red-brown, and the 
wings are black banded with white. The breast also varies, 
being sometimes ferruginous, but at a later period becoming 
marked with transverse bars of black and white. The abdo- 
men is always of a ferruginous colour. The throat is black 
in the males, generally whitish in the females. Bill rather 
long, yellowish, which is also the colour of the legs. The 
irids are white. 

These Quails are frequently kept tame, and the females are 
trained to fight with each other by the natives of the country. 
The superior courage of the females of this species has given rise 
to a common Malay proverb, in which a hen-pecked husband is 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Pari II. 325 

compared to a Puyu. The Puyu is always seen in pain, never 
in Hocks like the preceding. 

1 am at a loss to discover what species of Quail is intended by 
the T. Suscitator, or Indian Quail of Bontius. The Pikan and 
Puyu are the two generally known throughout the eastern islands. 
The latter is the most frequently domesticated, and becomes as 
tame as the common fowl. It is the one trained for fighting; 
and they will often combat with such fury as to kill each other. 
It is not however noisy, and in the wild state is only seen in pairs. 
The Pikau, on the contrary, has a loud clear note, is seen in 
flocks, will not become so tame as the other, and is not valued 
for fiohtinjx. It would seem as if the manners of both these were 
confounded in the account given of the T. Suscitator. 

1 . A 11 D E A d u Bi a , G m e / . 


Or, Burong Kambino. *-t-^-== (jyi 

Also, Burong Gaj a. A>Af £mj 

A small variety, with nearly black back and wings. The Argal 
is not so abundant in the eastern islands as in Bengal. 

2. ARDEA alba, Linn. 
Bangoc Puti. fijl j& 

3. ARDEA Sumatraka. 

A large subcrested Heron, with long slender neck and bill, of 
a blueish-grey, variegated with ferruginous ; white on the 

vol.xhi. S< I. ARDEA 

326* Sir T. S, Raffle s's Descriptive Catalogue 


Has a shorter thicker neck ; is of a chesnut colour mottled with 
black ; tail and crest black ; bill rather short. Belly varie- 
gated with white, black and brown. It is about eighteen 
inches Ions. 

5, ARDEA cinnamomea, Gmei 


Much smaller than the preceding : subcrested ; of a bright 
chesnut colour, slightly mottled. 

6. ARDEA picta. 

PUCHONG UDANG. t\j>j\ £^}* 

Is about sixteen inches in length ; of a dark-brown colour, ap- 
proaching to black, mottled with fawn and white. Legs and 
bill short, strong and greenish. 

7. ARDEA Javanica*. 

BURONG PlJCHONG. £*?-j' ^ 

Is about fifteen inches in length, of a greenish-brown above, 
blueish-grey below. The feathers of the head are of a dark 
olive-green, and elongated into a pendent crest. The neck is 
rather short. The bill dusky and yellow. Lores green. Legs 

* J idea Javanica. Horsfield, p. 190. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 327 

1. TANTALUS Iris. Van. 

2. TANTALUS cinbrbus. 

Is smaller than the preceding ; of a light-grey colour, with the 
exception of the abdomen and rump, which are white ; and 
the wing- and tail-feathers, which are black. 


1. SCOLOPAX arquata, Linn. Var. 

Terok. jgjj 

There are two varieties of this ; a large, called Terok Indo 
ayam, or Terok Gaja ; and a smaller, called Terok Padi. 

2. SCOLOPAX Gallinago, Linn. 

Sekadidi. ^jjaL> 

The Snipe. 

3. SCOLOPAX Capensis, Linn. 


Kooning Kaki. ^^ J-jJ/ 

A small species, with long bill curved upwards. Grey above, 
white beneath. Quill-feathers blackish. 



Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 


1. CHARADRIUS (Edicnemus, Linn. 

Gadang Kapala. JU£ L& 
Two varieties. 

2. CHARADRIUS pluvialis, Linn. Var. 

Cher v ling. &&}>■ 

3. CHARADRIUS Hiaticula, Linn. Var. 

Burong Boot, ^y ^ 



Ay am Ayam. r^ 


Brown, with small white bands ; lighter coloured beneath. Bill 
dirty red. Legs blackish. 

2. RALLUS Sumatranus. 

Rua Rua 

r Jv 

Nearly black above ; white beneath ; ferruginous near the vent. 
Bill blackish. Legs dusky. 

3. RALLUS fasciatus. 

Chesnut above ; breast and throat ferruginous ; abdomen trans- 
versely barred with black and white. Quill-feathers dark 
brown, with some white bars. Bill blueish-black. Feet red. 
Irids red. 

* Rallus gulavis. llorstield, p. J<)(j. 


of a Zoological Collection mm/, in Sumatra. Part 11. 349 


1. GALLINULA obie» i u rs* 

This is probably only a variety of the Gallinula Chloropm 


2. STERNA f GW/. 

Sam ah laut. c^.y -*L 

The prevailing colour is a delicate Mueish-gre} <>r Kail ; the head 
capped with black, with some white spots in front. Throat, 
cheeks and lower tail-coverts white. Wings much longer than 
the tail. Bill and legs dusky-red. 

3. STERNA Pan lYENsis? Gml. 

Blackish-brown above, white beneath. A white stripe from the 
base of the bill to the eyes. Vertex black mixed with white ; 
occiput, back of the neck and wings black. Tail of the co- 
lour of the body. \Yings about the same length as the tail. 
Bill and legs black. 


A small species with short tail, and wings about the same length 
with it. The prevailing colour is white, tinged on the back, 
head and wing-coverts with light reddish-brown, and mixed 
with a few dark spots. A blackish crescent extends from eye 

* GalVmuln orientaiis. Horsfidd, p. 195. 


.330 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

to eye round the back of the head. Wing-feathers lead-grey, 
the first one nearly black. Lower parts snow-white. Tail of 
the same colour as the back. 


1. PELECANUS Philippensis, GmeL 

2. PELECANUS Mamllensis, GmeL 

Lampipi. l /j^J 

These two appear to be little more than varieties of the P.Ono- 
crotalus. Further observations however are required to decide 
whether or not the differences they exhibit are sufficiently con- 
stant to entitle them to the rank of species. 

3. PELECANUS leucocephalus, GmeL 

Dandang laut. c-»jll cU»j 

This appears to be sufficiently distinct from the P. Aquilus, 
though pronounced to be the same by M. Cuvier. 

4. PELECANUS Sula, Linn. 
The Booby. 


P LOT U S M E L A N O G A S T ER, Gme L 

Dan pang Ayee. J\ £t*fcj 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part II. 3:ii 


Of this genus the most common is a species of Teal, called 

It is about twelve or fourteen inches in length, the back black- 
ish, the feathers on the upper part tipped and edged with 
brown. Upper part of the wings dark-chesnut ; (mill-feathers 
black. Crown of the head dark-brown ; neck cinereous, which 
colour passes into ferruginous on the breast and abdomen. 
The hind toe is free. 

Or the remaining classes it would be tedious to enter here into 
a detailed account ; the more particularly, as the largest pro- 
portion of the subjects are forwarded for examination and de- 
scription in Europe, it being impossible to enter into minutiae 
in this country, without occasioning delay and detriment to 
other more pressing avocations. Drawings of the most remark- 
able have been made ; and the specimens, for the most part 
preserved in spirits, and accompanied by a catalogue, will afford 
every facility for detailed examination at a distance. The fol- 
lowing general account may therefore suffice for the present 


In the first division of Amphibia, the species in the collection 
are not numerous. Of the Sea Tortoises, the Testudo Mydas, or 
Katong, cy\£, and T. imbricata, or Katong Kara, sj& cytf, are 
the most common, and are found in most parts of these seas. 
The tortoise-shell of the latter is a considerable article of com- 
merce at Singapore and other places. 

Two species of fresh-water Tortoises are known by the name? 


332 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

of Labi ;jU and Baning J-Jb ; and the Land Tortoises are 
called Ktiia Kura rj,/. One of those in the collection is pro- 
bably the T. serrata. 

Of Lacertce, the L. Crocodilus, or Buaya, J\y is abundant on 
all the coasts of these islands and at the mouths of rivers. It 
often attains to a great size. The next is a variety of the L. Mo- 
nitor, called Biawak, CiJW> whose spots are of a bright yellow. 
It grows to be more than six feet in length, and often commits 
depredations in the poultry yards. A second variety is called 
by the Malays Biawak Poongor, and is chiefly distinguished by 
having a shorter tail. It is said not to eat flesh, like the preced- 
ing, but to live chiefly on leaves and fruit, and to reside mostly 
in the water. 

Of the L. Gecko there are two kinds, one called Toke, ^y 
which is in the collection, and the other Gogok, J& both which 
names are imitations of the cry of the animal. The people of 
Sumatra have no dread of them, but, on the contrary, sometimes 
keep them in their houses for the purpose of destroying vermin, 
and have no idea of their being poisonous. 

There are two varieties, differing chiefly in colour and the 
arrangement of the spots, which appear to belong to the L. scu- 
ta ta, Linn. They are called Crooning J-^^p by the Malays, and 
are said to change their colours, particularly in dying. 

The Binkasa yJ&Li is a small long-tailed green Lizard. 

The Draco volans (Chichak Terbang) LjJ jf**- is frequent in 
the Malay islands, and is believed by the inhabitants to be very 
poisonous. All these animals are sufficiently known, not to 
require particular description. 

Of Rana there are three species in the collection, called by 
the Malays Kodok botong botong, Kadok Kangkong, and Ka- 
dok Kesse. From the heart of the latter a poison is said to be 
prepared by the natives. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part IT. 333 


About twenty species are in the collection, some of which 
are new. Among those already well known, may be enume- 
rated the Coluber Naja, or Cobra di Capello, called by the na- 
tives Ular mataharee and Ular Sindo, jx~> Jjt, ^J^ JJ, which 
is frequently met with in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen. 
Mr. Marsden appears to have fallen into an error in stating that 
this species was not known here ; but it is remarkable, that not- 
withstanding the existence of this and other poisonous snakes, 
we scarcely ever hear of instances of any person being bitten, a 
circumstance which the people ascribe to the power of a Kramat, 
or burial-place of a saint ; but which perhaps may be accounted 
for from the thinness of the population. The Cobra di Capello 
of Sumatra is of a lighter colour than that of tndia, and the 
spectacles of the hood are less distinct. The fangs also are 

The Coluber Bucephalus is also found in Sumatra. 

Of the Coluber gramineus there are two varieties, not uncom- 
mon in the islands. 

The Coluber mycterizans, Ular Daun ^b Jj\ of the Malays, 
is one of the commonest snakes of Sumatra and the neighbour- 
ing islands, where it is chiefly observed on trees. 

There is another species considerably resembling it, and called 
Ular Lidi, ^sJ j 3 \, which has the power of elevating the scales 
of the neck, which are of a darker colour on their under surface, 
and thus producing a variegation of colours, which disappear 
when the animal is at rest, much in the manner described by 
Russel of the Botla Paseriki, PL 13. The scale immediately 
above the anus has a black line along its middle, giving it the 
appearance of being double. 

One of the most remarkable snakes in the collection is a green 
vol. xiii. 2 x one, 

334 Sir'V. S. Raffles'* Descriptive Catalogue 

one, called by the Sumatrans Ular Poochook, &>*$ h\ which 
has some resemblance to the C, gramineus, but is larger and 
much more venomous, being peculiarly distinguished by having 
two fangs on each side, of extraordinary length. 

This species appears to be undescribed, and may be named 
C'. $umatra?ius. 

It is about four or five feet in length, and rather thick. The 
head is large and obtusely triangular, with two large plates 
above each eye. The general colour is green ; but the body 
is encircled by several irregular black rings, and the tail is of 
a reddish colour. Each scale on the body is ed^ed with black. 
The fangs are above half an inch in length, white and slender, 
curved backwards. The number of abdominal scales is 184; 
of caudal 69. It is found in the forests, chiefly upon trees, 
and considered very dangerous. 

Another snake, which appears to be new, was found at Sin- 
gapore, and is related to C. Dipsas by the large dorsal scales. It. 
is not venomous; 'is about six feet long, and of a pretty uniform 
reddish colour, becoming rather dusky on the head and light on 
the belly. There are several other snakes of less importance, 
among which the Ular Tanna, or Ground Snake, and Ular 
Chindi, marked with red spots along the sides, may be princi- 
pally noticed. 

The Boa Constrictor is occasionally found in Sumatra. One 
in the collection measured eleven feet and a half in length. A 
portion of the skin of another was brought to me from the inte- 
rior of Sumatra, which, when dry, was upwards of twenty-one 
inches in circumference. 

The Acrochordus fasciatus, or Hydrus granulatus of Schneider, 
is sometimes but rarely met with on the coasts of Sumatra. 

Of Hydrus there are three species or varieties, having consi- 

of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra. Part 11. 33j 

derable resemblance to each other, and therefore not easilj 


In this department the collection is deficient, most of the 
specimens procured at Penang and Singapore having been lost, 
and time not having been yet afforded to complete the drawings. 
The following is a list of those most commonly found in the 
Straits of Malacca, and of which outlines of the form and cha- 
racters have been preserved. A few only have yet been pro- 
cured on the west coast of Sumatra. 

Mura3na . . . one species. 

rr , . , . ") Lepturus, Linn. 
lrichvurus > c ,, 

J argenteus. onaw. 

Gadus, Linn, 


Echeneis Neucrates. 

Coryphama Ilippurus. 

Gobius Schlosseri. 

niger, var. and two other species, probably 


Cottus one species. 

Zeus one species. 

Pleuronectes bilineatus. 

macrolepidotus ? 

Zebra, and another species. 

Chaetodon . , seven species. 

Sparus two species. 

Labrus one species. 

Sciaena four species. 

Perca ten species. 

Gasterosteus . one species. 

2x2 Scomber 

' \ Tail 

s, Sehn. J 

336 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

Scomber Madagascariensis, and five other species. 
Trigla volitans. 

Silurus two species. 

Platystacus anguillaris. 

Salmo one species. 

Esox becuna. 



Exocoetus volitans. 
Polynemus . . two species. 

Clupea' eleven species. 

Ostracion cornutus. 

Tetrodon hispidus. 

Diodon Hystrix. 

Syngnathus Hippocampus. 

Balistes biaculeatus, and another species. 

Raia guttata. 

Thouiniana, and eight other species. 


Seseral cases of insects, arranged according to the Linnean 
order, have been forwarded for examination in Europe, and 
more are daily collecting. 

Upwards of fifty species of Cancer, many of which are proba- 
bly new, are also forwarded for arrangement and description in 

In these classes generally it may be observed, that no oppor- 
tunity has been lost of increasing the collection ; but from their 
nature they do not admit of that minute examination in this 
country which they require, and where time can ill be spared 
from the new and more important subjects which continually 

press upon the attention. 


of a Zoological Collection made in Sumatra, Part II. 357 

The Zoophytes have not been unattended to, and will lierr- 
after be particularly considered when leisure shall be afforded 
to make drawings and examine the subjects with more accu- 
racy. The coast of Sumatra is particularly rich in Madrepores, 
Millepores, Isis, Antipathes, Gorgonke, Alcyonia, and Spon- 
gise, &c. 


Since closing the preceding parts of this account, a speci- 
men of a very singular and rare animal, called by the Sumatra/is 
Singapooa lytf--. has been procured, and also a new species ot" 
Buceros and one of Strix. The former appears to be the Lemur 
Tarsier, hitherto imperfectly known. 

LEMUR Tarsier. 

This animal is about six inches in length from the nose to the 
tail, which is about nine more. The hind legs are remark- 
ably long, and the feet are very peculiar. The extremities of 
all the toes, on both the fore- and hind-feet, are dilated into a 
round, flat, fleshy callosity, which seems to enable the animal 
to hold with more advantage on the trunks of trees. At many 
of the joints of the feet and toes are similar callosities, but not 
so large. On the toes of the fore-feet there are no claws, 
their place being supplied by small scale-like processes occu- 
pying the centre of the upper surface of the rounded extre- 
mities of the toes. On the hind-feet three of the toes are in 
like manner unarmed ; but the fore and middle toes are fur- 
nished with claws, which are sharp, somewhat curved, and 
stand nearly erect from the middle of the flat rounded extre- 
mities of the toes. The head is round, and the face broad ; 


338 Sh- T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue 

the mouth is wide, and the lips singularly erenated within. 
The pupils of the eyes are so large, that scarcely any other 
part of the eye is visible ; the ears are large, and project late- 
rally. The whole face has a peculiar and singular aspect, the 
grinning mouth giving it an odd expression of risibility. The 
number of teeth has been differently stated by authors. In 
this specimen there appear to be four above and the same 
number below, of which the middle two are the longest in the 
upper jaw, and the outer two longer in the lower. The ca- 
nines of the upper jaw are longer than those of the lower, and 
are followed by a tooth which, from its proximity to the ca- 
nine and distance from the other molars, might almost be 
taken for a second canine : in the lower jaw there is a vacant 
space between the canines and the molars. The tail is nearly 
naked to within an inch of the extremity, where it is tufted 
with hair. 

The animal has been forwarded in spirits to Sir Everard Home : 
it will therefore be unnecessary to enlarge more upon it here. 

The name Singapooa appears to be given to it from some fan- 
cied resemblance to a Lion, Singa signifying a Lion, and Pooa 
(the generic name of the Scitamineous plants) being employed 
figuratively to denote smallness. It is related in the fables of 
the country, that the animal was originally as large as a Lion, 
but has degenerated in modern times to the size we now find it. 

It is only seen in the depth of the forests, and that very rarely, 
once perhaps in two or three years, and is said to live on various 
kinds of wild fruits and young leaves. It is said to ascend trees by 
short leaps, and to produce only one young one at a time. The 
inhabitants have a superstitious dread of these animals, insomuch 
that, if they happen to see one upon any tree near their ladangs 
or forest rice-fields, they will immediately abandon them and 


t)fn Zoological Called inn made in Snmtttra. Part II. 339 

seek another spot; otherwise they believe some misfortune will 
certainly befall them or their family. 

BUCEROS comatus, R. 

This species differs from all the others of the genus in the acute- 
ness of the keel or arch of the upper mandible, which i^ also 
much shorter than usual, being scarcely six inches in length. 
The head and neck are covered with white feathers, more or 
less black at their roots. These feathers arc wiry or filiform, 
and stand nearly erect, particularly on the top of the head, 
while on the forehead they are directed forwards over the 
crest of the bill and conceal it in part. On the sides of the 
fiead the feathers lie Mat, and are directed upwards, so that 
the whole head looks as if surmounted bv a stiff mane, or the 
furred crest of a helmet. The bill is of a dark horny colour, 
somewhat triangular, being broad at the base, and sloping to 
the point. The arch of the upper mandible is acutely cari- 
nate, and the crest, in my single specimen, not much ele- 
vated, equally carinate with, and parallel to the arch of the 
bill, and sloped off to it a little beyond the middle. It will 
require the examination of other individuals to ascertain 
whether the crest ever grows larger ; but I think it cannot 
alter much. The irids are of a greenish-yellow. The back, 
wings and tail are of a dark brown, the belly of the same co- 
lour mixed with white. The wing- and tail-feathers are all 
tipped with white at their points. The legs are nearly black. 


Of this genus a very large and probably new species has re- 
cently been procured in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen. 

It is about two feet in length. The ground-colour is a light 
fawn, the feathers in the upper part being broadly shaded 


340 Sir T. S. Raffles's Descriptive Catalogue^ $c* 

with dark brown along their middle; those of the back, 
wings and scapulars being moreover marked with two dirty- 
white spots, which are sometimes confluent, forming a trans- 
verse stripe. On the imder-parts each feather is marked with 
a narrow longitudinal black line. The wing- and tail-feathers 
are blackish, and banded with white and fawn-colour, their 
tips being white. The feathers on each side the head are 
elongated into horns. The eyes are surrounded by an imper- 
fect circle of bristly feathers. The ears are rather large ; the 
bill is black and hooked ; the claws very strong and arcuate. 

T.S. R, 

.Fort Marlborough, 
June I, 1820. 

XJX. A Mo- 

( 341 ) 

XIX. A Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. By Mr. David Don. 
Communicated by A. B. Lambert, Esq. V.B.L.S. 

Read February 20, 1821. 

J.n the following monograph of a very interesting and difficult 
genus of plants, my principal object is to endeavour to determine 
the limits of species on more satisfactory grounds than 1 conceive 
has hitherto been done. As for six or seven years, during which 
my attention has been directed to this subject, 1 have had oppor- 
tunities of cultivating many species of Saxifraga, both foreign 
and British, and of observing the greater part of the latter in 
their native habitats, I hope, in some cases at least, to have been 
enabled to fix on those distinguishing marks which are most 
constant in determining the species. 

It has been proposed by some botanists to divide Saxifraga 
into several genera : these subdivisions appear to me, however, 
to rest on very insufficient grounds ; and that the genus as it now 
stands, consisting of sections which gradually pass into each 
other, is truly natural. 

The species of Saxifraga, although most abundant in the 
higher latitudes, are still very widely extended over the surface 
of the globe. In the polar regions, many of them are found 
even near the level of the sea ; and within the tropics, on the 
summits of the loftiest mountains ; but the cold and elevated 
regions of the north of Asia, Europe and America are the 
favourite habitats of the genus. 

vol. xiii. 2 \ I have 

342 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

I have been particularly careful in the selection of synonyms ; 
these I have considerably augmented and corrected, as will 
hereafter appear ; doubtful ones I have in most instances ex- 
cluded, as they would unnecessarily increase the bulk of the 
paper, without adding to its utility. For many of the new 
species contained in this paper I am indebted to the splendid 
Herbarium of the late much-lamented President of the Royal 
Society, the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., whose 
death will be long felt throughout the scientific world ; and 
whose name, whose talents and liberality are too well known 
to require any additional eulogium from my feeble pen. To 
Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq. I am also infinitely indebted 
for liberally permitting me to examine the species contained in 
his vast collection ; and especially in that portion comprising 
the Herbarium of the celebrated Pallas. 

I have divided the genus into sections and subdivisions, to 
both of which characters are given ; those of the sections being 
derived from the parts of fructification, and those of the sub- 
divisions from the form of leaves and other differences in habit. 
Without any further remark, I shall now beg leave to lay before 
the Society a Synopsis of the genus. 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph, of the Genus Saxifraga. H9 

Conspectus et Separatio Saxifrage Generis. 

SAXIFRAGA. Linn., Just. 

Syst. Linn. Decandria digynia. 

Ord. ]\at. Saxifrages. Jttiil 

Char. Essentialis. Calyx 5-fidus. Petala 5, Integra. Sta- 
mina 10. Styli 2, persistentes. Capsula 2-locularis, 2-valvis 
e stylis persistentibus birostris : intra rostra foramine orbi- 
culari aperiens, polysperma. Semina minuta, laevia. 

Sectio 1. Bergenia, Manch, 
Calyx campanulatus, 5-fidus, extus rugosus : tegmenta conni- 
ventibus. Petala unguiculata, calyce inserta. Stamina faucc 
calycis inserta ; Jilamenta subulata ; ant fierce subrotundae. 
Styli intus cavi seminibus pleni! basi coaliti, demum tur- 
gidi et in capsulam profundi bipartitam transientes. Stig- 
mata semiglobosa, glabra. Semina cylindracea. 
Herbae perennes. Radix crassa, lignosa. Folia ampla carnosa. 
Petioli stipulis integris membranaceis secus bases utrinque adna- 
tis instructi ! Scapi crassi, denudati. Flores t/iyrsoideo-panicu- 

lati, rubri. 


1. crassifolia 

2. cordifolia 

3. ligulata. 

Sectio 2. Gymnopera. 

Calyx 5-phyllus, reflexus. Petala hypogyna, sessilia. Stamina 

hypogyna; Jilamenta clavata; antherct reniformes. Styli con- 

niventes. Stigmata simplicia, imberbia. Capsula subrotunda, 

nuda. Semina sphaerica. 

2 y 2 Herbae 

344 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Herbae ccespitosce, perennes, brev& surculosa. Folia carnosa, in- 
divisa, plerumque cartilagineo-serrata. Scapi erecti, ramosi, 
Flores parvi, paniculati, rosei aut albi, punctati. 

4. Geum 

5. hirsuta 

6. umbrosa 

7. cuneifolia 

5. spicata 

6. Nelsoniana 


7- arguta 

8. stellaris 

9- leucanthemifolia 

10. sarmentosa 

11. erosa. 

Sectio 3. Leiogyne. 

Calyx profunde 5-fidus. Petala in plurimis sessilia. Stamina 
fauce calycis inserta ; filamenta subulata. Styli recti. Stig- 
mata orbiculata, planiuscula, imberbia. Capsula a calyce 
libera. Semina subrotunda. 

Herbae rarb suffrutices, humiles. Radix fibrosa in pluribus granu- 
losa. Caules Jlexuosi, sapiiis multiflori, polyphylli. Folia in 
aliis reniformia, lobata, in aliis linearia, indivisa. Flores albi 
aut lutei. 

§. Foliis lobatis. 


12. rotundifolia 

13. hybrida 

14. granulata 

15. bulbifera 

16. cernua 

17. sibirica 

18. nudicaulis 

19- bracteata 

20. rivularis 

21. nutans 

22. orientalis 

23. cymbalaria 

24. hederacea. 

§. Foliis 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.iifra<>a. 345 

§. Foliis indivisis. 

25. Hirculus 31. brachypoda 

26. flagellaris 32. juniperina 

27. myosotifolia 33. aspera 

28. aizoides 34. hispidula 

29. bronchialis 35. bryoides 

30. tenella 36. cherlerioides. 

Sectio 4. MlCItANTH KS. 

Calyx 5-partitus, patens. Petala parva, sessilia, patentia, ca- 
lyce inserta. Stamina calyce inserta ; jilarnenta brevissima, 
subulata. Styli brevissimi, crassi. Stigmata capitata, gla- 
bra. Capsula depressa a calyce libera. 

Herbae pevennes. lladix fibrosa. Scapi multiftori. Folia indi- 

visa, patentia, lanceolata v. ovata, serrata v. crenata. Flores 

corymbosi, parvi, albi v. flavescentes, in paniculam terminalem 



37- hieracifolia 41. nivalis 

38. pensylvanica 42. longiscapa 

39. semipubescens 43. davurica 

40. virginiensis 44. pyrolifolia. 

Sectio 5. Saxifragje verje. 

Cahjx 5-fidus. Petala sessilia, perigyna. Stamina perigyna; 

filamenta plana, sensim attenuata. Stigmata patentia, plana, 

spathulata, pube brevi barbata. Capsula calyce obvoluta et 

arete connata. Semina obovata. 
Herba? perennes v. rarissime annua:, humiles, densS caspitosce 

plerumque surculosa. Folia indivisa v. varie partita in pluribus 


346 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

rosulata. Caules polyphylli rard nudi, multi v. pauciflori. 
Flores albi v. lutei aut rarissimi rosei. 

§. Foliis indivisis plerumque rosulatis impetiolatis. 


55. oppositifolia 

45. Cotyledon 

46. lingulata 
47- Aizoon 

48. intacta 

49. mutata 

50. media 

51. Lapeyrousii 

52. aretioides 

53. burseriana 

54. retusa 

56. csesia 

57. diapensioides 

58. fimbriata 
59- serpyllifolia 

60. parnassifolia 

61. androsacea 

62. spathulata 

63. sedioides 

64. tenera. 

§. Foliis 5 — 

65. geranioides 

66. irrigua 

67. maderensis 

68. pedatifida 

69. ceratophylla 

70. obtusifida 

71. ajugifolia 

72. affirm 

73. pentadactyla 

74. latifida 

75. decipiens 

76. hirta 

77. platipetala 

3-partitis petiolatis. 


78. incurvifolia 

79. denudata 

80. Sternbergii 

81. pulchella 

82. tridentata 

83. andicola 

84. caespitosa 

85. stellata 

86. Bonplandii 

87. magellanica 

88. exarata 

89. Pavonii 

90. pedemontana 

91. moschata 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 347 

91. moschata 98. cuneata 

92. muscoides 99. globulifera 
93- pygmaea 100. hypnoides 

94. tricuspidata 101. condensata 

95. tridactylites 102. elongella 

96. petreea 103. leptophylla 

97. adscendens 104. laete-virens. 


Sectio 1. 

1. S. crassifolia, foliis ovalibus obtusissimis glabris scrrulatis, 

petalis elliptico-oblongis. 
S. crassifolia. Linn. Dec. ii. p. 27 . t. 14. Willcl. Sp. PL ii. 

p. 644. Bot. Mag. 1. 196. PersoonSynop. i. p. 488. Hort. 

Kew. iii. p. 61 . 
S. foliis ovalibus crenulatis, caulibus nudis. Gmel. Sib. iv. 

p. 166. t. 66. 
Habitat in Siberia? alpibus. "U . (v. v. c.) 

Radix crassa, lignosa, rudimentis foliorum emarcidorum cre- 
bre tecta. Folia petiolata, ovalia, obtusissima, carnosa, 
glaberrima, lucida, serrulata. Petioli teretes. Stipuhe 
latissime dilatatae, glabrae secus bases petiolorum decur- 
rentes. Scapi pedales, denudati, nitidi, purpurei, angu- 
lati, crassitie fere digiti. Panicula coarctata. Pedunculi 
alterni, racemosi, nutantes. Pedicelli unilaterales, rmme- 
rosi. Flore s campanulati, magni, rubri. Lacinice caly- 
cincE conniventes, oblongae, obtusae. Petala elliptico- 
oblonga, multinervosa. 

2. S. cor- 

348 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

2. S. cordi folia, foliis orbiculato-cordatis serratis glabris, peta- 

lis subrotundis. 
S. cordifolia. Haworth Misc. Nat. 157. Hort. Kew. ed.2. 

3. p. 67. 
Geum saxatile rotundifolium majus, flore purpureo. Amm. 

Ruth. n. 90. 
Habitat in Siberia? alpibus. V . (v. v. g.) 

Praicedenti simillima, at major et robustior. Folia orbiculato- 
cordata, carnosa, ampla, serrata, glabra, lucida. Petioli 
longiores. Scapus brevior, crassior, angulatus, glaber, 
lucidus. Panicula thyrsoidea. Pedunculi alterni brevio- 
res, racemosi, nutantes. Pedicelli numerosi, unilaterales. 
Flores campanulati, majores, rubri. Lacinice calycina con- 
niventes, breviores et latiores. Petala subrotunda, multi- 

This plant, although it has been long considered as only a 
variety of the preceding species, nevertheless affords sufficient 
marks to keep it distinct ; and these characters are always con- 
stant when raised from seed. It is not, as some have supposed, 
a garden hybrid or variety. It was found wild in Siberia both 
by Dr. Amman and the celebrated Pallas, in whose Herbarium, 
now in the possession of A. B. Lambert, Esq., there are several 
native specimens. 


S. ligulala, foliis orbiculato-cordatis, denticulatis, ciliatis, 
utrinque hirsutis, scapo filiformi dichotomo, petalis late 

S. ligulata. Wallich in Act. Soc. Asiat. xiii. p. 398. cumjigura. 

S. Paeumbis. Buchanan Mss. 

Habitat in Nepaliae, et Bengalee orientalis, alpibus. Bu- 
chanan, Wallich. % . (v. s. in Herb. Lamb.) 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifiragki $4Q 

Radix horizontalis, lignosa, crassitie digiti, rudimcntis folio- 
rum emarcidorum imbricatim teota. Folia ampla, orbicu- 
lato-cordata v. rarius fere obovata, utrinque Bdahra, hirsu- 
tissima, margine tenuiter denticulata et pilis eivbris cili- 
ata ; supra, venis prominentibus reticulata. Pttiok bn>- 
vissimi, teretes, quam in pra:cedentibus, bre\ iorcs. Sti- 
pulce latissime membranaceo-dilatata\ secus basei petio- 
lorum decurrentes, ad margines ciliis paleaceis lonm> < us- 
pidatis instructs. Scapus erectus, gracilis, liliformis, mi- 
dus, la^viusculus ; apice bifurcus. Flares ruhri, pra< <■- 
dentibus majores, campanulati, in raoemis cenmia unila- 
teraliter dispositi. Pedicclli calycesque scabriusculi. Ca- 
lycis Lacinia brevissima\ rotundatse. Petala late brbfcu- 
lata, nniltinervia. 

This remarkable and truly distinct species was first discovered 
on the mountains of Nepal by a distinguished naturalist, Di 
Francis Hamilton (formerly Buchanan), from whom there are 
very excellent specimens of it in the Lambertian Herbarium. 
Others have been more recently received from Dr. Wallich, by 
whose collectors they have been gathered both in the mountains 
of Nepal and the eastern parts of Bengal. This plant is one 
of many instances which manifests that striking similarity which 
exists between the vegetation of Nepal and that of the northern 
regions of Tartarv. 

Sectio 2. 

i. S. Qeum, foliis reniformibus crenatis, utrinque pilosis ; adul- 
tis confertis patentibus, petiolis longissimis teretiusculis 
villosis, laciniis calycinis ovatis obtusis. 
S. Geum. Linn. Sp. PI. 5? 4. Scop. Cam. ed. 2. //. 491. 
Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 448. Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 682. La- 
peyr. Saxif. Pyren. p. 46. t. 24. (bona.) Lam. et Decand. 

vol, xrn. 2 z Fhr. 

350 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sax if raga. 

Flor. Franc, iv. p. 379- Persoo?i Si/nop, t. p. 488. Hort. 

Kew. eel 2. 3. p. 68. Engl Bot. t. 1561. (optima.) Stern- 
berg. Sax if. p. 15. 
S. punctata. Stemb. loc. cit. p. 18. 
S. foliis reniformibus obtuse crenatis, caule simplici nudo. 

Gmel. Sib. iii. p. 161. t. 65. f. 1. 
Geum folio subrotundo minori, pistillo tloris rubro. Magn. 

Hort. p. 88. t. 88. 
Sanicula montana rotundifolia minor. Bauh. Pin. 243. 
Sedum montanum rotundifolium minus album non guttatum. 

Moris. Hist. iii. p. 478. sect. 12. t. 9- f 12. (mala.) 
ft. foliorum pagina utrinque glabra. 
S. elegans. Mackay in Uteris. 
y. triplo major; foliorum pagina utrinque glabra, panicula 

magis diffusa, petalis majoribus pulchre punctatis. 
Habitat in Sibiria ; nee non in Pyremeor. Helvetian et Hi- 

berniae alpibus copiose, /3 et y in Hiberniae montibus. 

J. T. Mackay. % . (v. v. c.) 

Planta caespitosa. Radix' fibrosa. Folia anni praecedentis per- 
sistentia, conferta, rigida, humi patentia ; juniora erecta, 
longe petiolata, reniformia, coriacea, crenata : crcnaturis 
imbricatis obtusissimis vix eartilagineis ; supra saturate 
viridia ; subtus rubescentia ; utrinque avenia, pilis rigidis 
instructa. Petioli longissimi, subteretes, villosi, nunquam 
dilatati. Sea pus erectus 4 — 6-pollicaris, pilis viscidis dense 
tectus. Panicula ramosissima, multiflora : ramuli multi- 
fiori, varie furcati. Bractece parvae, carnosae, lineares, 
obtusae. Pedicelli breves calycesque pilis glanduliferis 
crebre tecti. Lacinia? calycis ovatae, obtusae, obscure? 
3-nerves. Petala ovalia, punctis flavis et puniceis ad ba- 
sin instructa- Antherce flavae. Pistilla staminibus bre- 


5. S. hir- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saufra^a. :>/) 1 

5. S. hirsute* foliis ovalibus acute aerratis basi rotundatis corda- 
tisve utrinque pilosis ; adultis erectis, petiolis Ipngissintis 
teretiusculis villosis, pedicellis elougatis unirloris. 

S. hirsuta. Linn. Sp. PL 574. Mill. Diet. n. 6. IVilid. Sp. 
PL ii.p.64-7. Lapeyr. FLPyren. Sain', p. 15. f. 23. (opti- 
ma.) Lam.Encycl. vi. p. 681. EngL Bot. t. 2322. (bona.) 
Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 3.^.68. Law. e/ Decant]. Fior. Franc, iv. 
;?. 378. Sternb. Saxif. p. 14. 

Sedum serratum, folio pallido, tiore elfcganter punctate. 
Moris. Hist. 3. 12. /. 9. /. M. 

/3. foliis subrotundo-cordatis utrinquc glabnS, 

Habitat in rupibus humidis alpium Pyrenaicarum H Hiberni- 
carum, j3 cum a in llibernia. J. X. Mar hay. ~u . (v. v. c.) 

Planta caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Fo/io omnia loagb petio- 

lata, erecta, ovalia, coriacea, utrinquc pallidi- \ India, pilis 
rigidiusculis adspersa ; basi vel rotundata v.cordata ; mar- 
gine serrata: serraturis subdistantibus, triangularibus, acu- 
tis. Petioli longissimi, erecti, teretiusculi, dense villosi ; 
supra canaliculati. Scapi erecti, palmares aut pedales, 
flexuosi, villis viscidis tecti. Panic nla divaricatim ramo- 
sissima. Pedicelli elongati, uniflori, calycesque pilis glan- 
duliferis obsiti. Laciniaz calycince ovata?, obtusae, obscure 
3-nerves. Petala ovali-oblonga, alba punctis numerosis 
fulsidis rubris et flavis instructa oculo armato 5-nervia. 
Filament a alba, pistillis longiora. Anther te rubra?. 

This species appears intermediate between S. Geum and um- 
brosa ; with Geum it agrees in the form of its petioles, and in its 
leaves beino; cordate at the base ; and with S. umbrosa in its more 
oval, smooth, and paler green leaves and larger flowers with 
bright-coloured spots. From both, however, it appears suffi- 
ciently distinct to rank as a species. Moris. Hist, S. IS. t.9-f- 17. 

2 z 2 given 

352 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

given as a synonym of punctata, certainly belongs to this plant. 
Magnol. Jlort. Monsp. t. 87- ought with more propriety to be 
referred to S. Geum. 

6. S. umbrosa, foliis obovatis retusis cartilagineo-crenatis glaber- 
rimis ; adultis confertis patentibus, petiolis brevibus com- 
presso-dilatatis, pedicellis paucirloris. 

S. umbrosa. Sp. PL 574. Mill, Icon. 141./. 2. Willd. Sp. 
PL ii. p. 647- With. Brit. 40.3. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. 
p. 44. /. 22. (bona.) Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 680. Smith Brit. ii. 
p. 450. Engl. Bot. 633. Bull. Brit. 92. Persoon Sy- 
nop. i. p. 488. Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 378. 
J/or/. Kew. iii. /;. 67. Sternb. Saxif. p. 14. 

Geum folio subrotundo minori, pistillo floris rubro. Toumef. 
Inst. 251. 

/3. punctata, foliis subrotundis argute dentato-serratis ; adul- 
tis erectis, petiolis longioribus. 

S. punctata. Linn. Sp. PL 574. (exclus. syn. Moris. Hist.) 
Willd. Sp. PL 2. p. 646. (exclus. syn. Moris. Hist.) 

y. serratifolia, foliis oblongo-ovatis inciso-serratis ; adultis 
erectis, petiolis longioribus. 

S. serratifolia. Mackay in Uteris. 

Habitut a in alpibus Pyrenaicis et Hibernicis, /3 et y in 
Hibernia? montibus. D. Mackay. V . (v. v. c.) 

Planta ca>spitosa. Radix fibrosa. Folia aimi prrccedentis 
persistentia, dense conferta, humi patentia; juniora erecta, 
breve petiolata, obovata, retusa, cartilagineo-crenata : cre- 
naturis subimbricatis, utrinque viridia glaberrima. Pe- 
tioli compresso-dilatati, supra plani, ad marginem villis 
mollibus tenuiter ciliati paging foliorum vix Iongiores. 
Scapus erectus, rlexuosus, villis viscidis tectus. Panicula 
divaricattm ramosa. Pedicelli breves, paucirlori, calyces- 


Mr. D. Do>, 's Monograph of the Genus Sa.iifraga. 353 

que pilis brevibus glanduliferis conferte instructi. Lacin'ut 
calycis ovaUe, obtuste, obscure triuerves. Pttala ovalia, 
eonspicue trinervia : nervLs ramosis, roseo-alba punctis 
numerosis coccineis et rlavis pulcherrima. 

Saaifraga umbrosa is readily distinguished from the two pre- 
ceding species by its tiat, dilatated, and much shorter petioles ; 
by the leaves never being cordate at the base ; and lastly, by the 
serratures being more distinctly cartilaginous at their margins. 
The variety /3. 1 believe to be Linnrcus's S. punctata : it differs 
from a. by the greater length of its petioles, and by the older 
leaves being loose, and always erect, never confert and spreading 
on the ground as in var. a ; the var. y. is very near akin to /3, only 
differing in its leaves being oblong-ovate. They both likewise 
differ from a. by the large and sharp serratures of their leaves. 
The synonyms of Morison and Miller, quoted by Linnaeus, evi- 
dently belong to hirsuta. The Count de Sternberg, in his excel- 
lent monograph of the genus, has described for S. punctata the 
Siberian S. Geu?n, which differs in no respect from the European 
one, as I have examined excellent specimens of it in the Pallasian 
Herbarium in the possession of A. B. Lambert, Esq. These spe- 
cimens agree exactly with Gmelin's figure quoted by him. 

7. S. cuneifolia, foliis cuneiformibus repando-crenatis glabris ; 

adultis confertis patentibus : petiolis linearibus angustissi- 

mis nudis, laciniis calycinis oblongis aeutis, petalis spa- 


S. cuneifolia. Linn. Sp. PI. 574. Scop. Cam. 490. /. 13. 

Schmied. Fuse. t. \ c 2. n. 31. ffittd. Sp. PI. ii. p. 647. La- 

peyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 45. Wrildst. tt Kit ait/. Hung. i. p. 43. 

t. 44. (media.) Lam. Encycl. vi. /;. 681. Lam. et Decand. 

PI. Franc, iv. p. 377- fiorf. Kev. ed. <2. 3. p. 6'S. Stetnb. 

Saxif. p. 14. 


354 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Saxifraga punctata. Gnnn. Norv. n. 1076. Act. Haf. x. 

p. U5. t. 3. f. 10. 
S. foliis petiolatis obtusis, caule fragili nudo ramoso. Hall. 

Ilelv, n. 974. 
Cotyledon altera olim Matthioli. Banh. Hist. hi. p. 684. 
Cotyledon aut Sedi species quredam. Gesn. Fasc. xix. t. 12. 

f. 37. (bene.) 
(3. davurica, foliis opacis dentatis, rloribus majoribus. 
S. davurica. Hort. nee Willd. 
Habitat a in alpibus Pyrenasor. Helvetian, Styriae, Hungarian 

et Norvegiie ; /3 in Sibiriil ? % . (v. v. c.) 

Plant a caespitosa, duplo minor. Radii' fibrosa. Folia anni 
pra3cedentis persistentia, conferta, humi patentia ; juniora 
erecta, cuneiformia, petiolata, utrinque glaberrima, repan- 
do-crenata, rigide coriacea, basi attenuata. Petioli lineares, 
angustissimi, rigidi, fragiles, nudi, margine cartilaginei. 
Scapns erectus, rlexuosus, rigidus, fragilis, villis viscidis 
rare adspersus. Panicula divaricatim ramosa : rami di- 
chotomi. Pedicelli calycesque pilis glandulosis instructi. 
Lacinue calycince oblongie, acuta*, obscure uninerves. Pe- 
ta/a spathulata, basi angustata, puncto luteo, subsolitario 
instructa, sub microscopio trinervia : nervis ramosiusculis. 
Stamina pistillis fere duplo longiora ; filament a alba; an- 
thera fulva?. 

8. S. spicata, foliis longe petiolatis orbiculato-cordatis argute 
serratis venosis pilosis, petiolis basi dilatatis, racemo elon- 
gato spiciformi, laciniis calycinis brevissimis obtusis. 
S. Geum. Pnrsh FL Amer. Septent. i. p. 311. 
Habitat in Insula Sledge dicta ad oras occidentales Ame- 
rican septentrionalis. D. Nelson. V . (v. s. in Herb. 
. •.. ' - Plant a 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of t fa (Joins Shxifragti. 665 

Planta coespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Folia omnia erectu Longfe 
petiolata, orbiculato-cordata, conspicur venosa, grosse et 
acute serrata, utrinque pilosa ; petioli Iongissimi : basi di- 
latati, subtus striato-nervosi, marginc villis mollibus ciliati. 
Scapus pedalis, teres, erectus, villis viscidis tectus. Root' 
nuts elongatus, apice attenuatus, varie dichotomus, multi- 
florus. Pedicelli brevissimi, numerosi, pube brevi gluti- 
nosa, ut et calyces, tecti. Laciniw calycinw brevissimae, 
obtusre. Petala elliptico-oblonga, punctata ? 3-nervia : 
nervis raniosis tlexuosis. Genitalia petalis triplo longiora ; 
jilamenta longissima, gracilia ; pistilla elongata, recta. 

The above species is widely different from the S. Gcum, with 
which Pursh has confounded it. It is distinguished by its nerved 
and dilated petioles. The leaves are all erect, broader, orbicu- 
lato-cordate, veined and serrated ; their teeth large, acute. 
Flowers on dichotomous peduncles, disposed in a long tapering 
raceme. The laciniae of the calyx are much shorter and broader. 
The stamens twice the length of those of «S. Gcum. and longer 
than the petals. The only specimens I have seen of this very 
distinct plant are preserved in the Banksian Herbarium, and 
were collected in Sledge Island, on the north-west coast of 
America, by Mr. David Nelson, a very indefatigable botanist, 
who accompanied the celebrated Captain Cook in his third 
voyage, and who has made many interesting discoveries in those 

9. S. Nelsonia?ia, foliis orbiculato-cordatis subpeltatis inciso-ser- 
ratis, petiolis longissimis filiformibus, thyrso ovato. 
Habitat ad Caput Newnham dictum, ad oras occidentales 
America? borealis. David Nelson. V . (v.s. Herb. Banks.) 

Planta subceespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Folia omnia erecta, 


356 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage. 

longe petiolata, orbiculato-cordata, subpeltata, coriacea, 
supra glabra, subtus hirsuta, inciso-serrata : serraturis 
magnis acutis. Petioli longissimi filiformes, requales, un- 
dique villosi. Scopus palmaris, erectus, simplicissimus, 
teres, villis longis mollibus undique tectus. Flores brevb 
pedicellati, albi, magnitudine S. nivalis, in thyrso ovato 
terminali dense dispositi. Lacinice calycince triangularis 
ovatee, acuta 5 . Petala ovalia, parva, alba, impunctata ? 
Filamenta alba. Pistilla elongata, recta. 

Hanc speciem pulcherrimam et omnino distinctam no- 
mine inventoris peritissimi atque indefessi lubens conde- 

10. Si arguta, tbliis reniformi-rotundatis inciso-serratis glabris, 

petiolis filiforrrnbus, scapo gracili kevi, laciniis calycinis 
oblongis acutis. 
Habitat ad oras occidentales American septentrionalis. D. 

Menzies. it . (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Radix fibrosa. Folia longe petiolata, reniformi-rotundata, 
profundi inciso-serrata, u trip que glabra. Petioli longis- 
simi, filiformes, graciles. Scapus laevis, gracilis. Pani- 
cula simplicissima. Flores albi, magnitudine S. stetlaris. 
Lacinict cahjcis oblongae, acutae. Petala ovalia, ungui- 
culata, multinervosa, punctata? Pistilla brevissima. 

11. S. stellar is, foliis aggregatis rhombeo-ovatis sessilibus acute 

dentatis: basi integerrimis angustatis, petalis ovatis acutis 
a?qun1ibus unguiculatis, scapo subsimplici. 
S. stellaris. Linn. Sp. PL 572. Flor. Dan. t. 23. (bona.) 
Jacq. Coll. i. p. 202. /. 13. (optima.) Scop. Cam. i. 292. 
t. 13. (media.) Iluds. Angl. 179- Lightf. Scot. i. p. 220. 
With. Brit. 402. Willd. Sp. PI, ji. p. <i±4. Engl, go/. 

t. 167. 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif raga. 357 

t. 167. (bona.) Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 490. Lam. En- 

cycl. vi. p. 680. Smith Brit. ii. p. 448. Fersoon Synop. i. 

p. 488. Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 379. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. 3. p. 68. Stern 6. &m/. /;. 11. Wahlenb. 

Lapp. p. 1 14. 
S. foliis rhomboideis acute serratis, caule nudo ramoso. 

Hall. Helv. n. 973. 
S. foliis lanceolatis dentato-serratis, caule nudo simplici. 

Linn. Suec. 335, 367. 
S. caule nudo simplici, foliis lanceolatis dentatis, petalis 

acutis. [Ann. Lapp. 175. 
Sanicula M} T osotis floribus albicantibus fere umbellatis. 

Pluk. Aim. p. 331. ejusd. Fhytog. t. 58. f. 2. (bene.) 
Sedum montanum hirsutum mucronato et dentato folio, flore 

albo guttato. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 478. s. 12. *. 9. /. 13. 

Sanicula alpina aliquatenus affinis. Bauh. Hist. iii. p. 708. 
@. elata, scapi plures, pedales. 
y. angustifolia, foliis angustioribus longioribusque apice 

$. Schleicher i, foliis obovatis repando-crenatis,scapo flexuoso 

S. stellaris. Schleicher in Uteris. 
t. Bellardi, acaulis ; foliis subrotundis repandis, flore ses- 

S. Bellardi. AHion. Fedem. n. 1536. t. 88. /. 1. Willd. Sp. 

PL ii. p. 645. Sternb. Saxif. p. 2. 
Habitat a, Scotiae et totius Europae alpium petrosa humida 

et scaturigines ; /S et y in Sibiria (Pallas) ; $ in alpibus 

Helveticis (Schleicher) ; s in alpibus Pedemontanis (Bel- 
lardi). V- . (v. v. a sp. £ cult ; /3 et y v. s. in Herb. Pal- 

lasio, nunc Lamb.) 
vol. xin. 3 a Planta 

358 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Planta in caespitibus densis parvulis vegetans. Radix fibrosa. 
Folia conferta, sessilia, rhombeo-ovata, apice acute den- 
tata, basi integerrima, angustata, utrinque pilis setosis 
adspersa ; supra nitida. Scapus subnudus, 2 — 4-pollicaris 
in /3 pedalis, villis mollibus viscidis instructus. Panicula 
simplex, paucirlora. Pedunculi dichotomi calycesque 
pilis glandulosis leviter tecti. Bractea ovatae, acuta?, 
integrae. Lacinice calycince ovato-acutee, 3-nerves. Pe- 
tala ovata, acuta, alba, axmalia, unguiculata, elegantis- 
sime 3-nervia (nervis simplicibus rectis) ; basi maculis 
2 aureis instructs : dorso carinata. Filament a alba. An- 
ther cz croceae. Pistilla brevissima, crassa. 

12. S. leucanthemifolia^ foliis confertis lanceolato-cuneatis acute 

grosseque dentatis, basi integerrimis angustatis, scapo 

ramosissimo diftuso, petalis ovatis acutis unguiculatis ; 

tribus exterioribus majoribus. 
S. leucanthemifolia. Mich. Atftet. Bor. i. p. 268. Lapeyr. 

Pyren. Saxif. p. 49. t. 25. Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 679. 

Pursh Amer. Septent. i. p. 311. Sternb. Saxif. p. 10. 
S. Clusii. Gouau Must. p. 28. (exclus. synon.) Lam. et 

Decand. Flor. Franc, iv. p. 380. 
Habitat in alpibus Pyrenaicis, et in America bore all. 

if. (v. v. c. et s. sp.) 

Planta caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Folia conferta, erecta, 
lanceolato-cuneata, apice acute grosseque dentata, basi 
integerrima, angustata, utrinque pilis setosis instructa. 
Scapus subnudus, 4 — 6-pollicaris, rlexuosus, diffuse ra- 
mosissimus, villis viscidis tectus. Rami dichotomi. Pe- 
dicelli elongati, graciles, unirlori, pube brevi glutinosa 
vestiti. Lacinia calycince ovatae, obtusa\ Petala ovata, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 3.59 

acuta, inaequalia, unguiculata, triplinervia : nervis ra- 
mosis, flexuosis ; tria exteriora majora, basi biguttata ; 
duo interiora multo minora, immaculata. 
Obs. Praecedente triplo major, in plurimis tamen similis, at 
notis indicatis abundc diversa. 

13. S. sarmentosa, stolonibus reptantibus, foliis orbiculato-cor- 

datis late lobato-crenatis discoloribus pilosis, petalis un- 

guiculatis ; duobus exterioribus maximis tiaccidis. 
S. sarmentosa. Linn. Suppl. p. 240. Thiinb. Japon. p. 182. 

Schreb. Monog. Dionea?, p. 16. t. 2. f. 3. (media.) Ait. 

Hort. Kczo. ed. 1. 2. p. 79- Lam. EncycL vi. p. 684. 

Per soon Synops. i. p. 488. 
S. ligulata. Mnrr. in Comment. Golt. 1781. p. 26. t. 1. 

Schkika. Kampf. Amain. 870. Jacq. Misc. ii. p. 327. 

ejusd. Icon. var. 1. t. 80. (optima.) 
Habitat in Imperii Japonarum locis montosis et humidis 

inque lapidosis (Kampfcr, Thunberg) ; etiam in China. 

11 . (v. v. c.) 

Planta cacspitosa, stolonifera. Radii 1 fibrosa. Stolones axil- 
lares, late reptantes, ad genicula supra comam parvam 
foliorum et infra fibras nonnullas progredientes. Folia 
numerosa, patentia, orbiculato-cordata, longe petiolata, 
lobato-crenata : crenaturis latissimis obtusis, utrinque 
pilis setosis adspersa, supra opace viridia, fasciis albis ; 
subtus rubra. Scapi palmares, aut pedales, erecti, petio- 
lique pilis rigidiusculis viscidis deflexis undique vestiti. 
Panicula ramosa, laxiflora. Bractea lanceolatae, mucro- 
natae, pedicellique pube glutinosa obsitae. Lacinia caly- 
cinte late ovatse, obtusae, conspicue trinerves. Petala 
unguiculata : unguibus capillaribus ; tria interiora parva, 

3 a 2 cordata, 

360 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

cordata, acuta ; horum lateralia basi macula flava notan- 
tur, at centrale punctis duobus puniceis ad basin muni- 
tum est ; duo exteriora maxima, lanceolata, acuta, flac- 
cida, 3-nervia : nervis flexuosis, ramosis. 

14. 5". erosa, foliis lanceolatis acutis glabris runcinato-serratis, 

panicula divaricata pyramidata, pedicellis elongatis uni- 

floris, petalis oblongo-ovalibus obtusis unguiculatis. 
S. erosa. Pursh Atner. Boreal, i. p. 311. 
@. foliis hirsutis. 
Habitat a, m rivulis lapidosis montium excelsiorum Carolina? 

et Virginia?. Pursh. /S in horto Chelseano colitur. 7/ . 

(v. v. c.) 

Planta ca3spitosa. Folia numerosa, erecta, lanceolata, acuta, 
erose rimcinato-serrata, basi integra in petiolum angus- 
tata, utrinque glabra, lucida. Scapi stricti, pedales v. 
sesquipedales, teretes, pilis viscidis patentibus undique 
tecti. Panicula divaricata, ramosa, laxiflora, pyramidata. 
Pedicelli elongati, filiformes, unitlori, calycesque pilis 
glanduliferis crebre instructi. Lacinice calycis ovata?, 
obtusae, obscure uninerves. Petala oblongo-ovalia, alba, 
unguiculata, 3-nervia : nervis simplicibus strictis, puncto 
flavo solitario ad basin instructa. Filamenta alba. An- 
ther a- aureae. 

Sectio 3. 

§ Foliis lobatis. 

15. S. rotundifolia, foliis reniformibus inaequaliter grosseque 

dentatis ; caulinis petiolatis, petalis lanceolatis acutis. 
S. rotundifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 576. Mill. Diet. n. 5. ejusd. 
Icon. t. 141. {media.) Scop. Carn. ii. n. 488. Willd. Sp. 
PL ii. p. 651. Curt. Magaz. 424, (bona.) Lapeyr. Py- 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 36 1 

ren. Saxif. p. 50. t. 26. (optima.) Lam. Rnajcl. vi. p. (588. 

Persoon Synop. i. /;. 489- Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 3. p. 69. 

Sternb. Saxif. p. 17 • 
S. foliis caulinis reniformibus dentatis petiolatis, caule pani- 
culate Gmel. Sib. iv. p. 162. 
S. foliis reniformibus acute serratis hirsutis petiolatis, caule 

ramoso. Hall. 11 eh. n. 97.5. 
S. foliis reniformibus acute crenatis, caule ramoso folioso. 

Hort. Cliff. 167. Boy. l.ugdb. 4.J3. 
Sanicula montana rotundifolia major. Bauh. Pin. 243. 
Sanicula alpina. Cam. Evit. 764. Gem. Fun. xix. /. 10. 

/. 25. 
@. repanda, major et robustior, foliis latioribus. 
8. repanda. Sternb. loc. cit. p. 17- t. 5. 
S. rotundifolia. Marsch. a) Biebcrst. Fl. Taurico-Cauc. i. 

p. 315. Steven de Saaif. Cauc. in Mem. Mosq. iv. p. 76. 
Habitat a. in Austria?, Helvetia; et Sibiriee alpibus ; /3 in 

alpestribus Caucasicis. % . (v. v. ec et /3 c.) 

Plant a dense caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Caules erecti, ri- 
gidi, rlexuosi, foliosi, palmares pedalesve. Folia radica- 
lia reniformia, longe petiolata, inaequaliter grosseque 
dentato-serrata ; supra lucida, pilis setosis adspersa ; sub- 
tus pubescentia ; caulina petiolata radicalibus conformia 
nisi magis inaequaliter et profundius dentata : petioli semi- 
teretes, undique villosi. Panicula divaricata, laxa. Brac- 
tecB lineares longitudine pedicellorum. Pedicelli caly- 
cesque pilis glandulosis tecti. Calyx patens; laciniae 
oblongae, obtusiusculae, obsolete 3-nerves. Petala Ian- 
ceolata, acuta, alba, punctis minutis coccineis adspersa, 
3-nervia: nervis simplicibus. Filamenta alba. Anthers 


362 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Obs. Var. /3 ex mente Clariss. Steveni ab rotundifolia non 
differt, tamen mihi in hortis semper in omnibus partibus, 
praeter flores, majorem et robustiorem apparuit. 

16. S. hybrida, foliis radicalibus petiolatis cuneato-rotundatis 

crenatis ; caulinis minutis integris, caule paniculato. 
Sternb. Sax if. p. 17- t. 8. /, 3. 
Habitat in alpibus Fyrenaicis. % . 

Hanc plantam nee vivam neque siccam vidi. Praecedenti 
valde affinis videtur, at modo figura Sternbergii fidenda : 
abunde discrepat statura minori et graciliori ; foliis basi 
acutis nee cordatis ; caulinisque minutis, integris, sub- 

17. S. granulata, foliis radicalibus reniformibus inciso-lobatis ; 

caulinis petiolatis, laciniis calycinis lanceolatis obtusis, 

petalis spathulatis. 
S. granulata. Linn. Sp. PL 576. Huds. Angl. 182. Flor. 

Dan. 514. With. Brit. 405. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 651. 

Lam. Illust. t. 372. f. 1. [mala.) ejusd. Flor. Franc, iii. 

p. 532. Ibid. Encycl. vi. p. 689. Engl. Pot. t. 500. 

{bona.) Smith Brit. ii. p. 453. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. 

p. 52. Hort. Kezv. ed. 23. p. 69- Sternb. Saxif. p. 16. 
S. foliis caulinis reniformibus obtuse lobatis, caule ramoso, 

radice granulata. Hort. Cliff. I67. FL Suec. 350. 
S. foliis radicalibus reniformibus obtuse dentatis, caulinis 

palmatis. Hall. Helv. 71. 976. 
S. rotundifolia alba. Bauh. Pin. 309. 
S. alba. Hod. Pempt. 316. 
Sedum rotundifolium erectum, radice granulata. Moris. 

Hist. iii. p. 474. § 11. t.9- /. 23. (bona.) 
fi. rloribiis plenis. 

y. mul- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genas Saxifraga. 363 

y. multicaidis, caulibus pluribus brevioribus, foliis circinato- 

S. granulata, /3. multicaulis. Lapeyr. loc. cit. t. 27. 
Habitat a in apricis et nemoribus Europe borealis et me- 

ridionalis, ubique obvia ; /2 in hortis colitur : y in alpibus 

Pyrenaicis. Lapeyrouse. 2/ . (v. v. sp.) 

Radix granulata. Caides erecti, 4 — (i-unciales pedalesve, 
ramosi, foliosi, multirlori, villis mollibus viscidis crebre 
obsiti. Folia radicalia petiolata, reniformia, inciso-lobata, 
utrinque hirsuta : petiolis villosis ; caulina petiolata, pal- 
mata. Bractea lanceolatae, obtusa?. Pedicelli elongati, 
uniflori, calycesque pube glutinosa instrncti. Flores mag- 
ni, campanulati, candidi. Lacinia cahjcincc lanceolate, 
obtusae, 3-nerves. Petala spatlmlata, triplinervia : nervis 
ramosis rlexuosis. 

18. S. bulbifera, foliis radicalibus reniformibus petiolatis crena- 

tis ; caulinis sessilibus inciso-lobatis, laciniis calycinis 

triangulari-ovatis acutis, caule ramoso multiiioro. 
S. bulbifera. Linn. Sp. PL 577. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 651. 

(exclus. synon. Gunn. \orv. et Flor. Dan.) Lam. En- 

cycl. vi. p. 690. (exclus. synon. Gunn. Norv. et Flor. 

Dan.) Per won Synop. i. p. 489- Lam. et Decand. Fl. 

Franc, iv. p. 369- Sternb. Saxif p. 15. t. 12. f. 1. 

Sedum rotundifolium erectum soboliferum. Moris. Hist. iii. 

p. 474. § 12. t. 9. f. 24. (opt'nna.) 
Sedum ad folia bulbos gerens. Bauh. Pin. 309. Col. 

Ecphr. i. p. 318. t. 317. {bona.) 
Habitat in Europie australis pratis saxosis et umbrosis, in 

Hispania (Pavon). 11. (v. s. in Herb Banks, et Lamb.) 


364 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Radix granulata. Catties erecti, palmares v. pedales, te- 
retes, ramosi, multiflori, pilis viscidis instructi. Folia 
radicalia reniformia, obtuse crenata, utrinque pilosa, 
Jonge petiolata : petiolis villis viscidis conferte tectis ; 
caulina omnia sessilia, inferiora inciso-dentata, superiora 
ovato-oblonga, integra, in axillis bulbos gerentia. Pe- 
dunculi elongati, unirlori calycesque pube glutinosa tecti. 
Flores candidi prrecedente minores. Lacinice calycis tri- 
angularis vatae, acuta 3 . Petala spathulata, triplinervia : 
nervis rlexuosis ramosissimis. 

This is undoubtedly the true Linnaean S. bulbifera y which is 
confined to the southern parts of Europe. It is therefore re- 
markable, that so accurate an observer as Wahlenberg should 
have described it as a Lapland plant, nearly related to cernua, if 
really specifically distinct from that species, which indeed I am 
rather inclined to doubt. The figure of Flora Danica, quoted by 
Willdenow and others, belongs evidently to S. cernua. 

19. S. cernua, foliis glabris petiolatis ; radicalibus reniformibus 
inciso-lobatis ; caulinis palmatis, laciniis calycinis ovatis 
obtusis, petalis spathulatis emarginatis, caule simplicis- 

simo subunirloro. 
S. cernua. Ldnn. Sp. Fl. 577*. Flor. Dan, t. 22. (mala.) 

Gunn. Norv. n. 528. t. 9. f. 2. (bona.) Willd. Sp. PL ii. 

p. 552. With. Brit. 405. Lapeijr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 52. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 69O. Smith Brit. ii. p. 453. Engl. 

Bot. t. 664. (bona.) Per soon Synop. i. p. 489. Wahlenb. 

Lapp. 116. Sternb. Saxif. p. 18. t. 12. /. 2. 
S. foliis palmatis, caule simplici unifloro. Linn. Fl. Lapp. 

172 t. 2. /. 4. (bona.) Hort. Cliff. I67. Fl. Suec. 351. 


p. caule 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 365 

/3. caule subramoso paucifloro. 

FL Dan. t. 390. S. bulbifera. Wahlenb. Lapp. 116? 

Habitat in summis alpibus Lapponicis, Pyrenaic, Helvetic, 
Scotic.; /3 in Lapponiae? et Norvegiae alpibus, nee non 
in Sibiria (Pallas), y. . (v. v. a, ; /3 s. in Herb. Pallas, 
nunc Lamb.) 

Radix squamata; squamae carnosae e basibus petiolor. fo- 
liorum primordialium enatae. Caulis erectus, 4 — 6-un- 
cialis, simplicissimus, flexuosus, foliosus, laeviusculus, pi 
lis raris brevibus adspersus. Folia radicalia petiolata, 
reniformia, glabra, inciso-lobata : lobis ovatis acutis ; 
caulina petiolata, glabra ; inferiora palmata ; superiora 
indivisa, ovata, ad axillas bulbis parvis aggrcgatis in- 
structa. Flos solitarius, terminalis, magnus, campanu- 
latus, candidus, nutans. Pedicellus brevis, pilis brevi- 
bus viscidis, ut et calyx, leviter adspersus. Lacinia ca- 
lycina ovatae, obtusae. Petala spathulata, triplinervia : 
nervis flexuosis ramosissimis. 

20. S. Sibirica, foliis hirsutis petiolatis ; radicalibus reniformi- 

bus palmatis ; caulinis digitatis, pedicellis elongatis re- 

motis, petalis obovatis : nervis simplicibus, caule filiformi 

S. Sibirica. Linn. Sp. PL 577. Willd. Sp. PI. ii. p. 653. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 693. Persoon Sy?wp. i. p. 489- 

Stemb. Saxif. p. 23. t. 25. 
S. foliis reniformibus acutis digitatis, caule ramoso folioso. 

Gmel. Sib. iv. p. 162. n. 74. 
S. granulata. Steven, de Saxif. Cauc. in Mem. Mosq. iv. 

p. 77. n. 3 ? (exclus. synon.) Marsch. FL Taur. Cauc. i. 

p. 315? (exclus. synon.) 
S. grandiflora. Stemb. Saxif. t. 12. /. 4? 
vol. xin. 3 b S. cym- 

566 Mr. D, Dox's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga, 

S. cymbalaria. Marsch. d Bieb. Suppl. FLTaur.Cauc. p. 292 7 

(exclus. synon. Willd.) 
"Habitat in Sibiria (Gmelin, Pallas), in alpium Caucasica- 

rum saxosis praeruptis? Steven, Marschall a Bieberstein. 

11 . (v. s. in Herb. Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Radix squamata, fibras numerosas emittens, rudimentis fo- 
liorum emarcidorum superne instructa. Cauks filifor- 
mes, graciles, 4 — 5-pollicares, ramosi, adscendentes, 
foliosi, villis viscidis leviter instructi. Folia radicalia 
longe petiolata reniformia, lobato-palmata : lobis ovatis 
acutis, utrinque hirsuta ; caulina digitata, inferiora pe- 
tiolata, superiora sessilia. Petioli graciles, omnes villosL 
Pedicelli remoti, elongati, capillares, unirlori, caiycesque 
leviter pubescentes. Lacinia calycince ovatae, obtusius- 
culae. Petala obovata, alba, triplinervia : nervis recti- 
usculis, simplicibus. 

The above description was taken from specimens in the Pal- 
lasian Herbarium, in the possession of A. B. Lambert, Esq. 
Sternb. t. 25. corresponds exactly with these specimens ; but the 
leaves of the latter are more deeply lobed than represented in 
the figure. The S. grandijlora Sternb. t. 12. f. 4., which is the 
granulata of Steven, and the S. cymbalaria of Marschall's Flora 
T arnica, I am inclined to think belongs also to this plant ; but 
having never seen specimens of it, I am unable to decide. The 
roots of this section, whether scaly or fibrous, scarcely aiford any 
specific character, as they have all a tendency to become scaly. 

21. 5. nudicaulis, foliis reniformibus palmatis glabris, floribus 
paniculatis, laciniis calycinis acutis, scapo nudo. 
Habitat ad oras occidentales Americas borealis. David Nel- 
son. % . (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 367 

Radix fibrosa. Scapi erecti, nudi, 4 — o-pollicares, teretes, 
glabriusculi. Folia radicalia reniformia, petiolata petio- 
lis glabris, lobato-digitata, utrinque glabra : lobis ovatis 
mucronatis. Flores paniculati, magnitudine S. rivularis, 
albi. Pedicelli calycesque Dilis glandulosis leviter obsiti. 
LacinicB calycuice triangulari-ovatae, acutae. Petala parva, 
obovata, calyce longiora, triplinervia: nervis rectiusculis, 
simplicibus. Filamenta gracilia stylos aequantia. 

22. S. bracteata, foliis radicalibus caulinisque longe petiolatis 

reniformibus inciso-lobatis, rloribus congesto-corymbosis 
Habitat in Sibiria orientali. D. Mcrk. ~U . (v. s. in Herb. 
Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Planta caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Caules adscendentes, 
flexuosi, foliosi, teretes, ramosi, villis viscidis tecti, 3 — 5- 
unciales. Folia radicalia reniformia, lobato-crenata : lobis 
obtusis latis, utrinque nudiuscula, longe petiolata ; cau- 
lina longe petiolata inciso-lobata. Petioli basi dilatati 
villis longis tecti. Flores congesto-corymbosi, bracteati, 
albi, illis S. cernucE pau!6 majores. Bractece numerosae, 
latissimae, indivisae. Pedicelli calycesque pilis glandu- 
losis suppediti. Lacinia cahjeince late ovatae, obtusae, 
obscure trinerves. Petala obovata, alba, calyce paulo 
longiora, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus, rectiusculis. 

23. 5. rivuhris, caule debili simplicissimo, foliis reniformibus 

longe petiolatis glabris, floribus subternis sessilibus brac- 
S. rivularis. Linn. Sp. PL 577. Fl. Lapp. n. 174. /. 2./. 7- 
(bona.) FL Dan. 118. Gunn. Norv. n. 479- GmeL Sib. iv. 
p. 170. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 652. Lam. EncycL vi. p. 690. 

2 b 2 Smith 

368 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Smith Brit. ii. p. 454. Engl. Bot. t. 2275. {optima.) 
Wahlenb. Lapp. p. 111. Pursh Fl. Amer. Septent. i. p. 312. 
Sternb. Saxif. p. 19- t. 12. /. 3. 
Habitat in Europae summis alpibus, nempe in Lapponia 
(Linn., Wahlenberg), in Norvegia (Gunner), in Sibiria 
(Gmelin), in cacumine alpis Ben Lawers dicti Scotiae 
(Dickson, G. Don), o. (v. v.) 

Planta annua, laete virens, debilis. Radix fibrosa. Caules 
adscendentes, gracillimi, bipollicares, oligophylli, su- 
perne villis viscidis instruct! . Folia omnia reniformia, 
longe petiolata, utrinque petiolisque glabra, 5 — 6-lobata : 
lobis ovatq-rotundatis obtusissimis. Flores terminales, 
subterni, sessiles, parvi, albi, bracteati. Bractea sub- 
ovatae, obtusae, trifidae vel indivisae, sessiles, ad basin 
riorum insidentes et illos aequantes. Lacinia calycincz 
ovatae, obtusissimae, rectae, conniventes. Petala ovalia, 
obtusa, triplinervia, subdistantia, calycem parum supe- 
rantia. Stamina petalis breviora. 

24. S. nutans, caule unifolio, racemo nutante paucifloro, laci- 
niis calycinis lanceolatis acutis. 
Habitat ad oras occidentales American septentrionalis insu- 
lam Unalaska dictam. David Nelson. % . (v. s. in Herb. 

Planta caespitosa. Radix fibrosa, rudimentis foliorum emar- 
cidorum supra tecta. Caules erecti, 3 — 4-unciales, tere- 
tes, parce pubescentes, basi decumbentes, medio geni- 
culate folio unico instructi. Folia radicalia longe petio- 
lata, reniformia, grosse inciso-dentata, utrinque pilis rigi- 
dis brevibus adspersa : petiolis hirsutis, latissime mem- 
branaceo-dilatatis ; caulinum solitarium, petiolatnm, con- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 369 

forme. Flores racemosi, candicli, magnitudine S. bulbi- 
ferce. Racemus nutans, 4 — 5-tlorus. Pedicel/i breves 
calycesque pilis glanduliferis conferte obsiti. Lacinuc 
calycince lanceolatae, acutae, sub oculis armatis trinerves. 
Petala obovata, triplinervia : nervis nexuosis, ramosis- 

25. S. orientalis, foliis radicalibus rotundatis ; caulinis cuneatis 

acute grosseque dentatis, laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, 

petalis ovalibus : nervis simplicibus. 
S. orientalis. Jacq. Obs. ii. p. 9. t. 34. [optima.) IVllld. Sp. 

PL ii. p. 658. (exclus. synon. Tournef.) Lam. Enoycl. vi. 

p. 700. Persoon Synop. i. p. 489. Steven de Saxif. Cauc. 

in Mem. Mosq. iv. p. 78. 
S. reticulata. Sternb. Saxif, p. 21. t. 13. S. paradoxa. 

ejusd. p. 22. £. 14? 
Habitat in Oriente. O . (v. s. in Herb. Banks, et Lamb.) 

Planta annua. Radix gracilis, fibrosa. Caules erectiusculi, 
ramosi, flexuosi, laeviusculi, basi decumbentes, foliosi. 
Folia radicalia rotundata, longe petiolata, basi nunquam 
cordata, grosse asquaiiter dentata : clentibus magnis ova- 
tis, acutis, utrinque glabra, lucida, venis nigrescentibus 
reticulata ; caulina cuneata, petiolata, basi acuta, apice 
acute 5-loba ; noralia subopposita, lanceolata, acuta, 
integerrima, vix petiolata. Petioli graciles, filiformes, 
parce glandulosi. Pedunculi longissimi, capillares, uni- 
rlori, calycesque pilis brevissimis glandulosis leviter ad- 
spersi. Lacinice calycina breve ovata?, acuta?, obscure 
trinerves. Petala ovalia, sessilia, aurea, calyce dupld 
longiora, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus rectiusculis. 

26. S. cym- 

370 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

26. S. cymbalaria, foliis inferioribus reniformibus longissime pe- 

tiolatis obtusissime 5-lobis ; summis trilobis indivisisve, 

laciniis calycinis oblongis obtusis, petalis ovatis acutis : 

nervis ramosis. 
S. cymbalaria. Linn. Sp. PL 579- Smith Prod. PL Grac. i. 

p. 277- FL GrcEc. Icon. ined. 378. 
S. hederacea. Marsch. a Bieberst. PL Taur. Cauc. i. p. 317. 

(exclus. synon.) 
S. exigua foliis cymbalaria?. Buxb. Cent. ii. p. 40. t. 45. 

f. 2. {mala.) 
Geum orientale rotundifolium supinum,flore aureo. Tournef. 

Cor. 18. 
Habitat in Oriente (Tournefort, Buxbaum), in Parnasso, 

Delphi, aliisque Graeciae montibus (Sibthorp). o . (v. s. 

in Herb. Banks.) 

Planta annua, debilis. Radix tenuissime fibrosa. Caules 
numerosi, foliosi, gracillimi, ramosissimi, flexuosi, rlac- 
cidi, pilis glanduliferis laevissime adspersi. Folia infe- 
riora longissime petiolata (petiolis capillaribus), renifor- 
mia, subpeltata, leviter 5-loba : lobis rotundatis, utrin- 
que glaberrima, supra nitida et venis tenuissimis reticu- 
lata ; summa breve petiolata, triloba v. indivisa. Pedi- 
celli longissimi, capillares, oppositifolii, uniflori, caly- 
cesque laeviusculi. Flores parvi, aurei. Lacinice caly- 
cis oblongae, obtusae, rerlexae, conspicue trinerves. Pe~ 
tola ovata, acuta, trinervia (nervis ramosis flexuosis), 
basi rotundata, brevissime unguiculata, bipunctata. 

27. S. hederacea, foliis inferioribus acute trilobis; summis ovatis 

integris, laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, petalis subrotun- 
dis unguiculatis. 

S. hede- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the. Genus $axtfraga. 571 

S. hederacea. Linn. Sp. PL 579. H'illd. Sp. PL ii. p. 658. 

Persoon Syjwp. i. p. 489- Smith Prodr. FL Graze, i. p. 278. 

Fl. Grac. Icon. hied. 379- 
S. cretica annua minima, hederaceo folio. Tournef. Cor. 18. 
Habitat in CretA, {Tournefort), in rupibus humidis umbrosis 

Creta3 et Cypri (Sibthorp). o. (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Planta exigua, annua. Radix capillaceo-fibrosa. Caules 
plures, rlliformes, rlaccidi, ramosissimi, pilis brevissimis 
glanduliferis leviter adspersi. Folia inferiora subovata, 
brevius petiolata, triloba : lobis breve ovatis, acutis, utrin- 
que glaberrima, nitida, venis tenuissimis reticulata; sum- 
ma integra, ovata, acuta. Pedicelli elongati, capillares, 
uniflori, parce glandulosi. Flores parvi, albi. Laciniai 
calycince erectae, breve ovatae, acutae, trinefves. Petala 
subrotunda, unguiculata, trinervia: nervis ramosis, flexu- 
osis. Capsula semi-infera. 

Much confusion has hitherto prevailed respecting the three 
preceding species. Sir James Edward Smith appears to be the 
only botanist who has examined, or even understood, the S. cym- 
balaria and hederacea of Linnaeus ; the characters oi these he has 
very considerably amended in his admirable Prodr ormis Flora? 
Graca. The S. orientalis of Jacquin and Willdenow, given by 
him as a synonym of S. cymbalaria, is a very distinct plant. All 
three have a general affinity together ; but their characters are 
abundantly distinct. The above descriptions of S.cymbalaria 
and hederacea were taken from authentic specimens preserved in 
the Banksian Herbarium, and were collected by the late Dr. Sib- 
thorp during his travels in Greece*. 

* Specimens of Saxifraga hederacea, gathered lately in Crete by Dr. Sieber of 
Praoue. are now in the Lambertian Herbarium. 

§. Folm 

372 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

§. Foliis indivisis. 

28. S. Hirculus, foliis lanceolatis obtusis nudis, laciniis calyci- 

nis lanceolatis obtusis, petalis spathulatis multinervibus. 
S. Hirculus. Linn. Sp. PL 576. JR. Dan. t. 200. Huds. 

Angl. 181. Hoffm. Germ. 144. Both. Germ. i. 184. 

ii. 468. JFtft.JBnf.404. Jfilld. Sp. PL ii. p. 649. Lam. 

Encycl. vi. p. 686. Smith Brit. ii. p. 451. Engl. Bot. 

t. 1009- (optima.) Persoon Synop. i. p. 489- Sternb. 

Saxif. p. 29. 
S. flava. Lam. Fl. Franc, iii. p. 529- 
S. foliis caulinis lanceolatis alternis nudis inermibus, caule 

erecto. Linn. Suec. ii. n. 370. Gmelin Sib. iv. ^?. 165. 

t. 65. f. 3. {bona.) 
S. petalis latissimis luteis lineatis. Hall. Helv. 399- *• 8. 
Sedum palustre nardi celticee foliis, flore luteo. Moris. 

Hist. iii. p. 477. § 12. t. 8. /. 5. 
Sedum angustifolium autumnale, flore luteo guttato. Ibid. 
J. 6. 
Geum angustifolium autumnale, flore luteo guttato. Dill. 

in Raii Synop. 355. 
Chamaecistus frisicus, foliis nardi celticae. Bauh. Pin. 466. 
Chamaecistus frisicus. Ger. Em. 1284. 
/S. caule pedali multirloro, pedunculis villosissimis. 
Habitat a in Suecia, Helvetia?, Lapponise, Sibiriae, Ger- 
manise et Angliae paludibus turfosis ; /3 in Sibiria orien- 

tali (Merk). 2/ . (a v. v. c. /3 v. s in Herb. Pallas, nunc 


Planta caespitosa, pulchra, laste-virens, glabra, surculosa. 
Radix fibris longis nigris composita. Surculi numerosi, 
foliosi, procumbentes, glaberrimi. Caules erecti, 4 — 6- 
unciales rarissime pedales, foliosi, glabri, pauci rarius 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Stuifruga. 373 

multifiori. Folia alterna, lanceolata, obtusa, integerrima, 
utrinque glabra, basi in petiolum angustata. Pedunculi 
longi, stricti, uniflori, villisfuscis glutinosis conferte tecti. 
Flores magni, speciosi, aurei. Lacinics calycinic lanceo- 
latae, obtusae, ciliatae, conspicue 5-nerves : nervis sim- 
plicibus, marginalibus parallelis, approximatis, medio 
a caeteris remoto. Petala spathulata, aurea, multinervia, 
apice retusa, punctis croceis instructa, basi brevissime 
unguiculata, intus ad basin lacuna oblonga nectarifera ex 
rimft bivalvi apieibus acutis munita : nervis rectis, sira- 
plicibus, basi junctis. Filamenta lutea. Anthem croceae. 

29- S. myosotifolia, iiagellis nullis, foliis ovatis acutis muticis 
setosis, caule nudiusculo tritloro, laciniis calycinis late 
ovatis, petalis subrotundis unguieulatis. 

Habitat in Sibiria. Pallas. V . (v. s. in Herb. Pallas, nunc 

Planta patens, caespitosa. Radix lignosa fibris numerosis 
instructa. Surciiti brevissimi, erecti, conferti. Caules 
subnudi, erecti, biunciales, fragiles, 2 — 3-flori, pilis se- 
tosis undique obsiti. Folia conferta, patentia, ov r ata, 
acuta, mutica, pilis setosis ad marginem ciliata et utrin- 
que adspersa, basi in petiolum brevem angustata. Pe- 
dunculi elongati, uniflori, calycesque pilis glanduliferis 
crebre, tecti. Flores ochroleuci. Lacinite calycis late- 
ovatae, acutae, muticae. Petala subrotunda, unguiculata, 
5-nervia; nervis simplicibus. Filamenta compressa, lu- 
tescentia, longitudine petalorum. Anther ># rlava 3 . SjtyU 
breves, crassi. 

30. S.flagellaris, flagellis axillaribus capillaribus, foliis obovato- 

spathulatis aristatis cartilagineo-ciliatis, laciniis calyci- 

vol. xiii. 3 c nis 

3? 4 Mt?. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sarifraga. 

nis lanceolatis, petalis obovatis sessilibus, caule folioso 

1— 3-floro. 
S. tlagellaris. Stemb. Saxif. p. 25. t. 6. (media.) Steven 

de Saxif. Cauc. in Mem. Mosq. iv. p. 79- Marsch. d 

Bieberst. Suppl. Fl. Taur. Cauc. p. 291. 
S. setigera. Pursh Amer. Septent. i. p. 312. 
S. aspera. Marsch. a Bieberst. FL Taur. Cauc. i. p. 314. 

(exclus. synon.) 
Habitat in alpibus Caucasicis ( A damn), ad Caput Newnham 

dictum ad oras occidentales America? borealis (David 

JSe/son), in Insula Melville dict<i in sinu maris Grcen- 

landici, Baffin's Bay Anglice dicto (Sabine, Fisher). 

1/ . (v. s.) 

Planta caespitosa, flagellifera. Flagelli e axillis foliorum enati, 

longissimi, capillares, nudi, patentes, ad apices coma 

parva foliata instructi. Chutes erecti, simplicissimi, ses- 

qui- bi-pollicaresve, foliosi, 1 — 3-flori, pilis glandulosis 

instructi. Folia radicalia, conferta, patentia, impetio- 

lata, spathulata, utrinque nuda, margine spinulis carti- 

lagineis ciliata, apice calloso-aristata ; caulina alterna, 

obovata. Pedicelli brevissimi, uniflori, calycesque pube 

glutinosa tecti. Flores aurei magnitudine S. Hirculi. La- 

cinicE calycince lanceolatae, acutae, extus setosae. Petala 

sessilia, obovata, multinervia : nervis parallelis apice di- 


This singular species was first discovered by Mr. David Nel- 
son, in Captain Cook's third voyage, at Cape Newnham on the 
north-west coast of America, from whence the specimens in the 
Banksian Herbarium were brought. It has since been found on 
the Caucasian alps ; and in the late polar expedition it has been 
observed in great plenty on the newly-discovered island named 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.u/raga. QJ$ 

Melville Island. For specimens from thence 1 am indebted to 
the kindness of Joseph Sabine, Esq. Pursfc i> wrong in stating 
the flowers to be small and white. The & myosotifo/iu, which 
agrees with it in general habit, has numerous erect, short and 
leafy shoots. Leaves ovate, somewhat acute, awnless, ciliated, 
and slightly clothed on both sides with stiff bristly hairs. The 
stem is almost learless. Peduncles long, erect. The laciniw 
of the calyx short, triangular-ovate. Petals round, cream-co- 
loured, furnished with a claw, and rive straight, simple uerv< -. 
The flowers are smaller, and the plant is wholly destitute of the 
naked filiform sarmentu so remarkable in 8. flagellar is, 

31. Si aizoides, foliis linearibus mucronatis glabris spinuloso- 

ciliatis, laciniis calycinis late ovatis, petalis lanceolato- 

oblongis trinervibus. 
S. aizoides. Linn. Sp. PL 576. With. Brit. 404. Smith 

Brit. ii. p. 452. Engl. Bot. t. 39- (optima.) Lam. En- 

cycl. vi. p. 687. Sttrnb. Saxif. p. 25. t. 8. /. 1. Lam. 

et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 377- flahlaib. Lapp. p. 115. 

ejuscl. Carpath. 117. 
S. autumnalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 575. Huds. Angl. 180. .1////. 

Diet. n. 10. Fl. Ban. t. 72. Light/. Scot. i. p. 222. 

Scop. Cam. i. 293. t. 14. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 650. 
S. foliis linearibus sparsis glabris. FL Suec. 357. 371. 
S. foliis subulatis sparsis. FL Lapp. 178. 
8. foliorum margine ciliari, floribus luteis maculosis. Hall. 

Iltlv, 399- 
S. an^ustifolia autumnalis, rlore luteo guttato, foliis riorum 

magis acuminatis. Breyn. Cent. 106. t. 48. 
S. alpina angustifolia, flore luteo guttato. Haii Synop. 353. 
Sedum alpinum, flore pallido. Bauh. Pin. 284. if oris. 

Hist. iii. p. 477. ». 12. t. 6. /. 3. 

3 c 2 Sedum 

376 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Sedum minus iv. Clus. Hist. ii. p. 60. 

Sedum alpinum primum. Clus. Pann. 485. Ger. Em. 516. 

Habitat in alpium Helvetian, Lapponiae, Stymie, Angliae 

et Scotia; rupibus et petrosis humidis copiosissime. 

%. (v. v. sp.) 

Planta virens, in caespitibus planis vegetans. Radix fibrosa. 
Surculi numerosi, procumbentes, dense foliosi. Caules 
erecti 2- rarius 3-pollicares, foliosi, teretes, multitiori, 
pube viscidA, tecti. Folia alterna, linearia, patentia, 
utrinque glaberrima, lucida, apice cartilagineo-mucro- 
nata margine spinuloso-ciliata. Pedunculi breves, uni- 
flori, pube glutinosA. vestiti, in aestivatione decurvati. 
Flores subracemosi, flavi. Lacinice calycinai late ovatae, 
obtusae, margine membran& tenui saepius ad apicem 
parum lacerata cinctae. Petala patentia, lanceolato-ob- 
longa, calycem superantia, punctis croceis instructa, tri- 
plinervia : nervis simplicibus rectis. 

I have followed Wahlenberg in uniting the 5. aizoides and 
autumnalis of Linnaeus. The Lapland and Swedish plant differs 
in no respect from ours, and the leaves are but rarely naked at 
their margins. We sometimes meet however with such in seed- 
ling plants and others before the flowering season. 

32. S. bronchiatis, foliis confertis lineari-subulatis triquetris mu- 
cronatis spinulis cartilagineis ciliatis, laciniis calycinis 
ovatis, petalis oblongis, caule oligophyllo multirloro. 
S. bronchialis. Linn. Sp. PI. 572. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 644. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 679- 
S. foliis imbrieatis subulatis ciliatis spinosis, caule subnudo 
multirloro. Gmel. Sib. iv. p. 164. /. 65. f. 2. (bona.) 

jS. Unensis, 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.iifraga. 377 

0. lenensis, surculis brevioribus, foliis longioribus patentibus 
longti mucronatis, panicula majore patente fastigiata. 

Habitat a in Sibiria (Gmelin), in Sibiria oricntali [Mcrk) f 
ad oras occidentales America? borealis (SeUon); fi ad tiu- 
men Sibiricum Lenam (Billings), h . (v. s. in Herb. 
Banks, et Lamb.) 

Planta suffrutescens. Radii lignosa, ramosa, tibris pluribus 
longis instructa. Surculi plures, erecti, lignosi, ramosi, 
crebre foliosi,basi rudimentis foliorum emarcidurum tecti. 
Caules digitales rarius palmares, tiexuosi, rigidi, fragiles, 
oligophylli, glabri. Folia crebra, imbricata, lineari-su- 
bulata, triquetra, rigida, glabra, margine spinulis carti- 
lagineis albis ciliata, apice mucrone calloso instructa ; 
caulina pauca, parv r a, adpressa, linearia, longe-mucro- 
nata versus apicem caulis sensim minora. Panicula parva, 
multiflora. Pedicelli dichotomi calycesque levissime glan- 
dulosi. Flores parvi, ochroleuci. Lacinice calycis breves, 
late ovatae, mucronulatae Petala oblonga, sessilia, punc- 
tis numerosis minutis croceis instructa, conspicue tripli- 
nervia : nervis simplicibus. Filament a gracilia, lutea 
Anther (E croceae. 

33. S. tenella, foliis confertis lineari-subulatis planis pun^enti- 
bus ciliatis, caule gracili oligophyllo paucilioro, laciniis 
calycinis lineari-lanceolatis, petalis obovatis. 

S. tenella. JVulfen in Jacq. Collect, iii. p. 144. t. 17. (bona.) 
Willd. Sp. PI. ii. p. 643. Lam. EncijcL vi. p. (j/8. Per- 
soon Synop. i. p. 488. Sternb. Saaif. p. 30. 

S. nitida. ejusd. t. 10. /, 4? 

Habitat in Carinthiae alpibus. JVulfen. % . 

Planta suffrutescens? czespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Surculi 


378 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

numerosi, basi decumbentes et rudimentis foliorum emar- 
cidorum tecti. Caules plures, erecti, sesqui- v. bi-unciales, 
gracillimi, laeves, oligophylli, paucitlori. Folia conferta, 
imbricata, lineari-subulata, saturate viridia, supra plana, 
subtus carina ta, utrinque glabra, nitida, apice spinula cor- 
ned aciculari terminate, margine ciliata ; caulina adperssa, 
sparse remota, parva, plana, aristnta. Pedunculi terni, 
longi, capillares, unirlori, fere in racemulum dispositi, 
calycesque pilis brevissimis glanduliferis leviter suppediti. 
Lacinitf calycis lineari-lanceolatfe, aristatae. Petala ob- 
ovata, alba, immaculata, calycem superantia, obscure tri- 
plinervia. Filamenta gracilia, alba. Antherai navae. 

Praecedenti aftmis ; sed triple minor et gracilior, atque 
notis indicatis diversa. S. nitida Clariss. Sternbergi vix 
ullo dubio lmic pertinet, figura ejus quae ad siccam 
facta est omnino mala, et hinc colorem luteum noribus 

34. S. brachypoda, foliis linearibus planis pungentibus trinervi- 
bus margine spinulosis, flore terminali solitario breve- 
pedunculato, petalis obovatis. 
Habitat in Nepaliae alpibus. Wallich. 1/ . (v. s. in Herb. 

Radix fibrosa. Caules plures, adscendentes, simplicissimi, 
foliosi, pilis setosis undique tecti. Folia alterna, linearia, 
plana, glabra, trinervia, supra nitida, subtus glauca, apice 
spinuld aciculari terminata, margine spinulis armata, basi 
subamplexicaulia. Flos aureus, terminalis, solitarius, 
breve-pedunculatus, magnitudine S. asperaz. Calyx et 
pedunculus pilis setosis patentibus glanduliferis conferte 
obsiti : laciniae ovatae, mucronatae, conspicue trinerves, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage. 379 

margine spinulis ciliatae. Petala obovata, calyce longiora, 
triplinervia : nervis simplicibus rectis. Stamina pistillis 
vix longiora ; filamenta rlava ; anthene croceoe. 

3.5. S. juniperina, caulibus sunruticosis proliferis. tbliis inter- 
rupte confertissimis subulato-triquetris rigidis pungenti- 
bus, lloribus spicatis, petalis obovatis. 

S. juniperina. Marsch. & Bieberst. Fl. Taur. Cauc. i. p. 314. 
Ibid. Supplem. p. 291. Sternb. Saxif. p. 31. 1. 10. {media.) 
Steven de Saxif. Cauc. in Mem. Musq. iv. p. 79- 

Habitat in alpibus Caucasicis (Pallas), in Caucasi rupiuni 
fissuris, circa portas Caucasicas et ad radices alpis Kais- 
chaur frequens (Marschall it Bieberstein). y. . (v. s. in 
Herb. Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Planta suffrutescens. Radix lignosa fibris numerosis cras- 
siusculis instructa. Caules numerosi, digitales, erecti, 
rigidissimi, conferte foliosi, apice prolifero-ramosi, basi 
rudimentis foliorum emarcidorum vestiti. Folia inter- 
rupte confertissima, subulata, subtriquetra, rigida, glabra, 
supra- planiuscula, bi sulcata, subtus caring planiusculd, 
apice spina aciculari instructa, basi tenuissime serrulata. 
Spica terminalis, brevis, brevc-pedunculata, 6 — 10-flora. 
Pedicelli recti, bre^vissimi, pube glutinosa dense obsiti. 
Bractece lineares, obtusae, glandulis ciliatae. Flores lutei 
magnitudine S. aspera. Lacinia calycis ovato oblonga?, 
mucronatas, trinerves, ciliatae. Petala obovata, tripli- 
nervia, calyce longiora. 

36. S. aspera, foliis planis lineari-Ianceolatis pungentibus spi- 
nulis ciliatis, petalis obovatis : nervis ramosis, caule ra- 
S. aspera. Linn. Sp. PL 575. Ger. Prov. 423. Jacq. 

A ust. 

380 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Stivifraga. 

Aust. v. p. 44. t. app. 31. (bona.) Mill. Diet. n. 14. 

Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 649. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 36. 

Lam. vi. p. 678. Persoon Synop. i. p. 489- Sternb. 

Saxif. p. 29. 
S. foliis simplicibus ciliatis, caule ramoso. Hall. Ilelv. 403. 
S. sedi foliis crenatis asperis. Scheitch. It. ii. p. 140. £. 20. 

/. 3. 

Sedum alpinum, foliis crenatis asperis. Banh. Pin. 284. 

Prod. 132. Gesn. Fasc. xxii. t. 6. /. 27. (force.) 
Sedum alpinum hispidum fere spinosum, rlore pallido. 

Banh. Hint. hi. p. 695. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 479. *. 12. 

*. 10. /. 25. 
Sedum minimum alpinum villosum alterum. Park. Theat. 

Habitat in alpibus Helveticis et Pyrenaicis. 11 . (v. v. c.) 

Plant a caesia, hispida, surculosa. Siirculi elongati, decum- 
bentes, gemmiferi, villosi, rigidi, rubescentes, dense fo- 
liosi. Caules ereeti, rigidi, fragiles, 2 — 3-unciales, ra- 
mosi, rubescentes, pauciflori, pilis brevibus hispidulosi. 
Folia lineari-lanceolata, plana, utrinque nuda, striata, 
apice mucrone corneo instructa, margine spinulis ciliata. 
Pedunculi longiusculi, rigidi, subuniflori, calycesque pilis 
glanduliferis leviter instructi. Flores magni, lactei. La- 
cinicE calycinaz late ovatae, mucronatae, 5-nerves, extus 
rugosae : marginibus membranaceis nudis. Petala ob- 
ovata, triplinervia : nervis ramosis flexuosis. Filamenta 
lutea. Antherce aureae. 

31. S. hhpidula, caulibus tiliformibus hispidis, foliis ovatis mu- 

cronatis setosis utrinque unidentatis, tlore terminali sub- 

sessili, calycibus setosis. 


Mr. D. Dom's Monograph of tlw Genu* Sa&ifraga. -5<s i 

Habitat in Nepaliae alpibus. JVallich. % . (v. s. in Herb. 

Planta tenella. Caules plures, sesqui- vel bi-uneiales, sim- 
plicissimi, graciles, nliformes, adscendentes, pilis setosis 
patentibus undique dense tecti. Folia alterna, sessilia, 
ovata, mucronata, hispida, margine dente parvo aristato 
utroque instructa. Flos luteus, terminalis, solitarius, bre- 
vissime pedicellatus, in aestivatione nutans. Calyx setis 
glanduliferis hispidus : lacinicc triangulari-ovata?, aristatffi . 
Petala parva, suborbiculata, triplinervia : nervis simpli- 
cibus rectis. Stamina pistillis longiora ; filament a izraci- 
lia, flava ; anthera intense croceae. Styli apice incur vi. 

38. S. bryoides, rosulis globosis, foliis imbricatis subulatis mu- 

cronatis ciliatis, laciniis calycinis ovatis obtusis, petalis 

oblongis, caule oligophyllo unifloro. 
S. bryoides. Linn. Sp. PL 572. Jacq. Misc. ii. p. 49. t. 5. 

f. 1. (optima.) Scop. Cam. n. 497- t. 15. Willd. Sp. PL ii. 

p. 643. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 35. Lam. Encyct. vi. 

p. 6?8. Persoon Synop. i. p. 488. 
S. foliis lanceolatis ciliatis compactis, caule unifloro. Hall. 

Helv. 969. 
S. pyrenaica minima luteamuscosimilis. Tournef. Inst. 253. 
Sedum muscosum. Bauh.Hist.iii. p.69o. Scheuch.Alp.14Z. 

t. 31. /. 2. 
Sedum alpinum quartum. Col. Ecphr. ii. p. 66. t. 61. 

f. 1. 2. 
Habitat in Austria?, Helvetia?, Pyrenaic. alpibus. H . (v. s. 

in Herb. Banks, et Lamb.) 

Planta dense caespitosa, rosulata. Radix sublignosa fibris 

pluribus instructa. liosulce foliorum confertae, globosa?, 

vol. xni. 3 n caesrae. 

382 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

caesiae. Caules plures, erecti, sesqui- v. bi-unciales, rigidi, 
uniflori, foliis aliquot minimis adpressis et pilis glanduli- 
feris instructi. Folia dense imbricata, lineari-subulata,, 
subtriangularia, carinata, glabra, supra concaviuscula, 
margine ciliis cartilagineis armata : apicibus incurvis 
mucrone calloso terminatis. Flos ochroleucus magni- 
tudine S. asperce. Calyx leviter glandulosus : lacinia ova- 
tae, obtusae, 5-nerves. Petala oblonga punctis aureis 
adspersa, trinervia : nervis parallelis simplicibus. Fila- 
ment a gracilia. Anther ce croceac. 

39- S. cherlerioides, rosulis globosis, foliis dense imbricatis spa- 
thulatis mucronatis ciliatis, laciniis calycinis semi-ovatis 
obtusis, petalis obovatis, caule filiformi multifloro. 

S. bryoides? Pallas, Ms. 

Habitat in rupibus Kamtschatkae . D.Merk. y. . ' (v. s. in 
Herb. Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Planta in caespitibus planis et latis vegetans. Rosulce folio- 
rum confertae, parvae, globosae. Caules adscendentes, 
bipollicares, filiformes, graciles, 4 — 5-flori, foliis paucis 
minimis ovatis adpressis ciliatis et glandulis sparsim in- 
structi. Folia creberrime imbricata, obovato-spathulata, 
supra concava, subtus convexa, margine ciliata : apici- 
bus innexis mucronatis. Flores corymbosi, ochroleuci, 
praecedente multo minores. Pedicelli elongati, capillares, 
unirlori, calycesque glandulis minutis adspersis. Lacinice 
calycina semi-ovatae, obtusae. Petala obovata, calyce 
duplo longiora, trinervia : nervis simplicibus rectiusculis. 

Praecedenti quodammodo accedens, tamen characteres 
indicati speciem esse distinctissimam monstrant. 


Mr.\). D(.\\ Monograph of the GtnmSaxifragM. J8:> 

Sectio 4. 

40. Sn kUracifolia, foliis petiolatis ellipticis acutis repando-den- 
tatis glabra, pedicellis aggregates unifloris in spicam clis- 
positis, petalis lanceolatis acutis. 

S. hieracifolia. Wahht. et Kit. Hung. i. p. 17- t. 18. (op- 
tima.) Wiltd. Sp. PL ii. p. 641. Lam. Encyd. \'\. p. 674. 
Getters. Cat at. Scepus. n. 229. Wahknb. Carpath. 119. 
Persoon Synop. i. 7;. 487. 

S. nivalis v. race mo sa. Towns. It. Hung. p. 488. /. 1 5. 

8. rotundifolia. Geners. Blench. Seep. n. $7%. 

Habitat in alpibus Carpathicis. :y . (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Radix fibris longissimis crassiusculis simplicibus ittstructa. 
Folia petiolata, patentia, elliptica, acuta, repando-den- 
tata, dentibus remotis mucronulatis, utrinque glabra, pilis 
articulatis ciliata. Petioli dilatati, nervosi, niargine mem- 
branacei. Scapus erectus, palmaris pedalisve, simplicis- 
simus, teres, pilis articulatis glanduliferis undique tectus. 
Pedicelli elongati, uniflori, in fasciculis 4 — 6-rloris aggre- 
gate, et per spicam elongatam digesti : fasciculis inferio- 
ribus remotis ; supremis approximates. Bracteaz lanceo- 
late, obtusae, ad basin cujusdam fasciculi sitae et pedi- 
cellorum longitudine. Calyces pedicellique pilis brevibus 
glandulosis tecti : lacinire breves, triangulari-ovatae, acu- 
tae. Petala ovato-lanceolata, acuta, calyce breviora et 
angustiora, colore spadiceo-ferrugineo vel lurido. Fila- 
menta brevissima. Anther az flammeae. Styli brevissimi, 

There is a single specimen of this plant in the Banksian Her- 
barium from Jacquin, and sent by him under the name of 6'. ni- 
valis, a plant with which the Austrian botanists confounded it. 

3 n 2 This 

384 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

This plant has never, I believe, been introduced into our gardens ; 
the Saxifraga pensylvanica /3. being often kept under the name. 

41. S. pensylvanica, foliis impetiolatis lanceolatis sinuato-denti- 
culatis utrinque pilosissimis, scapo ramoso, floribus co- 
rymboso-capitatis, petalis linearibus calyce longioribus. 

S. pensylvanica. Linn. Sp. PL 571. (exclus. synon. Plu- 
ken.) Mill. Diet. n. 8. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 640. (ex- 
clus. synon. Plukenetii.) Lam. Encycl. vi. jd.674. Per- 
soon Synop. i. p. 487. Hort. Kew. iii. p. 65. Pursh Amer. 
Septent. i. p. 311. 

S. foliis radicalibus denticulatis, caule subnudo piloso ra- 
moso, floribus confertis capitatis. Gron. Virg. 49- 

S. noveboracensis. Cold. iSoveb. 105. 

S. pensylvanica, floribus muscosis racemosis. Dill. Elth. 
337. t. 253. /. 328. (bona.) 

/3. minor, foliis laevioribus. 

Habitat a in Noveboracensis et Virginia? pratis humidis: 
/3 in hortis colitur. % . (v. v. c.) 

Radix fibris longissimis crassis simplicibus instructa. Folia 
numerosa, impetiolata, late lanceolata, acuta, sinuato- 
denticulata, utrinque pilis articulatis tecta, saepius pal- 
maria, basi angustata. Scapus erectus, sesqui- v. bi-pe- 
dalis, teres, paniculatim ramosus, pilis articulatis patenti- 
bus viscidis undique dense tectus. Rami alterni divisi ; in- 
feriores remoti; superiores approximato-conferti. Flores 
pedicellati, in corymbis densis semiglobosis dispositi. 
Pedicelli elongati, uniflori, calycesque pilis glanduliferis 
densissime obsiti. Lacinia calycis ovatse, acutiusculae, 
obscure trinerves. Petala linearia, obtusa, uninervia, 
squalido-alba, calyce duplo longiora. 

42. S. semi- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage 3§0 

42. S. semipubescens, foliis impetiolatis obIongo-o\ alibos ofctQHl 
glaberrimis denticulatis, scapo rainoso, tioribus corym- 
boso-capitatis, petalis ovalibus calycem suba (juantibus. 

S. semipubescens. Sweet. Hort. Suburb. 97. 

Micranthes semipubescens. Haworth Synop. Succul. ap- 
pend. 321. 

S. marilandica. Hortor. 

Habitat in America boreali? 1/ . (v. v. c.) 

Radix fibris longissimis simplicibus crassis instrncta. Folia 
impetiolata, patentia, oblongo-ovalia, obtusa, crassius- 
cula, avenia, supra nitida, margine denticulata. Scopus 

erectus, pedalis et ultra, ramosus, pilis articul.itis <:!;m- 
duliferis leviter tectus. Rami alterni ; inferiores remoti, 
divisi ; superiores simplices, conferti. Flores pedicellati 
in corymbis densis semiglobosis dispositi. Peclicelli elon- 
gati, unirlori, calycesque pilis glanduliferis instrueti. La- 
cinict calycime triangulari-ovatae, acutae, sub microscopum 
trinerves. Petala ovalia, obscure trinervia, rlavida, ca- 
lycem subaequantia. 

This plant has been cultivated for many years in our gardens 
under the name of S. marilandica ; hence it is supposed to be 
native of North America, which is very probable, from its affi- 
nity with S. pensylvanica. I cannot however find it mentioned 
in any of the books which treat of the plants of that country ; 
and it does not appear to have been even taken up by any one, 
until Mr. Haworth, the author of Miscellanea Naturalia and 
Synopsis of Succulent Plants, noticed it in his appendix to the 
latter work. No doubt can be entertained of its being suffi- 
ciently distinct from S. pensylvanica, to which it is nearest allied. 
It is distinguished from it by its oblong-oval, obtuse, and quite 
smooth leaves, the margins of which are simply denticulated, 


386 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

not sinuated as in S.pensylvanica ; by the stem being much less 
hairy ! and lastly, by its oval petals, about equal the length of the 


43. S. virginiensis, foliis ovatis acutis dentatis petiolatis, petalis 
ovalibus : nervis ramosis, scapo paniculatim ramoso. 

S. virginiensis. Mich. Amer. Bvr. i. p. 269- Lam. Encycl. vi. 
p. 615. Pursh Amer. Sept. i. /;. 310. 

S. pilosa. Herb. Banks. 

S. vernalis. JVilld. Hort. Berol. p. 43. t. 43. ejusd. Enum. 
p. 459- Sternb. Sat if. p. 8. 

S. elongata. ejusd. p. 9- t. 4. 

S. foliis cordatis ovalibus crenatis, corolla alba, caule hir- 
sute aphyllo. Gron. \ irg. 160. 

Sanicula virginiana alba, folio oblongo mucronato. Pluk. 
Aim. 331. t. 39. /. 1. et t. 222. f. 5. 

Habitat in Virginias, Carolinae et Novae-Anglise montibus, 
inque Canada. U . (v. v. c r et s. sp.) 

Plant a pulchella, subcaespitosa. Folia patentia, petiolata, 
ovata, acuta, dentata, utrinque pilis adspersa. Scapus 
erectus, palmaris, paniculatim ramosus, pilis mollibus 
glanduliferis undique tectus, rarius foliis 1 — 2 munitus. 
Rami alterni, recti ; infer iores elongati ; omnes subaequa- 
les. Flores parvi, albi. PediceUi numerosi, graciles, 
unirlori, pube viscida suppediti. hacinia: cahjcinaz breves, 
ovatre, obsolete 5-nerves : nervis ramosis. Petala ovalia 
calyce longiora, trinervia : nervis rlexuosis, ramosis. 

This plant-appears to hold the same place among American 
vegetation as the S. nivalis amidst European. This latter plant 
is not, I am of opinion, to be found in America. I am there- 
fore inclined to think Pursh's nivalis belongs to the present spe- 
cies ; 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Cuius Saxifraga. S&i 

cies ; and what convinces me of their being the simr is, thai 
there are several specimens in his Canadian Herbarium (now in 
Mr. Lambert's possession) of S. tiirgiuienm under the name of 

S. nivalis. 

44. S. nivalis, foliis subrotimdo-obovatis undulato-crcnatis sub- 
sessilibus, scapo simplici, lloribus congesto-capftatis, pe- 
talis subrotundis unguiculatis : nervis simplicibus. 

S. nivalis. Linn. Sp. PI. .')?:3. (exclus. synon. Gran. I irg.) 
lluds. Angl. 180. l/iglttf. Scut. i. p. 'J'Jl. CUmJig. [mala.) 
Willd.Sp. PL ii. p. 64.5. With. Brit, 403. Lam. 
p. 683. Smith Brit. ii. p.U[). Engl. Bot. f.440. (bona.) 
Persoon Synop. i. j>. 488. Stemb. Saxif.p. 12. }VahUnb. 
Lapp. 113. 

S. foliis subovatis crenatis, caule nudo, lloribus capitatis. 
Linn. Suec. 354. 368. 

S. caule nudo simplici, foliis elliptico-subrotundis crenatis, 
lloribus capitatis. Linn. Suec. 176. t. 2. f. 5. 6. (mala.) 

S. foliis oblongo-rotundis dentatis, tloribus compactis. Ran 
Angl. iii. p. 354. /. \6. f. 1. 

Sempervivum minus dentatum. Mart. Spitzb. 43. /. Y.f. A. 

Sedum III. Oed. Ban. t. 28. (pessima.) 

Habitat in summis alpibus Lapponiffi, Scotia?, Spitzbergens. 
et Angliae borealis. ii . (v. v. sp.) 

Plant a subcaespitosa. Folia subrotundo-obovata, undulato- 
crenata, subsessilia, supra glabra, subttis villosa, humi 
patentia. Scapus erectus, 3-uncialis, simplex, villis visci- 
dis conferte tectus. Flares congeste capitati, bracteati. 
Bractece laneeolata?, acuta?. ciliata\ i > vdicelli breves caly- 
cesque pube viscida obsiti. LacinicB calycis triangulares 
obscure trinerves. Petala subrotunda. unguiculata, tri- 

plinervia : 

388 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

plinervia : nervis simplicibus, primum Candida demum 
rubescentia, calycem excedentia. Filament a brevissima, 
alba postea rubescentia. 

45. S. longiscapa, foliis ovatis serratis longe petiolatis, thyrso 

ovato, laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis. 
Habitat in Sibiri&. Pallas u . (v. s. in Herb. Pallas, nunc 

Radix fibrosa. Folia ovata, subacuta, serrata, longe petio- 
lata, plana, utrinque hirsuta. Scapus erectus, palmaris, 
filiformis, teres, simplicissimus, pilis patentibus glandu- 
liferis dense tectus. Flores thyrsoidei : thyrso ovato, 
denso. Pedicelli brevissimi, calycesque pube brevi ves- 
titi. Lacinice calycina ovatae, acutae, obscure trinerves. 
Petala parva, ovata, alba, vix calyce longiora. Fila- 
ment a brevissima, alba. Anthirce luteae. 

Praecedenti arete affinis, sed satis diversa videtur : 
foliis ovatis planis serratis longe petiolatis, scapo duplo 
longiore, floribus thyrsoideis, petalis ovatis. 

46. S. davurica, foliis cuneiformibus longe petiolatis basi atte- 

nuate apice grosse inciso-dentatis, floribus laxe-panicu- 
latis, petalis ellipticis acutis. 
S. davurica. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 645. Lam. Encycl. vi. 
p. 684. Per soon Synop. i. p. 488. Sternb. Saxif. p. 13. 
S. punctata. Pall. It. iii. app. n. 91. t. P. /. 2. {bona.) 
Habitat in summis alpibus Davuriae prope limitem nivis per- 
petual. Pallas, it . (v. s. in Herb. Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Planta dense caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Folia cuneiformia, 
longe petiolata, utrinque pubescentia, basi attenuata, in- 
tegerrima, apice grosse acuteque inciso-dentata. Petioli 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.rifraga. 389 

lineares, plani, basi late dilatati. Scapi erecti, digitales 
rarius palmares, ramosi, pilis glanduliferis parce obsiti. 
Flores laxo paniculati. Pedicelli dichotomi calycesque 
pube glutinosa tecti. Lacinia calycince triangulari-ovata?, 
acuta?. Pctala elliptica, acuta, trinervia, alba, basi punc- 
tis binis flavis minutis munita. 

There are many fine specimens of this very distinct and little 
known plant in the Herbarium of the celebrated Pallas, in die 
possession of A. B. Lambert, Esq. Some botanists have sup- 
posed this plant to be nearly allied to S. cuneifolia ; and a slight 
variety of this is cultivated in the gardens under the name. 

47. «S. pyrolifolia, foliis ovalibus coriaceis petiolatis glabris ni- 
tidis crenatis, rloribus paniculatis, petalis linearibus. 
Habitat in Kamtschatka (Merk), in insula owe occiden- 
tal America? borealis Unalaska dicta (David Nelson). 
V- . (v. s. in Herb. Banks, et Pallas, nunc Lamb.) 

Species distinctissima. Pyrolam refert. Radix Lignosa, pa- 
tens, fusca, fibris instructa, superne rudimentis foliorum 
emarcidorum tecta. Folia ovalia, coriacea, petiolata, 
utrinque glabra, supn\ nitida, reticulata, margine crenata. 
Petioli breves, dilatati, margine membranacei, ciliati. 
Scopus adscendens, 5-pollicaris, pilis glanduliferis leviter 
adspersus. Flores coarctato-paniculati, parvi, albi. Pedi- 
celli multiflori calycesque pube brevi glutinosa obsiti. 
Lacinia: calycince brevissimae, obtusae. Petala linearia, 
ealyce longiora. Filament a pallida. Anthercc Aavae. Styh 

vol. xiii. 3 e Sectio 

390 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.rifraga. 

Sectio 5. 
§. Foliis indivisis, plerumque rosulatis impetiolatis. 

48. S. Cotyledon, foliis planis spathulatis cartilagineo-serratis, 

calycibus dense glandulosis : laciniis lineari-lanceolatis, 

petalis oblongo-spathulatis. 
S. Cotyledon. Linn. Sp. PL 570. Fl. Dan. /.241. (optima.) 

Olaus It. Island, p. 433. Wahlenb. Lapp. p. 111. (exclus. 

synon. Willd.) 
S. pyramidal is Lapeijr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 32. Sternb. Saxif. 

p. 2. t. 2. Persoon Synops. i. p. 489- 
S. pyramidata. Mill. Diet. n. 4. 
S. foliis lingulatis radicalibus margine cartilagineo acute 

serratis, floribus paniculatis. Linn. Suec. 356. 366. 
S . foliis radicalibus in orbem positis : serraturis cartilagineis. 

Linn. Lapp. 177- t. 2. /. 2. 
S. foliorum ora cartilaginea, caule triplicato ramoso, petalis 

immaculatis. Hall. Helv. n. 977. 
S. sedi folio flore albo multirlora. Tournef. Inst. 252. 
Sedum serratum, flore albo, multirlorum. Dod. Pempt. 113. 

Robert. Icon. 91. 
Habitat in alpibus Lapponiae, Norvegise, Islandire, Hel- 
vetia 3 , Pyrenaeorum. % . (v. v. c.) 

Vlanta dense eaespitosa. Caules erecti, pedales, pyrami- 
dato-ramosissimi, multiflori, foliosi, pilis glanduliferis 
confertissime tecti. Folia radicalia in rosulis late expan- 
sis, plana, spathulata, utrinque glabra, supra lucida, 
apice rotundata, mucronata, margine acute argenteo- 
serrata ; caulina brevia, cuneiformia, patentia. Pedun- 
culi multiflori, racemosi, cernui. Flores magni, campa- 
nulati, candidi. Calyces pedicellique pilis glanduliferis 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genu* Saxif ragn. :V)\ 

dense obtecti: Laciniffi lineari-lanceolahu, obtusfe. Pelcla 
oblongo-spathulata, impunctata, eonspfcofe triptinervia : 

nervis simplicibus. 

49. S. lingulata i foliis lineari-lingulatis canaliculatis tubercu- 
lato-crenatis, calycibus dense glandulpsis: lariniis semi- 

ovatis obtusis, petalis ovalibus. 
S. lingulata. Bellardi in Act. Taur. v. p. 226. ejusd. App. 

ad Fl. Pedem. p. 20. 
S. Cotyledon. Mill. Diet. n. 2. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 638. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 670. Scop. Cam. ed. ii. n. 489 P 
S. longifolia. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 2(i. *. 11. Per soon 

Synop. i. p. 487. Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. p. 359. 

e/wsc?. Synop. p. 317. 
S. montana pyramidata, folio longiore. Tournef. Inst. 253. 
/3. media, foliis brevioribus, caule superne paniculato. 
S. longifolia /S. media. Sternb. Saxif'. p. i. £. 1. a. (bona.) 
Cotyledon minor. Hort. Eystet. Ord. v. pi. 10. f. 1. 
Sedum serratum alterum, foliis Iongis angustis. Rail Hist, ii. 

p. 1045. n. 1. 
Sanicula montana crenata, folio longiore, pediculo folioso. 

Pluken. Phyt. t. 222. /. 1. 
y. crustata, quadrupl6 minor ; foliis angustissimis margine 

insigniter crustaceo-porosis, panicula pauciflora. 
S. longifolia y. minor. Sternb. 1. c. t. 1. b. 
S. crustata. Vest. Man. Bot. p. 656. Hoppc Bot. Tasch. 1805. 

p. 237. t. 1. Bot. Bibl. 1805. p. 42. et 369- Dicks. Hort. 

Sice. fasc. 1. 
2. subnana, flabelliformis ; cauliculis simplicibus. Lapeyr. 

loc. cit. 
Habitat a. in summis alpibus Pyrenaeorum et Helvetia*, in 

alpibus maritimis aliisque locis alpinis Monfren^iensi- 

3 e 2 bus . 

39% Mis D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif raga. 

bus; /S in Carniolae et Carinthias alpibus, etiam in monti- 

r bus Pontebanis ; y in alpibus Helveticis, Carniolicis, Ca- 

rinthiacis et Pyrenseorum ; I in summis Pyrenaeorum. 

% . (a et 7 v. s ; |3v.v. c.) 

Planta dense caespitosa. Caules erecti, sesquipedales, flexu- 
osi, a basi pyramidato-ramosissimi, foliosi, pilis glandu- 
liferis confertissime tecti. Folia radicalia in rosulis late 
expansis, lineari-lingulata, longissima, rigida, glauca, 
utrinque glabra, supra canaliculata, subtus obtuse cari- 
nata, basi ciliata, apice recurvata, margine crustaceo- 
porosa et tuberculato-crenata ; caulina linearia, obtusa, 
recta, tuberculato-crenata, apice recurvata. Pedunculi 
longi, patentes, multirlori, calycesque pube brevi glan- 
dulosa ferrugineA, dense obsiti. Flores plani. Lacinice 
calycince breves, semi-ovatae, obtusissimae. Petala ovalia, 
alba, conspicue triplinervia (nervis simplicibus), punctis 
numerosis roseis instructa. 

50, S. Aizoon, foliis brevibus cuneatis argenteo-serratis, floribus 

corymbosis, calycibus glabris : laciniis acutis, petalis 

S. Aizoon. Murr. Syst. ed. 14. p. 411. Jacq. Austr. v. 

t. 438. (bona.) Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 639- (exclus. synon. 

PI. Lapp, et Seguier. Ver.) Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 33. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 672. (exclus. Fl. Lapp, et Seguier. 

Ver.) Persoon Synop. i. p. 487. Ilort. Kew. ed. 2. 3. 

p. 65. Sternb. Saxif. p. 3. t. 3. /. a. (media.) (exclus. 

synon. Willd. Hort. Berol. Lapeyr. Pyren. p. 33. /. 15. 

nee noil Linn. Suec. et L,app. et Seguier. Veron.) Wahlenb. 

Car path. p. 116. 
S. paniculata. Mill. Diet. n. 3. 

S. foliorurn ora eartilaginea, serrnta, petiolis paucirloris, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 393 

petalis punctatis. foliis breyionbus et latioribus, 
Hall Jleh. 978. 

S. foliis subrotundis serratis. Tourntf. Inst. %5&. 

Cotyledon minor, foliis subrotundis serratis. Bauh. Pin. 285. 
Prod. 133. Rait Hist. p. 1046. n. 5. 

Sedum montanum roseum, serratum. foliis rubrul imdis. Bar- 
rel. Icon. M310. 

Sedum serratum album bieorne, breviore folio, marginibus 
argenteis. Moris. Hist. s. 12. t. 9. /'. 10. 

Cotyledon minus, sedi folio, montanum. Lob. Adv. p. 1 65 

/3. relusa; duplo minor; foliis brevioribus retusis. 

S. Aizoon /3. minor brevifolia. Stemb. he. rit. t. 3. f. fi. 

Habitat in Austrian, Helvetia?, Carpathian et Pyreiueorimi 
alpibus, 1/ . (v. v. c. a et /3.) 

Planta in caespitibus latis et planis dense vegetans. Caules 
erecti, firmi, simplices, 4 — 5-unciales, foliosi, nitidi, pilis 
glanduliferis leviter adspersi. Folia radicalia in rosulU 
conferta et conniventia, cuneiformia, plana, glauca, inar- 
gine argenteo-serrata, basi ciliata ; caulina obovata, inii- 
cronulata, ciliato-serrata, subadpressa. Flores corymbosi, 
sequenti majores, pulcherrimi. Pedunculi elongati, sub- 
birlori, glabriusculi. Cahjx glaberrimus : lacunae breve- 
triangulari-ovatae, acutae. Petala suborbiculata, oculis 
armatis trinervia (nervis ramosiusculis), lactea, punctis 
roseis minutis instructa. Filamenta brevia, compressa. 
Sty li brevissimi. 

51. S. i?itacta, foliis linearibus acutis strictis argute argenteo- 

serratis, calycibus parce glandulosis : laciniis obtusi^, 

petalis ovalibus. 

S. intacta. Wilhl llort. Berol. ii. p. J5. 1. 15. (bona.) tjusd. 

Entim. p. 459- 

S. recta. 

394 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

S. recta. Lapeyr. Fyren. Saxif. p. 33. t. 15. {optima.) 
S. Cotyledon. Marsch. a Bieberst. Fl. Taur. Cauc. i. p. 313. 

(exclus. 3301011.) 
S. Aizoon. Steven de Saxif. Cauc. in Mem. Mosq. iv. p. 74. 

(exclus. synon.) 
S. cartilaginea. Sternb. Saxif. p. 5. t. 3. c. 
S. foliorum ora cartilaginea, serrate, petiolis paucirloris, pe- 

talis punctatis. Var. cc. Hall. Helv. 978. 
S. sedi folio angustiore, serrato. Tournef. Inst. 252. Se- 

guier. Vtr. 448. t. 9. /. 1. 
Sedum serratum album bicorne, longiore folio, marginibus 

argenteis. Moris. Hist. s. 12. t. 9- f. 20. 
Sedum serratum. J . Bauh. Hist. iii. 689. 
Aizoum serratum. Val. Cord. Hist. pi. 92. 
Habitat in alpibus Tyrolensibus, Pyrenaicis et Caucasicis. 

il . (v. v. c.) 

Plant a in caespitibus conicis densis vegetans. Caules erecti, 
palmares v. pedales, praecedenti rigidiores, foliosi, pilis 
glanduliferis conferte tecti. Folia radicalia in rosulis 
aggregata, stricta, linearia, acuta, plana, glauca, utrinque 
glabra, argute argenteo-serrata, basi ciliata ; caulina spa- 
thulata, subadpressa, ciliato-serrulata. Flores racemosi. 
Pedicelli subbirlori, incurvi, preecedente breviores, pilis 
glanduliferis crebre tecti. Calyx pilis raris adspersus : 
laciniae ovatae, obtusa?. Petala ovalia, obscure trinervia 
(nervis simplicibus rectiusculis), lactea, punctis minutis 
roseis raris instructa. Filament a compressa. Styli bre- 

Linnaeus confounded the three preceding species under S. Co- 
tyledon, a name which I have preferred retaining to the plant 
described by him in Flora Lapponica and Flora Suecica, and of 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the (Units Sa.uf'ragu. 'J9j 

which there is a good figure in Flora Danica. The\ afford abun- 
dant characters to keep them distinct, and these marks always 
remain constant in cultivation, and when re-produced from seed. 
The S. Cotyledon is remotely distinct from all of them. 

52. S. mutata, foliis planis spathulatis cartilagineo-crenati* ci- 

liatisque, calycibus dense glandulosis : laciniis late-ova- 

tis acutis, petalis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis. 
S. mutata. Linn. Sp. PL 570. J acq. Icon. Rar. 8. t. 466. 

{optima.) ejusd. Collect, i. p. 1284. Curt. Mag. 351. 

Willd. Sp. PI. ii. p. 640. Lapajr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 31. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 612. Persoon Synop. i. p. 487 . Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. 3. p. 65. Stemb. Saxif. p. 6. 
S. foliorum ora cartilagineA, rarissime dentata, petalis macu- 

losis. Hall. Helv. 979. t. 16. 
S. foliorum limbo cartilagineo integro, spie&longa, tloribus 

purpureo-croceis. Hall. Helv. edit, prior. Segu. Ver. hi. 

p. 199. Burs. XVI. 98. 
Geum alpinum majus viscosum, foliis oblongo-rotundis, 

atro-rubentibus et croceis tloribus. Scheuch. It. ii. /;. 124. 
Habitat in alpibus Helvetia?, Carniolai, Italia? et Pyreme- 

orum. H . (v. s. in Herb. Banks, et Lamb.) 

Species distinctissima. Planta dense ca^spitosa. Caides 
erecti, palmares v. pedales, foliosi, pilis patentibus glan- 
duliferis confertissime tecti. Folia radicalia in rosulis lat£ 
expansis, spathulata, plana, utrinque glabra, margine 
cartilagineo-crenata, villis longis numerosis patentibus 
fimbriata ; caulina obovata, basi ciliata, apice cartila- 
gineo-crenata. Flores paniculati. Peduncu/i calycesque 
pube molli ferruginea glutinosa dense tecti. Lacinice ca- 
lycince late-triangulari-ovatae, acuta 1 , obsolete nervosa?. 


396 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus, Saxifraga. 

Petala lineari-lanceolata, acuminata, trinervia, crocea, 
maculis saturatioribus instructa. Filament a crocea. An- 
them fiilvae. 

53. 6'. media, foliis radicalibus aggregatis lingulatis integerri- 

mis ; marginc cartilagineo supra punctato, petalis obtu- 

sis calyce brevioribus. Smith Prod. FL Grcec. i. p. 276. 
S. media. Gouan lllust. 27. Poiret in Lam. Encycl. vi. 

p. 675. t. 372. /. 6. FL Grcec. Icon. Ined. 376. Stcrnb. 

Sax if. p. 6. 
S. calycitiora. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 28. t. 12. (optima.) 

Per soon Synops. i. p. 487- 
S. caesia. Linn. Majitiss. 382. nee Sp. PL ex Smithio loc. cit. 
S. alpina parva, sedi folio, non serrata. Mich. Plant. Ram. 

et Neap. n. 704. 
Habitat in Pyrenaeorum rupibus calcareis (Gouan, La Pey- 

rouse), in Olympi Bithyni cacumine (Sibtho?*p). V . (v. s. 

in Herb. Banks.) 

Plant a in caespitibus conicis vegetans. Catties erecti, digi- 
tales, simplices, rigidi, villis tortuosis ferrugineis viscidis 
dense tecti. Folia radicalia in rosulis aggregata, imbri- 
cata, lingulata, mucronata, rigida, glauca, utrinque gla- 
bra, supra plana, punctata, subtus convexa, subcarinata, 
margine integerrima, cartilaginea, nuda, basi ciliata ; 
caulina cuneata glancluloso-pilosa. Flores racemosi, brac- 
teati. Pedicelli breves, unirlori, calycesque villis viscidis 
dense obsiti. Calyces campanulati : laciniae breve-trian- 
gulari-ovatae, acuta?, rectae, conniventes. Petala parva, 
obovata, atro-purpurea, cum genitalibus intra calycem 

54. S. La- 

Mr. D. Down's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrava. S97 

54. S. Lapeyrousii, foliis radicalisms aggregate lingulatis inte- 

gerrimis : margine cartilagineo, rloribus paniculatis, pe- 

talis obovatis integerrimis conniventibus cnlyce longi- 

S. luteo-purpurea. Lapeyr. Pyren. Sax if. p. 3$. /. 14. Lam. 

Encycl. vi. p. 675. Per soon Synop. i. 487. Sternb. Saxif. 

Habitat in Pyrenaeorum rupibus calcareis. La Peyrousc. )/ . 

Pedunculi calycesque pube purpurea viscida densissime 

Obs. Species prorsus mihi incognita nisi ex figura et de- 
scriptione Clariss. Lapeyrouse, a quibus characterem su- 
pra scriptumdesumpsi, v&th praecedmti admodum affinia 
est ; sed rloribus paniculatis et petalis citrinis calyce lon- 
gioribus videtur diifere. Forsan hybrida inter S. mcdiam 
et sequentem. 

55. S. aretioides, foliis aggregatis lineari-lingulatis strictis inu- 

cronulatis carinatis glaucis cartilagineo-marginatis, caule 
glutinoso-tomentoso, petalis lineari-spafluilatis apice cre- 
S. aretioicles. Lapeyr. Pi/ren. Saxif. p. 28. t. 1.3. Lam. En- 
cycl. vi. p. 676. PersoonSynon.x. p. 487- Sternb. Saaif. 


S. pyrenaica lutea minima, sedi foliis densissime congestis. 

Toumef. Inst. 253. 
Habitat in rupibus calcareis Pyrenaeorum (La Peyrouse), 

in Helvetian alpibus Bareges dictis (Prof. Stromeyer). 

11 . (v. s. in Herbar. Ventenat, nunc in Museo Lesser- 


Planta dense caespitosa. Radices lignosre. Rosula semi- 

unciales, conf'erhe, ad bases foliis emarcidis undique 

vol, xur. 3 f dense 

398 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sawifraga. 

dense imbricatae. Caales erecti, sesquiunciales, teretes, 
foliisque caulinis lingulato-linearibus obtusis tomento glu- 
tinoso tecti. Folia aggregatim imbricata, lineari-lingu- 
Iata, stricta, obsolete mucronulata, glauco-viridia, sub- 
tus obtuse carinata, supra punctis remotis paucis juxta 
margines perforata, basi ciliato-denticulata : oris carti- 
lagineis. Flores terni, aurei. Pedicelli calycesque pube 
glutinosa dense instructi ; lateralibus medium superanti- 
bus. Calycis laciniae breve ovatae, acutre, carnosae. Pe- 
tala lineari-spathulata, triplinervia, apice emarginata et 
crenulata : nervis strictis ; lateralibus bifurcis. Stamina 
inscqualia pistillis breviora ; Jilamenta pallide lutea ; an- 
ther a aurere. 
Obs. Duabus praecedentibus affinis, at notis indicatis et 
planta multo minore distinctissima est. 

56. S. burseriana, foliis aggregatis subulatis pungentibus la^vi- 

bus glaucis, caule subunirloro, laciniis calycinis ovatis, 

petalis subrotundis orae crispatis : nervis ramosis. 
S. burseriana. Linn. Sp. PL p. 572. Wulfcn in Jacq. Misc. i. 

p. 152. t. 17. /. 3. (optima.) Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 642. 

Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 677. Persoon Synops. i. p. 488. Stemb. 

Saxif. p. 33. t. 10. /. 1. 
S . foliis glaucis acutis monanthis, caule folioso. Segu. Ver. Hi. 

p. 201. t. 5. f. 2. 
Sedum alpinum, saxifragce alba? flore. Bauh. Pin. 284, 

Burs. XVI. 6. 
Sedum montanum minimum, caryophylli folio, lacteo flore. 

Raii Hist. ii. p. 1041. n. 8. 

Sedum alpinum quartum. Col. Ecphr. ii. p. 66. f. 4. 

/3. caule subbifloro. Stemb. loc. cit. t. 10. /3. 

y. Vandelli, foliis ciliatis, caule subquadrifloro. 

S bur 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif?aga. 399 

S. burseriana, fi. Jacq. Misc. i. p. 153. Lam. Encycl. vi. 

p 677. Persoon Si/nop. i. p. 488. 
S. Vandelli. Stemb. Saxif. p. 34. t. 10. /*. 3. 
S. burseriana. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 35. 
S. foliis compactis plicatis pungentibus, caulc viscido pau- 

cifloro. Hall. Helv. 983. Act. Helv. vi. p. 10. 
S. foliis aggregatis subulatis la?vibus, caule subnudo multi- 

rloro. Vandelli It. hied, f 2. (ex Stcrnb. I. c.) 
Seclnm minimum Syriacum, luteolo flore Kixifragse alba?. 

J. Bauh. Hist. iii. p. 696. Lobel. Obs. p. 204. Icon. 

PL 376. Bod. Pempt. p. 132. n. 3. Moris. Hist. iii. 

p. 476. s. 12. t. 8. /. 1, 
Habitat a. in Taurero Radstattiensi (lloppe), in alpibus 

Carinthia? et Carniola? (Wulfen, Hohenwart, lest), in 

montibus Lessinensibus (Seguier), Tridentinis (Ray). In 

monte Grappa prope Bassanum in Italia superiori ipse 

legi. Stemb. loc. cit. 
^. in alpe vicina Stoi Clagenfurtii. Vest. 
y. in monte Couza non procul a Lario Lacu {Vandelli), in 

Helvetia? alpibus (Schleicher, Stemb. loc. cit.) V. . (v. s. 

a in Herb. Banks.) 

Planta dense caespitosa. Radix Iignosa, fibris numerosis 

instructa. Surculi erecti, brevissimi, basi rudimentis fo- 

liorum emarcidorum tecti, apice rosulati. Caulcs plures, 

erecti, bipollicares, oligophylli, uniflori, pilis glanduli- 

feris brevibus tecti. Folia aggregata, subulata, trique- 

tra, mucronata, glabra, rigida, glauca; caulina pauca, 

multo minora, adpressa. Flos magnus, pulcherrimus. 

Calyx pube glandulosa obsitus ; lacinice lat(? ovata?, acuta?, 

conspicue nervosa?. Petala late subrotunda, lactea, tri- 

plinervia, nervis ramosissimis tlexuosis flavescentibus 

lineata : ora crispata. 

3 f 2 57. S. re- 

400 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif raga. 

57. 6'. retusa, caule subtrifloro, foliis imbricatis oblongo-trigonis 

acutis supra perforato-punctatis, petalis lanceolatis acutis, 

stylis corollam longe superantibus. 
S. retusa. Gouan Illustr. 28. t 18. f. 1. Lapeyr. Pyren. 

Saxif. p. 38. 1. 18. (optima.) Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. 

p. 365. Per soon Synop. i. p. 488. Sternb. Saxif. p. 37. 

Wahlenb. Carpath. 118. 
S. imbricata. Lam. Franc, iii. p. 531 ? S. purpurea. All. 

Fed. 1531. t. 21. /. 2. (iorca.) 
S. oppositifolia, y. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 648. Zam. En- 

cycl. vi. p. 685. 
S. alpina ericoides, flore purpurascente. Tournef. Inst. 258. 
Sedum alpinum ericoides caeruleum. Bauh. Prod. 132. 

Hist. iii. p. 694. 
Habitat in summis alpibus Pedemontanis, Pyrenaicis et 

Delphinatis. 1/ . (v. s.) 

Planta caespitem valde compactum et durum formans. 
Surculi proeumbentes, rigidi, ramosi, densissime foliosi. 
Caules numerosi, erecti, sesqui- v. bi-unciales, rigidi, 
oligophylli. Folia arete quadrifariam imbricata, parva, 
oblonga, trigona, durissima, glabra, nitida, basi ciliata, 
supra aciem punctis ternis minutis perforata, apice recur- 
vata, acuta. Floras terminales, subterni, purpurei. Pedi- 
celli calycesque pube brevi glandulos<i instructi. Calycis 
laciniae oblongo-ovatae, obtusae, margine nudae. Petala 
lanceolata, acuta, triplinervia : nervis parallelis simpli- 
cibus. Filamenta capillaria, pallide lilacina, coroM lon- 
giora. Antherce violaceae. Styli stricti, longissimi. 

58. S. oppositifolia, caule unifloro, foliis imbricatis ovatis planis 
obtusis ciliatis, laciniis calycis late ovatis obtusis, petalis 
obovatis 5-nervibus, genitalibus corolla brevioribus. 

S. op- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 401 

S. oppositifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 575. Fl. Sueo. 359. 369. 
Fl. Lapp. 179. t. 2./. 1. Fl. Dan. t. 34. Gunn. \orv. 53. 
Buds.Angl. 180. Altim. Ptdem. L589. f.21./. 3. (6cma.) 
F«///. in Act. LJist. Nat. Hafn. 2. 1. p. 51. //////. BnV. 
404. Wf/W. ty. P/. ii. p. 648. Lnpeijr. Pyren. Sanf. 
p. 36. £. 16. (optima.) Lam. Ena/cl. vi. /?. 686. Smith 
Brit. ii. p. 451. Engl. Bot. t. 9. (bona.) Lam. et Decand. 
FL Franc, iv. p. 364. Sternb. Saxif. p. 36. Hohenwatt 
et Reiner Lt. i. p. 133. t. 3. (or Sternb.) Wahlenb. Car- 
path. 118. PtlTftA ylwe/\ Septent. i. /?. 311. 

S. caerulea. Persoo?i Si/nops. i. p. 488. 

S. caule repente, foliis quadrifariam imbricatis cartilagineis 
ciliatis. Hall. Helv. 980. 

Sedum alpinum ericoides purpurascens. Bauh. Fin. 284. 
Prod. 152. Moris. Hist. i. p. 480. s. 12. t. 10. /. 36. 

Habitat in rupibus alpinis Lapponiae, Scotia-, Helvetic, 
Spitzbergensis, Pyrenaeorum, Anglia: et America: bore- 
alis. ii . (v. v. sp.) 

Planta csespitem planum et latum formans. SurcuU breves, 
procumbentes, gemmiferi, rubescentes, villis viscidis levi- 
ter adspersi. Caules numerosi, unciales, erecti, unirlori, 
rubri, foliorum 2 — 3 jugis muniti. Folia ovata, plana, 
obtusa, glabra, ciliata, obscure viridia; adultiora qua- 
drifariam imbricata, apice cartilaginea, 1 — 2 poris minutis 
saepius perforata; juniora in surculis opposita, subdi- 
stantia ; caulina opposita, remota, obovata. Flos mag- 
nus, pulcherrimus, lilacinus, terminalis, solitarius, ses- 
silis. Calyx glandulosus : laciniae late ovatae, obtusae, 
camosae, rectae, obscure trinerves, margine ciliatae. Pe- 
tala obovata, lilacina, 5-nervia : nervis flexuosis ramo- 
siusculis. Genitalia corolla breviora ; jilamenta gracilia, 

rosea ; anthera violaceae. Sti/li breves, crassi. 

59. S. bi- 

402 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

59. S. biflora, caule subtrifloro, foliis planis spathulatis laxis, 

petalis lineari-oblongis, genital ibus corolla longioribus. 
S. biflora. Allion. Pedem. 1530. t. 21. /. 1. (bona.) La- 

peyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 37. 1. 17 .(optima.) Lam. et Decanal. 

Fl. Franc, iv. p. 365. Persoon Synops. i. p. 488. Sternb. 

Saxif. p. 31. Hohenwart et Reiner. It. i. p. 138. f «.3./ a 2. 

(ex Sternb.) 
S. oppositifolia, /3. Willcl. Sp. PL ii. ^.648. Lam. Encycl. vi. 

p. 685. 
S. foliis imbricatisovatis, caulibusreptantibusbifloris. Hall. 

Hclv. 981. 
Habitat in Pyrenaeorum et Helvetia? alpibus. % . (v. s.) 

Obs. Summopere quidem affinis est S. oppositifolia 7 , sed 
planta majore et laxiore, et notis constantibus in defini- 
tionibus expressis satis distincta. 

60. S. casta, foliis lineari-oblongis aggregatis cretaceo-glaucis 

insigniter recurvatis carinatis, petalis rotundatis ungui- 
culatis, caule oligophyllo multifloro. 

S. caesia. Linn. Sp. PL 571. J acq. Aust. t. 374. Scop. Cam. 
ed. ii. 495. t. 15. Willd. Sp. PL ii. /;. 641. Lam. En- 
cycl. vi. p. 676. Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. /;. 363. 
Persoon Synops. i. p. 487. Sternb. Saxif. p. 34. 

S. recurvifolia. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 30. 

S. foliis crassis duris recurvis subtus sulcatis, basi ciliatis. 
Hall. Helv. 982. 

S. alpina minima, foliis csesiis deorsum recurvis. Segu. 
Veron. 449. t. 9. /. 2. (bona.) 

Sedum alpinum album, foliolis compactis. Bauh. Pin. 284. 
Moris. Hist. iii. s. 12. t. 7. /. 32. 

Sedum alpinum minimum, foliis cincreis, florc candido. 

Scheuch. Alp, 49- 141. /. 21. /. 1. 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 403 

Sedi species minima. Gesii. fasc. 24. t. 1 1 . f. 30. 
@. major, caule robustiore et altiore valde villoso. 
Habitat a in alpibus Helveticis, Austriacis, Pyrenaicis, 
Baldo; /3 in Lusitanid (Gage). 7/ . (v. v, c. et s. sp. ; /^v.s. 
in Herb. Banks.) 

Radix lignosa, ramosa. Surculi erecti, brevissimi, rigidis- 
simi, caespitem planum et valde compactum formant. 
Caules plures, erecti, 2 — 3-pollicares, tenuiter filiformes, 
rigidi, fragiles, oligophylli, multiflori, glabriusculi, fucati. 
Folia radicalia aggregata, imbricata, lineari-oblonga, ob- 
tusa, glabra, rigida, cretaceo-glauca, subtus carinata, su- 
pra convexa, foraminibus numerosis minutis perforata, 
basi angustata, ciliata, medio insigniter recurvata : sub- 
stantia frangibili Crustacea ; caulina pauca, sparsa, parva, 
squamae formia, adpressa. Flores lactei in paniculam par- 
vam dispositi. Fedicelli in aestivatione decurvati, pos- 
tremo erecti, calycesque pilis brevissimis glanduliferis 
parce suppediti. Lacinice calycince breves, late ovatae, 
obtusissimae, obsolete trinerves, margine membranaceae, 
Fctala rotundata, triplinervia (nervis lateralibus ramosis), 
baskunguiculata : limbo orbiculato, retuso, patenti. Ge- 
nitalia corolla breviora. 

61. S. diape?isioides, foliis linearibus strictis carinatis aggregate- 
imbricatis cretaceo-glaucis, caule polyphyllo paucilloro 
dense glanduloso-piloso, laciniis calycinis elliptico-ob- 
S. diapensioides. Bellardi Act. Acad. Taur. v. p. 227. ejusd. 
Append, ad Fl. Pedem. p. 21. t. 3. Sternb. Saxif. p. 35. 
t. 9. (mala.) 
S. caesia, fi. Lam. Enci/cl vi. p. 676 


404 Mr .D.Don's Monograph of the Ge n us Saxifraga . 

Habitat in alpibus Pedemontanis et Helve ticis. % . (v. s. in 
Herb. Lessertiano specim. in cacumine Cenis montis 

Planta densissime caespitosa. Radix lignosa. Surculi lig- 
nosi, semiunciales, erecti, conferti, creberrime foliosi. 
Caules erecti, teretes, polyphylli, 2- rarissime 3-polli- 
cares, pilis patentibus glanduliferis undique dense tecti. 
folia surculina linearia, obtusa, stricta, cretaceo-glauca, 
undique arete aggregato-imbricata, glabra, subtus obtuse 
carinata, margine cartilaginea, basi ciliata, apice punc- 
tis 1 — 2 perforata ; caulina linearia, obtusa, dense glan- 
duloso-pilosa, recta, sensim parum latiora. Flores 3 — 4 
vel 5 in capitulum terminalem, campanulati, candidi, 
S. ccEsid majores. Pedicelli breves calycesque pilis pa- 
tentibus glanduliferis conferti. Calycis lacinice elliptico- 
oblongae, obtusae. Petala basi angustata (unguiculata) : 
limbo patente, orbiculato, 5-nervi. Stamina pistilla sub- 
aequantia ; filament a lutea ; anther a aureae. 

Obs. Habitu omnino S. casite, a qua tamen abunde discrepat: 
foliis strictis, caule polyphyllo dense piloso paucifloro, 
floribus majoribus, laciniis calycinis elliptico-oblongis. 

62. S. Jimbriata, rosulis sphaericis, foliis appresse imbricatis or- 
biculato-obovatis : marginibus membranaceis ciliisque 
longis fimbriatis, pedunculo solitario nudo unifloro. 
Habitat in Capite Newnham dicto ad oras occidentales Ame- 
ricae borealis. David Nelson. 1/ . (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Planta canescens caespites pianos patentes efficiens. Rosula 
confertissimag sphaericae. Folia appresse imbricata, ob- 
ovata, trinervia, utrinque glabra, punctis pellucidis fe- 
nestrata, intus concava, extus convexa, apice orbiculata, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage 405 

margine membrana scariosa et ciliis longis cuspidatis in- 
rlexis fimbriate. Pedunculus solitarius, uncialis, unirlorus, 
nudus. Calyx obconicus : laciniae breve ovatas, obtusae, 
margine ciliatae. Pet a la mihi ignota. 

63. 5. serpyllifolia, virens ; surculis repentibus, foliis ovatis ob- 

tusis petiolatis denudatis, caule riliformi oligophyllo uni- 

floro, petalis orbiculatis : nervis ramosis. 
S. serpyllifolia. Pursh Amer. Septent. i. ]>. 310. 
Habitat in capite Newnham dicto, ad oras occidentales 

American septentrionalis. David Nelson, n . (v. s. in 

Herb. Banks.) 

Species distinctissima. Plant a virens, patens, cacspitosa. 
Surculi ramosi, repentes, rigidi, dense foliosi. Caules 
plures, filiformes, graciles, erecti, 2 — 3-unciales, pauci- 
folii, unirlori, rubescentes, fucati, glandulis brevissimis 
leviter sparsi. Folia conferta, ovata, obtusa, petiolata, 
plana, recurvato-patentia, integerrima, utrinque glabra, 
viridia, nitida, impnnctata : caulina linearia, obtusa, 
multo minora. Flos terminalis, magnus, aureus ? Calyx 
nitidus parce glandulosus : laciniae breves, lata?, obtusae. 
Fetala orbiculata, breve unguiculata, triplinervia : ner- 
vis ramosis, rectiusculis. Filamenta brevia, lutescentia? 
Antheraz flavae? Styli brevissimi. 

64. S. parnassifotia, caule erecto folioso 3 — 4-rloro, foliis corda- 

tis amplexicaulibus glabris, petalis obovatis 5-nervibus. 
Habitat in Nepaliae alpibus. JVallich. H . (v. s. in Herb. 

Species ab omnibus longe diversa, plantam minorem Par- 
nassian palustris ne parum refert. Caules plures, erecti, 
vol. xiii. 3 g tripol- 

406 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saiifraga. 

tripollicares, teretes, glabri, rigidi, foliosi, 3 — 4-flori. 
Folia alterna, sessilia, cordata, amplexicaulia, obtusa, 
utrinque glabra, subtus nervosa, margine glandulis levi- 
ter ciliata. Pedunculi breves, uniflori, calycesque glan- 
dulis leviter instructi. Flores lactei. Lacinia? calycince tri- 
angularis vatae, mucronat-a?, trinerves. Fetala obovata, 
5-nervia (nervis simplicibus rectiusculis), basi angustata. 
Antherce croceae. 

65. S. androsacea, foliis radicalibus confertis ellipticis obtusis 
pilosis integerrimis tridentatisve, laciniis calycinis obtu- 
sissimis, petalis spathulatis, caule nudiusculo subbifloro. 

S. androsacea. Lirm. Sp. PL 571. Gerard. Fl. Gall. Prov. 
423. Jacq. Aust. iv. t. 389- Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 641. 
Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 674. ejusd. Fl. Franc, iii. p. 525. 
Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. p. 367. Per soon Synops. i. 
p. 487. Sternb. Saxif. p. 42. Ml./, a. Wahlenb. Car- 
path. 116. 

S. pyrenaica. Scop. Cam. edit. 2. 498. 

S. foliis hirsutis ellipticis et tridentatis, caule paucirloro. 
Hall. Helv. 984. Ibid. It. Helv. n. 69. p. 292. t. 2. 

S. alpina, Androsaces villosae habitu. Hall. Comm. Nor. 
1736. t. 1. /. 3. 

Sedum alpinum tertium. Col. Ecphr. ii. p. 66 et 67. f. ul- 

Habitat in Helvetia, Austria, Carniola\ ~u . (v. v. c.) 

Planta densissime caespitosa habitu omnino Androsaces. Ra- 
dix fibrosa. Cauks erecti 2- rarius 3-pollicares, nudius- 
culi, subbiflori, pilis glanduliferis articulatis patentibus 
tecti, saepius foliis 1 — 2 muniti. Folia radicalia con- 
ferta, elliptica, obtusa, integra, rarius tridentata, utrinque 
pilis articulatis instructa, basi in petiolum angustata, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 407 

subtus conspicue nervosa. Pedieelli brevissimi calyces- 
que pube viscida suppediti. Calyx obturbinatus : laciniffi 
ovatae, obtusissinue, nervosa. Petala spathulata, Can- 
dida, triplinervia (nervis simplicibus, strictis), calyce 
fere triplo longiora. Filamenta brevia, lutea. Antherce 

66. S. spathulata, gemmifera ; surculis crebre foliosis, foliis in- 
tegerrimis spathulatis fimbriatis, laciniis calycis ovato- 
oblongis obtusis, petalis obovatis, caule nudiusculo subbi- 

S. spathulata. Desf. At lant. ii. p. 342. /. 96. /. 2. Lam. 
Encycl. vi. p. 692. Persoon Synop. i. p. 489- St crab. 
Sax if. p. 58. 

Habitat in Atlantis cacumine prope Belide. Desfontaines. 
11 . (v. s. in Herb. Lessertiano specim. a Clariss. Dcsfon- 
taines communicata.) 

Plant a dense caespitosa. Surculi plures, breves, procum- 
bentes, creberrime foliosi, foliis emarcidis ad eorum 
bases persistentibus. Caulcs erecti, teretes, capillares, 
1 — 2^-pollicares, nudiusculi, pilis brevissimis raris ad- 
spersi, 1 — 3-pluri-flori e flosculis lateralibus saepius abor- 
tientibus (caule unifloro) fere semper orti. Folia parva, 
spathulata, integerrima, fimbriata : lamina orbiculata, 
basi in petiolum brevissimum angustata ; nonnulla tri- 
fida lobis acutiusculis necnon vidi. Pedicelli calyces- 
que pube brevissima parce suppediti. Lacinice cafycina 
ovato-oblongae, obtusae. Petala obovata, triplinervia, 
lactea, calyce longiora. Genitalia petalis breviora. Sta- 
mina ina?qualia ; filamenta lutescentia ; anthera aurea\ 

Obs. Facie S. globulifera, sed ab ea satis distincta. Forsan 
ad ultimam sectionem melius relata esset. 

3 g 2 67. S. Se- 

408 Mr, D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage, 

67. 5. Sedioides, caulibus erectiusculis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis 

acutis glabris, pedunculis elongatis capillaribus unifloris, 

petalis linearibus mucronulatis calycem subaequantibus. 
S. Sedioides. Linn. Sp. PL 572. Jacq. Misc. ii. p. 134. 

t. 21. /. 22. (opti?na.) JVilld. Sp. PL ii. p. 642. (exclus. 

syn. Allion. Ped.) Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 47. Lam. 

Encycl. vi. p. 675. (exclus. syn. Allion. Ped.) Persoon 

Synop. i. p. 488. Sternb. Saxif p. $7 . t. 7 . /. « et (B. 

{mala.) et t. 9. (B. 
Saxif. trichoides. Scop. Cam. 496. t. 15. (bona.) 
S. Hohenwartii. Sternb. Saxif. p. 26. f. 7. 
S. Seguierii. ejusd. t. 9. |S. 
S. alpina minima, foliis lingulatis in orbem actis, flore 

ochroleuco. Segu. Veron. 450. t. 9- f 3. (pessima.) 
S. alpina muscoides, foliis superioribus oblongis, inferior. 

rotundioribus et circumactis. Segu. Veron. iii. p. 203. 

t. 5. /. 3. {bona.) 
@. colorata, petalis antherisque purpurascentibus. 
S. Hohenwartii $. Sternb. Saxif p. 26. t. 9. 0. 
7. aphylla, foliis inferioribus saepe trifidis. 
S. aphylla. Sternb. 1. c. p. 40. t. 11. /3. 
S. muscoides. Wahlenb. Carpath. 122. 
Habitat a in alpibus Tridentinis, Carinthiacis, Carniolicis, 

Salisburgens., Pyrenaicis, Arragonicis, Baldo ; /3 et y in 

alpibus Austriacis. ^/ . (v. s.) 

Planta caespitosa, laete virens, tenera. Radix fibrosa, ca- 
pillacea. Caules numerosi, adscendentes, debiles, valde 
foliosi, sesqui- vel bi-pollicis longi, glandulis brevissimis 
leviter adspersi. Folia ima aggregata, spathulata, paten- 
tia ; superiora erecta, lineari-lanceolata, acuta, alterna : 
omnia lrete viridia utrinque glabra, nitida, conspicu^ 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifragd. 40j) 

trinervia, margine glandulis ciliata. Pedunculi elongati, 
capillares, unitiori, terminates, glandulis ininutis adspersi. 

Florts minimi, lutescentes. Lavinue calycina ovatae, ob- 
tusiusculre, trinerves. Petala parva, linearia, mucronu- 
lata, calycem vix excedentia, trinervia : nervis parallelis 
simplicibus. Filamenta brevissima, lutea. Anthtra rlava\ 

The present species is readily distinguished by its slender habit 

and numerous ascending- leafv stems, of a beautiful green-, which 

are furnished with a few thin and scattered, short, glandular 

hairs ; by its long, slender, capillary peduncles ; and lastly, by 

its small, linear, pointed petals, scarcely exceeding the length 

of the calyx. I regret having been obliged to differ so widely 

in opinion from the Count de Sternberg, who certainly has not 

studied the present species with due care, as is evident from his 

description and figures, both of which are miserably defective in 

point of botanical accuracy. The following species, S. tenera, is 

distinguished from this, to which it is nearly related, by its much 

more tufted habit ; by its obtuse leaves, which, together with the 

stems, are thickly clothed with glandular hairs ; by the oblong 

laciniag of its calyx ; and in having the flowers double the size, 

with obovate, retuse petals, nearly twice the length of the calyx. 

In the figures of S. sedioides given by Sternberg, the petals are 

erroneously exhibited as obovate ; and were it not for the habit, 

which is clearly that of S. sedioides, I should certainly have been 

inclined to refer them to the following species. The figure given 

by him under the name of S. Hohenwartii shows the flowers much 

more correctly. The variety /S I have not seen : it therefore 

rests wholly on the authority of Sternberg, who states the petals 

and anthers to be of a purplish colour. The varieties I have 

marked agree with .S'. sedioides in every essential point ; but how 

far they are to be regarded as permanent varieties 1 have not had 

opportunities of determining. 

68. S. te- 

410 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.rifraga. 

68. S. tenera, surculis brevibus crebre foliosis, foliis lineari- 

oblongis obtusis caulibusque glanduloso-pilosis, laciniis 

calycinis oblongo-ovatis, petalis obovatis retusis calycem 

S. tenera. Sut. Fl. Help. i. p. 245. Vill. Delph. iii. p. 666. 

Sternb. Saxif. p. 28. t. 9. /. 4. 
S. planifolia. Lapeyr. Pyven. Saxif. p. 31. Lam. Eficycl. vi. 

p. 617. Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 367. Sternb. 

Saxif. p. 28. t. 7. /. 3. (mala.) 
S. muscoides. Allion. Fed. 1528. t. 6\. f. 2. (exclus. sy- 

S. foliis mollibus ellipticis subhirsutis, caule paucifloro. 

Hall. Helv. n. 985. 
S. alpina pallide lutea, foliis latiusculis non incisis, radice 

crassa. Mich. Fl. Rom. et Neapol. 829- 
Sedum alpinum, tertio simile alterum. Colum. ii. p. 66. et 

67 . f- ad dextram. 
Habitat in alpibus Helveticis, Pedemontanis, Pyrenaeorum, 

et in Monte Cenisio. % . (v. s. specim. quae Clariss. 

Kunth mihi benevole dedit.) 

Herba densissime caespitosa. Surculi brevissimi saopius ta- 
men unciales aut ultra, creberrimti foliosi, ad basin foliis 
emarcidis aggregato-imbricatis. Caules capillares, 1 — 2- 
pollicares, erecti, simplicissimi, 1 — 3-flori, pilis glandu- 
iiferis brevibus undique dense tecti. Folia radicalia et 
surculina lineari-oblonga, obtusa, conferta, mollia, utrin- 
que pilis brevibus glanduliferis tecta ; caulina ovali-ob- 
longa, in caeteris, radicalibus similia. Flares ochroieuci 
S. sedioidi duplo majores. Calyces obconici, dense glan- 
duloso-tomentosi : laciniae oblongo-ovatae, obtusae. Pe- 
tala obovata, retusa, calycem fere duplo excedentia, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage, 411 

triplinervia : nervis simplicibus ; lateralibus incurvis ; 
medio recto. Stamina subivqualia ; fi/amcnta lutescen- 
tia; anthera aureie. Stub' graciles. recti, stamina sub- 
Obs. A <S. sedioide facile distinguitur : foliis cauleque dense 
glanduloso-pilosis, petalis obovatis retnsis cal\ com duplo 

An examination of specimens of the S. tenera of Suter, and 
of the S. planifolia of. La Peyrouse, prove that they are the 
same ; not even varieties : I have therefore preferred that of 
Suter as being the less objectionable name. 

§. Foliis 5 — 3-partitis petiolatis. 

69. S. geranioides, foliis reniformibus 3 — 5-lobo-pahnatis pu- 
bescentibus long^-petiolatis : segmentis cuneatis inciso- 
dentatis, panicula coarctata multirlora, laciniis calycinis 
Iineari-lanceolatis obtusis, petalis oblongis planis. 
S. geranioides. Linn. Sp. PL 578. J man. Acad. iv. p. 271. 
Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 652. (exclus. synon. GmeL Sib.) La- 
peyr. Pyren. Savif. p. 66. t.43. (bona.) Lam. Encycl. vi. 
p. 691. Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. p. 372. Persoon 
Synop. i. p. 489- Hort. Kew. iii. p. 70. Sternb. Saxif. 

p. 49. 

S. quinquetida. Lam. Franc, iii. p. 533. 

S. foliis radicalibus palmato-quinquelobis trihdis ; laterali- 
bus coalescentibus ; rameis subulatis, laciniis calycinis 
dilatatis. Gouan Must. 28. t. 18. /. 2. 

S. pyrenaica, tridactylites latifolia. Toitrnef. Inst. 253. 

Habitat in Pyrenoeis. % . (v. v. c.) 

Planta dense caespitosa. Radix sublignosa, rudimentis foli- 
orum emarcidorum supra dense instructa. Surculi breves, 


412 Mr, D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sarifraga. 

conferti, rigidi, erecti, rubescentes. Caules erecti, pal- 
mares, rigidi, rubri, pilis glanduliferis undique instructi. 
Folia radicalia longe petiolata, erecta, 3 — 5-lobo-palmata, 
cucullata, utrinque pube brevi densa valde glutinosa 
dense obsita : lobi cuneati, inciso-dentati : dentibusmag- 
nis obtusis ; caulina pauca sessilia inferiora digitata ; 
superiora indivisa : segmentis lanceolatis. Petioli semi- 
teretes, pilis viscidis suppediti. Panicida coarctata, mul- 
tirlora. Bractece lanceolatae, integrae, obtusac. Flores 
campan ulati, candidi. Calyces ut et pedicelli pube glu- 
tinosa omnino tecti : laciniae lineari-lanceolatae, trinerves, 
apice rerlexae, obtusae. Fetala oblonga, triplinervia : 
nervis simplicibus, strictis. Stamina inaequalia ; jilamenta 
elongata, lutescentia ; anthene aureae. Styli breves, sta- 
minibus duplo breviores. 

70. S. irrigua, foliis villosis ; radicalibus 5-partito-palmatis longe 
petiolatis; caulinis digitatis : segmentis cuneato-oblongis 
mucronatis trifidis, panicula laxd, laciniis calycinis line- 
aribus acutis, petalis spathulatis. 

S. irrigua. Fisch. Ilort. Gorenk. Spreng. Cent. Spec, minus 
cognit. p. 36. Marsch. a Bieberst. Cent. Plant. Rar. Ros- 
sic. ii. t. 73. Steven de Saxif. Cauc. in Mem. Mosq. iv. 
p. 82. n. 12. Sternb. Saiif. p. 60. 

S. petraea. Pall. hid. Taur. IJabl. Taut. p. 147. 

S. aquatica. Marsch. a Bieberst. Fl. Taur. Cauc. i. p. 317. 
(exclus. synon. Lapeyr. et Per soon.) 

S. foliis radicalibus reniformibus 5-lobis multifidis ; caulinis 
linearibus, caule subnudo. Gmel. Sib. iv. p. 171. (ex- 
clus. synon. Linn.) 

Habitat in Tauria inter rupes ad fontes Salghir (Pallas, 
Marschall a Bieberstein), in Sibiria nempe in udis pratis 


Mr. P. Don's Monograph of the Genus Scurifraga. 41 3 

sykosis ab Aldano ad Urak (Gmelin), in altissimis pni 1 - 
ruptis Jaika3 (Pallas). % . (v. v. c. ets. sp. in Herb. Pal- 
las, nunc Lamb.) 

Planta caespitosa, herbacea, magnitudine pnrcedentis at multo 
mollior et laxior, nunquam surculosa. Caules erecti, pal- 
mares, flexiliores, villis articulatis suj>pediti, virides. 
Folia radicalia cucullata, reniformia, .5-partito-palinata, 
longe petiolata ; caulina trifida sessilia : segmentd radica- 
lium cuneato-oblonga, tririda : lobis tridentatis : dentibus 
acutis, aristatis ; caulinorum lanceolata, indivisa, mucro- 
nata. Petioli semiteretes longissimi, lenti, erecti, supra 
canaliculati, undique villis longis, articulatis, viscidis 
dense tecti. Panicula laxa, multiflora. Bractea. pal- 
mate. Flores majores, campanulati, pulehri, candidi. 
Calyces cum pedunculis villis viscidis instrueti : laciniac 
lineares, acutae, intus concavae. Petala spathulata, tri- 
plinervia : nervis simplicibus, rectis. Stamina insequalia ; 
filament a viridia ; anthera luteae. Styli elongati, stami- 
nibus subaequales. 

This is a very distinct and well-marked species, readily distin- 
guished from the preceding by its loose, herbaceous habit, 
slightly covered with long villous hairs ; leaves much more 
deeply divided ; lobes acute ; stem limber, green, villous. Pa- 
nicles loose, many-flowered ; lacinia of the calyx acute ; petals 
broader, spathulate ; limb spreading. Marschall von Bieberstein 
in his Supplement to the Flora Taurico-Caucasica mentions the 
petals as being unequal, and slightly three-toothed at the apex ; 
but these marks are by no means constant ; for I have never ob- 
served them either in cultivated or in dried specimens. 


3 H 

71. S. ma- 

414 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sasi/raga. 

71. 5. maderensis, surculis lignosis, foliis confertis cuneifor- 
mibus longe-petiolatis basi acutis apice inaequaliter in- 
ciso-lobatis, laciniis calycinis late ovatis acutis. 

Habitat in Ins. Madeira. Masson. ~U . (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Planta dense csespitosa. Surculi erecti, rigidi, lignosi, basi 
rudimentis foliorum emarcidorum crebre instruct! . Caules 
plures, adscendentes, 4-unciales, filiformcs, graciles, oli- 
gophylli, paucinori, pilis brevissimis glanduliferis levi- 
ter sparsi. Folia radicalia conferta, cuneiformia, longe 
petiolata, pubescentia, basi acuta, apice inaequaliter in- 
ciso-lobata : lobis breve ovatis, acutis ; caulina inferiora 
palmata ; superiora indivisa, acuta. Petioli nliformibus, 
teretibus, rigidis, leviter villis ciliati. Calyx obconicus, 
ut et pedicelli pube glutinosa tectus : laciniae triangulari- 
ovatae, acutae. Petah non vidi. 

72. S. pedatijida, foliis radicalibus reniformibus pedatifidis vis- 

cidis subvillosis : segmentis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, pa- 

nicula fastigiata, laciniis calycinis lineari-lanceolatis mu- 

cronatis, petalis anguste spathulatis. 
S. pedatifida. Ehrh. Exsicc. n. 15. Smith in Act. Soc. 

Linn. x. p. 340. Engl. Pot. t. 1278. (optima.) Com- 

paid. Fl. Brit. p. 67. 
S. quinquefida, var. Lam. FL Fr. iii. p. 533? 
(o. tadahifera, glabra ; foliis profundius sectis cauleque glu- 

S. ladanifera. Lapeyr. Saxif. Pyren. p. 65. t. 42. Lam. 

Encycl. vi. p. 691. Lam. et Dec and. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 373. 

Per soon Syn. i. p. 490. 
Habitat a in Helvetia? alpibus (Ehrhart), in Pyrenaeis (Tour- 

nefort), in rupibus Scotiae montium (G. Don et J. Mac- 

kay) ; (3 in Pyrenaeis, La Peyr. if.. (v.v.c.ets.sp.«et/3.) 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of tlit Genus Saxifragd* 415 

llerba in caespitibus densis, conieis, vegetans, \ illis molli- 
bus pra?sertim folia et petioli, instructa ; et tota succo 
glntinoso tecta, in /3 (quae nuda est) dcnsiore et ladano 
simili nitido, et c quo venit gratus et subtilis odor, spi- 
rare quern memorat Clariss. Iia Peyrouse, et ipse obser- 
vavi. Surcuti erecti, sublignosi, 3 — 4-pollicares; basi ru- 
dimentis foliorum emarcidorum teeti. Caukt erccti. pal- 
mares, glabriusculi, rubri, nitidi. Petioli Umgi, eom- 
pressi, villosi (in /3 nudi), basi dilatati et caulem am- 
plexantes. Folia radicalia numerosa ; adultiora patentia ; 
junior a erecta ; omnia prof unde tripartita: se«>mentis la- 
teral] bus 2 — 3-fidis, intermedio cuneato-trifido ve\ inte- 
gerrimo: lobis lineari-lanceolatis acutis arista tisque ; can- 
Una breve petiolata, profunda tripartita : segmentis line- 
aribus integerrimis ; suprcmis et rameis simplicibus, line- 
ari-lanceolatis, acutis. Panieuhe eonferhr, fastigiatae, 
multirlonc. Pedicelli calycesqne pube brevissima gluti- 
nosa teeti. Fiores campanulati, candidi, S. geranioide 
multo minores : limbo patente. Calycis lacihuz lineari- 
lanceolatse, mucronata? : muerone aristato, inrlexo. Pe- 
tala angnste spathulata, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus. 
Stamina pistillis subaequalia : jilamcnta pallide luteo-vi- 
rescentia ; antHera aureae. 

Ons. Species ab omnibus satis distincta. Plures Botanici 
cum S\ geranioide, cui in pluribus sed pra?sertim liabitu 
convenit, confusi sunt ; taraen characteribus indicatis ab 
e& etiam abunde discrepat. Var. /3 par urn in habitu iv- 
cedit, et fere villorum absentia nee non succo ladano si- 
mili densius tecto ; sed ut species diversa oequaquam 
ha ben da sit. 

3 ii 2 

?5. S. 


416' Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage, 

73. S. ceratophylla, surculis lignosis, foliis bi- tri-partitis petiolis- 
que rigidis glabris : segmentis subulatis corneo-mucrona- 
tis, caule glutinoso, calycibus fucatis glabris : laciniis 
ovatis apice recurvis mucronatis, petalis oblongis. 

S. ceratophylla. Dryander in Hort. Kew, iii. p. 70. 

8. trifurcata. Schrad. Hort. Gott.fasc. i. p. 13. t.l. Sternb. 
Saxif. p. 49- 

S. petraea. Herb. Pavon. 

Habitat in Hispania. Pavon. % . (v. v. c. et s. spont. a 
Clar. Pavon comm. in Herb. Lamb.) 

Planta dense caespitosa, tota glaberrima. Surculi numerosi, 
breves, lignosi, stricti, rigidissimi, fragiles. Caules nume- 
rosi, erecti, palmares, ramosi, rigidi, fragiles, basi ru- 
bescentes, succo visciclo undique fucati. Petioli longis- 
simi, filiformes, rigidi, fragiles, nudi, supra canaliculati. 
Folia profundi bi- tri-partita, carnosa, glaberrima : seg- 
mentis subulatis, divaricatis, supra canaliculars, apice 
mucrone corneo, recurvo instructis ; caulina petiolata, tri- 
partita : segmentis simplicibus. Flores numerosi, candi- 
dissimi, in paniculam ramosam laxam dispositi. Calyces 
urceolati pedicellique succo viscoso undique obsiti et niti- 
dissime fucati : laciniae ovatae, erectae, conniventes, extus 
convexae, margine membranaceae, apice mucrone corneo 
recurvato instructae. Petala oblonga, obtusa, integerrima, 
demum flaccida, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus strictis. 

74. S. obhisifida, surculis lignosis, foliis tripartitis petiolisque 
angustissimis rigidis glabris : segmentis linearibus obtu- 
sissimis, calycibus pubescentibus : laciniis ovatis obtusis, 
petalis obovatis. 
Habitat in Hispania. Pavon. 11 . (v. s. in Herb. Pavon. nunc 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif raga. 417 

Plant a densissime caspitosa, glaberrima, intense viridis. 
Surculi erecti, 1- ant lj-pollicares, lignosi, rigidi, foliosi. 
Caules erecti, 4-unciales, oligophylli, glabri, 4 — j-tiori. 
Petioli angustissimi, simplices, glabri, subtus carinati. 
rigidissimi. Folia profunde tripartita : segmenta linearia. 
obtusissima, glabra, nitida ; lateralibus porrectis, distanti- 
bus, saepius bifidis. Pedicclli unitiori, pubescentes. Flores 
campanulati, albi. Calyx pubescens : laciniis ovatis, ob- 
tusis. Petala integerrima, obovata, triplinervia : ncrvis 
apice bi- vel tri-furcatis. Stamina stylos eequantia ; Jila- 
menta lutescentia ; antherce rlavae. 

Obs. Species distinctissima, praccedentis habitu. 

75. «S. ajugifolia, surculis procumbentibus, foliis 5-partitis ; seg- 
mentis lanceolatis mucronatis, caule ramoso, laciniis caly- 
cinis ovatis mucronatis, petalis planis obovatis. 

S. ajugifolia. Linn. Amain. Acad. iv. p. 271. Sp. PL 578. 
Gerard. Fl. Galloprov. p. 224. Willd. Sp. PI. ii. p. 653. 
Lapeyr. Fl. Pyren. Saxif. p. 56. t.31. (mala.) Lam. En- 
cycL vi. p. 692. Lam. et. Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. .371. 
Persoon Synop. i. p. 489- Ilort. Kezc. iii. p. 70. Sternb. 
Saxif. p. 46. Wahlenb. Carpath. 122. 

Habitat in Galloprovinciae montibus, et etiam in Pyrenoeis. 
1/ . (v. v. c.) 

Herba virens, villis mollibus, raris, viscidis ad petiolos den- 
sioribus instructa, ante anthesin dense ctespitosa, post- 
modo laxa, surculosa. Surculi elongati, laxe procum- 
bentes, rubescentes. Caules adscendentes, 4— ti-unciales, 
ramosi, rlexuosi, multirlori, villis viscidis leviter adspersi, 
basi rubescentes. Folia radicalia et surculina longe pe- 
tiolata, profunde 5-partita : segmentis lanceolatis, recur- 
vate mucronatis, divaricatis, utrinque glabris, margine 

ciliatis ; 

418 Mr. I). Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

ciliatis ; caulina omnia indivisa, lanceolata, acuminata. 
Flores magni, Campanulati, albi. Calyces peclicellique 
pilis glanduliferis obsiti : lacinia; ovata?, trinerves, mucro- 
natae, mucrone recurvo. Petala obovata, triplinervia : 
nervis simplicibus, rectiusculis. 

76. S. affirm, surculis procumbentibus, foliis 5-partitis : segmen- 
tis linearibus mucronatis, laciniis calyeinis linearibus aris- 
tatis, petalis oblongis : marginibus intlexis. 
Habitat 7/ . (v. v. c.) 

llerba jucunde virens, vilHs mollibus et viscidis adspersa, 
ante anthesin dense caespitosa, postea laxa, surculosa. 
Surculi procumbentes, elongati, rubescentes, villis vis- 
cidis parce ins true ti. Caules adscendentes, tripollicares, 
laeves, nitidi, pauciflori. Folia radicalia 5-partita, sur- 
culina plerumque tripartita : segmenta linearia, mucro- 
nata : mucrone recurvo aristato ; caulina omnia indivisa, 
linearia, mucronata. Pedicclli elongati, uniflori, calyces- 
que pube viscida obsiti. Flores albi praccedente minores. 
Catych lacinia: lineares, trinerves, aristata\ Petala ob- 
longa, triplinervia, margine intlexa : nervis rectiusculis, 

I first noticed this species in the Royal Botanic Garden at 
Edinburgh, where the zeal and industry of my esteemed friend 
Mr. Macnab has brought together so many rarities. There I 
observed it for several years successively ; and having since seen 
it in several collections about London, I am convinced of its 
being sufficiently distinct from its nearest ally S. ojugifolia, with 
which it is not unfrequently confounded. Both it and ajugifolia 
being cultivated together in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, on 
comparing them 1 found the following, and which subsequent 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Samfraga. 419 

observations have led me to consider permanent, marks. S, ajji- 
nis is a much smaller and slenderer plant, and of a more lively 
green colour. Segments of the leaves narrow, linear. Stems 
much slenderer and shorter, few-flowered. Lacinia of the calvx 
linear, terminated with a long point. Petals oblong, with their 
margins inflected. This curious conformation of the petals is of 
itself an important differential mark ; for in this respect it stands 
isolated among the numerous species which surround it, as Rom 
involute does among; those of its tribe. 

77. S. pentadactyla, surculis erectis brevibus, foliis longr-potio- 
latis glabris quinquepartitis: segmentis linearibus obtusia 
subtus costatis, laciniis ealycinis lanceolatis acutis. Deta- 
ils obovatis : nervis ramosis. 

S. pentadactylis. Lapeyr. Fl. Pyren. Saxif. p.64. /.40. Lam. 
Encycl. vi. p. 696. Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. p. .374. 
Per soon Synop. i. p. 489- 

Hdbiiat in Pyremeis. LaPeyrottsc. 11. (v. s. in Herb. Banks.) 

Herba glabra, hete-virens, densk ca?spitosa. Surculi erecti, 
breves, parum lignosi, rigidi. Caules erecti, 3 — .5-un- 
ciales, ramosi, teretes, glabri, flexuosi. Petioli longis- 
simi, compressi, lineares, glabri, subtus costati, rigidi- 
usculi. Folia radicalia brevissimk petiolata, patentia, sur- 
culina longe-petiolata, erecta, omnia profunde 5-partita : 
segmenta linearia, obtusa, patentia, subtus costata. Florcs 
candidi, in paniculam laxam dispositi. Pedicelli elongati 
catycesque glabri. Lad nice calydna lanceolate, acuta?, 
trinerves. Petala obovata, triplinervia : nervis flexuosis 
ramosis. Filament a gracilia, stylis elongatis brevioni. 

This species is very nearly related, on the one hand, to my 

S.obtusifida, and on the other to S.evarata; but having only seen 


420 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

imperfect specimens of it, I am unable to decide positively to 
which of the two it is nearest allied. It appears to be nearer akin 
to S. obtusifida ; still, however, I think they are specifically dif- 
ferent. At the suggestion of Sir James Edward Smith, I have 
taken the liberty of changing the termination of the specific 
name, as being less consonant to established rules. 

78. S. latifida, surculis erectis brevibus, foliis radicalibus surcu- 
linisque late-cuneatis glaberrimis 3 — 5-lobis : lobis late- 
ovatis acutis, calycibus glabris : laciniis ovato-lanceolatis 
mucronulatis, petalis spathulatis : nervis simplicibus. 

S. adscendens. Herb. Pavon. 

Habitat in Hispanic. Pavon. y.. (v. s. in Herb. Lamb.) 

Planta glaberrima, laete-virens, caespitosa. Surculi erecti, 
2-pollicares, rigidiusculi. Caules erecti, palmares, ra- 
mosi, glabri, polyphylli, multiflori. Folia radicalia et sur- 
culina late-cuneata, glaberrima, 3 — 5-loba : lobis late- 
ovatis, mucronulatis, planis ; caulina inferiora conformia 
sed prof undius lobata : lobis lanceolatis ; superiora indi- 
visa. Pedunculi elongati, subbiflori, glabri. Calyces gla- 
bri : laciniae ovato-lanceolatae, mucronulatae. Petala spa- 
thulata, Candida, tripliner via : nervis simplicibus. Sta- 
mina pistillis breviora; filament a lutescentia; antherce 

79- S. decipiens, villosissima ; foliis 5-fidis trifidisve : segmentis 
ovato-oblongis obtusis muticis, laciniis calycinis triangu- 
lari-ovatis obtusis muticis, petalis orbiculatis. 
S. decipiens. Ehrhart. Beytr. v. p. 47. Persoon Synop. i. 

p. 490. Sternb. Saxif. p. 55. t. 23. 
S. ceespitosa. FL Dan. t. 71. 

S. petraea. 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Siuifraga. 421 

S. petnra. Roth Tent. i. p. Ift4. With. Brit. 890. 

S. palmata. Smith Brit. ii. /;. 456. Eng. Bot. t. 455. 

S. villosa. Willd. Enum. 4(>2. 

Habitat in apricis saxosis Germanise (Ehrhart, Schreber, 
Panzer), in rupibus Cambro-Britanni.e (Griffith), Bohe- 
mia? (Sternberg), it . (v. v. c.) 

llerba villosissima, canescens, ante anthesin dense ea*spi- 
tosa, postmodo laxa, surculosa. Surculi elongati, pro- 
cumbentes. Caules erecti, foliosi, multirluri, 4 — 6-unci- 
ales. Folia radiealia 5-fida v el tri/ida : segmenta late 
oblongo-ovata, obtusa, mutiea ; eaulina ima s-.rpiiVs par- 
tita ; superiora indivisa, lanceolata. F/ores magni, pa- 
tentee lactei. Calyces pedunculique pube canii viscidii 
dense tecti : lacinia? triangulari-ovata\ obtusa\ mutiea?, 
obsolete, trinervosa*. Petala plana, orbiculata, integer- 
rima, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus, rectiusculis. 

80. S. hirta, villosissima ; foliis radicalibus 5-fidis ; surculinis 
trifidis : segraentis ovato-lanceolatis acutis, laciniis caly- 
cinis triangulari-ovatis acutis, petalis obovatis. 

S. hirta. Donn Cant. ed. 5. 107. Engl. Bot. t. 2291. Smith 
Compend. Fl. Brit. p. 66. 

Habitat in rupibus Hibernue (J. T. Mackay) y Scotia? occi- 
dental (G. Don). %. (v. v. c. et s. spont) 

Herba villosissima, canescens, ante anthesin densissime 
caespitosa, posted laxa, surculosa. Surculi decumbentes, 
flexuosi. Caules erecti, 3 — 5-pollicares, polyphylli, pau- 
ciflori, villis viscidis dense instructi, basi rubescentes. 
Folia radiealia 5-fida ; surculina trifida petiolis dilatatis 
subaequalia : segmenta ovato-lanceolata, acuta ; eaulina 
inferiora profunde tripartita : segmentis linearibus, mu- 
vol. xiii. 3 i cronatis; 

422 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

cronatis ; superiora indivisa. Flores albi, praecedente mi- 
nores. Calyces pedicellique pilis glanduliferis confertis- 
sime tecti : laciniae late triangulari-ovatae, mucronate 
acutae. Petala obovata, Integra, triplinervia : nervis sim- 
plicibus, strictis. Stamina stylos subaequantia ; Jilamenta 
flavida ; antherce luteal. 

Sir J. E. Smith has justly remarked in English Botany, that 
this species approaches very near to S. decipiens (palmata, Sm.) ; 
still, however, I think with him that it is specifically distinct. It 
differs from decipiens in its less robust habit, acute segments of 
its leaves, and acute laciniae of its calyx, its smaller flowers, and 
obovate petals. My friend Mr. J. T. Mackay first discovered 
this species on the Irish mountains. It has also been observed by 
the late Mr. G. Don of Forfar, on rocks in the Western High- 
lands. The Scottish specimens in Mr. Don's Herbarium agree 
exactly with Irish ones from Mr. Mackay, and with the admi- 
rable figure in English Botany. 

81. S. platipetala, villosa ; surculis elongatis, foliis 5 — S-partitis : 

segmentis linearibus acutis aristatisque, laciniis calycinis 

ovatis mucronatis, petalis orbiculatis. 
S. platipetala. Smith in Act. Soc. Linn. x. p. 391. Engl. 

Bot. t. 2276. (optima.) Compend. Fl. Brit. 66. 
Habitat in Scotiae alpibus, G. Don ; in alpibus Cambro-Bri- 

tannicis, Dawson Turner. % • (v. v. spont.) 

Berba villosa, ante anthesin densissime caespitosa, postea 
laxe diffusa, surculosa. Surculi numerosi, longissimi, pro- 
strati. Caules erecti, 5 — 6-unciales, foliosi, multiflori. 
Folia radicalia profunde partita ; surculina tri- rarius 
quinque-partita, petiolis anguste linearibus duplo vel 
triplo breviora : segmenta linearia, acuta, seta longa tenui 

terminata ; 

Mr. D. Don > Monograph of the Genus Suiif'rnga. 483 

terminate; cauUna inferior;) profundi 5-partita; supe- 
riora indivisa, lanceolata, acuminata. Florcs patentes, 
lactei, majusculi. Calyces pedunculique pube glandulosa 
dense suppediti : laciniae triangulari-ovata\ mucronate 
(mucrone recto), conspicue trinerves. Petala orbiculata, 
plana, integra, extus pra^sertim in vvstivatione, ad apicem 
rosea, basi parum angustiora, triplinervia : nervis late- 
ralibus incurvis, ramulosis ; medio recto, simplici. Sta- 
mina axjualia, stylis vix longiora ; jilamcnta pallida; an- 
therce luteae. 

82. S. incurvifolia, glabriuscula ; foliis radicalibus 5-fidis ; sur- 
culinis trifidis : segmentis lanceolatis obtusis incurvis, 
laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, petalis subrotundis emar- 

S. incurva. Mackay in Uteris. 

Habitat in Hibernian rupibus alpinis. J. T. Mackay. % . 
(v. v. c.) 

Planta virens, densissime caespitosa, ante anthesin glaber- 
rima, postmodum villis longis viscidis adspersa. Surculi 
breves, erecti. Caales stricti, tripollicares, foliosi, 2 — 3- 
flori. Folia radicalia aggregata, 5-fida, palmata ; sur- 
culina trifida petiolis late dilatatis vix breviora : segmenta 
lanceolata, obtusa, incur vata ; caulina inferiora palmati- 
fida; superiora indivisa. Flores albi. Calyces pedicel- 
lique pilis glanduliferis suppediti : laciniae late ovatae, 
acutae, muticae. Petala subrotunda, emarginata, tripli- 
nervia : nervis simplicibus. 

The present species has, I believe, been found no where else 
except in Ireland. Having cultivated it for many years, I do 

3 i 2 not 

424 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

not hesitate to give it with confidence as a distinct species. Its 
short upright shoots ; its inflected leaves, and emarginate petals ; 
its stems never bearing above two or three flowers ; and lastly, 
its being nearly smooth, will always prevent its being confounded 
with the three preceding species. In some respects, but espe- 
cially in habit, it approaches near to S. ccespitosa, Linn. It dif- 
fers however from it by its emarginate petals ; by the longer and 
inflected segments of its leaves ; and likewise by the whole plant 
being almost smooth, and nearly double the size. 

83. S. denudata, glaberrima ; foliis radicalibus 5-fidis ; surculi- 
nis tripartitis : segmentis lineari-subulatis acutis, laciniis 
calycinis lanceolatis mucronulatis, petalis obovatis emar- 
Habitat in montibus Grampianis in Angusia Scoriae. G. Don. 
y . (v. v. spont.) 

Herba glaberrima, laete viridis, in caespitibus densis parvis 
vegetans. Surculi brevissimi, conferti, erecti, crebre fo- 
liosi. Caules erecti, sesquipollicares, oligophylli, sub- 
biflori, purpurascentes, pilis glandulosis leviter instructi. 
Folia radicalia 5-fida ; surculina tripartita : segmenta li- 
neari-subulata, acuta, arista terminata, carnosa, glabra, 
nitida ; caulina ima tripartita, caeteris indivisis. Flores 
campanulati, candidi. Calyces pilis glanduliferis parce 
suppediti : laciniae lanceolatae, mucronulatae mucronulo 
reflexo. Petala obovata, emarginata, trinervia : nervis 
simplicibus strictis. Filamenta luteo-virescentia. Antherce 

The late Mr. G. Don discovered this species many years ago on 
rocks on the summits of the mountains of Angus, near the con- 
fines of Aberdeenshire, where it grows in little dense tufts, flower- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saiifraga. 425 

ing in June. The stem has never more than one or two flowers. 
The leaves are quite smooth and shining, except the petioles, 
which are slightly fringed with soft villous hairs. The narrower 
segments of its leaves, which are acute, straight and awned, and 
the lanceolate laciniae of its calyx, as well as its obovate pe- 
tals, at once distinguish it from S. incuroifoUa. It cannot he 
confounded with S. aespitosa, as will be seen on a comparison 
of their characters. The late Mr. Don cultivated it under the 
name of S. lavis ; but it is very distinct from the Icevis known 
in the gardens, which is the S.condensata of Gmelin's Fl. Ba- 

84. S. Sternbergii, glabra ; foliis radicalibus palmatifidis ; sur- 
culinis trifidis indivisisve : lobis ovatis acutis muticis, 
laciniis calycinis ovatis mucronatis, petalis obovatis: ner- 
vis ramosissimis. 

S. Sternbergii. JVilld. Ennm. p.462. Sternb. Saxif. p. 56. 
t. 24. (mala.) 

S. palmata. Pa?iz. in Sturm. Deutsch. Fl. 26. Heft. t. 10. 
/. 2. (ex Sternb. I. c.) 

Habitat in Agro Norimbergensi Germanise. Panzer, if. 
(v. v. c.) 

Herba laete virens, glaberrima, dense csespitosa. Surctdi 
brevissimi, conferti. Caules erecti, 3 — 4-unciales, gla- 
bri, 2 — 3- rarius 4-flori. Folia radicalia 5-fida, palmata ; 
surculina trifida aut indivisa : lobis ovatis acutis muticis ; 
caulina omnia indivisa, cuneata, acuta, glabra, nitida, 
conspicuk nervosa. Flores magni, albi. Calyces pedi- 
eellique pilis glanduliferis brevissimis adspersi : laciniae 
ovatae mucronatse trinerves : mucrone recurvo. Petala 
obovata, triplinervia : nervis flexuosis, ramosissimis 


426' Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sax if r ago. 

Obs. Figura Sternbergii, quae dubia ob habitum diversum 
et caulem ramosum hirsutum, ad S. decipientem potius 
spectare videtur. 

85. S. pulchella, glabra ; foliis radicalibus 5-fidis ; surculinis tri- 

fidis : segmentis linearibus obtusis, laciniis calycinis late- 
ovatis obtusis, petalis orbiculatis : nervis ramulosis. 
Habitat in Germanic ? li . (v. v. c.) 

Herba glabra, saturate virens, densissime caespitosa, ad an- 
thesin pilis brevibus glanduliferis adspersa, surculosa. 
Surcnli breves, erecti. Caules erecti, %\ — 3-pollicares, 
2 — 3-rlori, nitidi, pilis glanduliferis parce suppediti. Folia 
radicalia 5-fida, palmata ; surculina trifida : segmenta 
linearia, obtusa, carnosa, marginata, apice mucronulo 
tenui instructa ; caulina inferiora digitato- 5-partita ; su- 
periora tripartita, Flores lactei, magnitudine fere prae- 
cedentis. Calyces pedicellique pube glandulosa instructi : 
laciniae late-ovatae, obtusa?. Fetala suborbiculata, tri- 
plinervia : nervis ramosiusculis. Stamina brevia ; Jila^ 
menta virescentia ; anthera luteae. 

My friend Mr. Anderson, of the Chelsea Botanic Garden, 
received this species from Germany under the name of S. Stern- 
bergii. It is, however, in several respects very distinct from that 
species. I do not remember to have seen it any where else but 
with him, nor have I met with specimens of it either in the Her- 
bariums of London or Paris. 

86. S. tridentata, glabra ; foliis radicalibus 5-fidis ; surculinis 

longe petiolatis acute tridentatis, laciniis calycinis trian- 
gulari-ovatis mucronatis, petalis spathulatis. 

Habitat % . (v. v. c) 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Sa.iifniga. 4 ( J/ 

Herba densissime ca^spitosa.antc anthesin glaberrima, postea 
surculosa, villis viscidis leviter sparsa. Snrculi brevis- 
simi, erecti, conferti, crebiv foliosi. Cauki erecti, tri- 
unciales, graciles, oligophylli, paucirlori, purpuraseentes, 
nitidi, pilis glanduliferis parce tecti. Folia radiealia pa- 
tentia, 5-fida ; surculina erecta, longe petiolata (petiolis 
gracilibus villis ciliatis), spathulata, plcrumque triden- 
tata : dentibus brevibus ovatis mucronulatis ; latcralibus 
minoribus. Pedicclli breves, unirlori, calycesque pube 
brevi viscida tecti. Flores nivei. Calycis lacinicr trian- 
gulari-ovahe, mucronata^. Pctala spathulata, tripliner- 
via : nervis simplicibus, strictis. Stamina inaujualia ; 
filamenta viridia : aniherce. aurea\ 

I met with this plant in Mr. Knight's exotic nursery, King's 
Road, Chelsea. It is specifically distinct from all the species with 
which I am acquainted. Its native country, however, I have not 
been able to ascertain. 

87- S. andicola, villosissima ; foliis radicalibus trifidis : segmen- 
ts lanceolatis acutis ; surculinis superioribus linearibus 
simplicibus acutis, laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, petalis 
obovato-orbiculatis : nervis ramosis. 

S. villosa. Pavon Mss. 

Habitat in frigidissimis Peruvian. Pavon. ~y . (v. s. in Herb. 
Pavon. in Mus. Lamb.) 

Herba villosissima, densissime caespitosa. Surculi breves, 
decumbentes. Caules erecti, sesqui- vel bi-pollicares, 
foliosi, 3 — 4-rlori, villis viscidis confertissime obsiti. Folia 
radiealia patentia, trifida, breve-petiolata (petiolis diJa- 
tatis subtus nervosis) ; surculina inferiora trifida : seg- 
ments lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, subtus conspicue tri- 


4£8 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

nervibus, superiora indivisa, lineari-lanceolata, acuta, 
subtus trinervia ; caulina ima tripartita, superioribus in- 
divisis. Flores lactei, subcorymbosi. Calyx dense glan- 
duloso-pilosus : laciniae ovatae, mucronulatae. Petala ob- 
ovato-orbiculata, triplinervia : nervis lateralibus, conni- 
ventibus, ramosis ; medio recto, subsimplici. Filament a 
brevia, lutescentia. Antherce. flavae. 

Nothing is probably more interesting to botanists than species 
of those genera, which are chiefly confined to the colder zones, 
from tropical climates. Among the rich and highly interesting 
harvest of plants discovered by the celebrated authors of the 
Flora Peruviana, Ruiz and Pavon, are several species of Saxi- 
fraga ; of each of which there are excellent specimens in the 
Herbarium of Don Jose Pavon, now in the possession of A. B. 
Lambert, Esq. The present is totally distinct from every other 
species. I would have most willingly retained the name given 
to it by its discoverer ; but as that name has been already applied 
to a very different plant, namely, S. decipiens, to prevent any 
ambiguity or confusion I have judged it best to change it. 

88. S. caspitosa, foliis radicalibus aggregatis 5 — 3-fidis indivi- 
sisve : segmentis lineari-ianceolatis obtusis, caule oligo- 
phyllo paucifloro, laciniis calycinis ovatis obtusis, petalis 
conniventibus obo vato-rotundatis . 

S. caespitosa. Linn. Sp. PL 578. Fl. Suec. ii. n. 376. Fl. 
Lapp. edit, alter. 142. Gunn. Norv. n. 1047. t. 7. /. 3. 
an etiamf. 4? Smith Brit. ii. p. 455. Engl. Bot. t. 794. 
Prod. Fl. Graze, i. p. 277- Wahlenb. Lapp. 119. 

S. groenlandica. Sp. PI. 578. Gunner. Norv. 689. t* 7- 
f. 1. (optima.) Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 39. t. 19. Per- 
soon Synop. i. p. 490. Sternb. Saxif. p. .53. 

S. foliis 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage. 429 

S. foliis petiolatis trifidis, caule subfolioso viscido. Hall. 

Helv. n. 989. 
S. tridactylites grcenlandica, cauliculis raldfe Poliosis . Dill. 

Eltham. p. 337. t. 353. /. 329. 
S. tridactylites alpina minor et villosa. Tourn. Inst. 2.Y2. 
Sedum tridactylites, alpinum minus. Bow//. Pin, 284. Prod. 

Habitat in Lapponiae, Sueciae, Helvetian, Norvegise et Py- 

rena:orum alpibus ; etiam in Grcenlandia et rupibus alpi- 

nis Cambro-Britannise. v . (v. v. c. et s. spoilt.) 

Planta densissime caespitosa, pilis glanduliferis brevibus 
confertissime suppedita. Surculi brevissimi, creberrimfc 
foliosi, basi foliis emarcidis dense imbricati. Caules 
erecti, 1 — 2-unciales aut rariiis ultra, teretes, oligcfphylli, 
1 — 3-flori, in cultft saepius 4-flori. Folia radicatia aggre- 
gata, imbricata, sa^pius 5-fida, nunc 3-fida aut indivisa : 
segmenta lineari-lanceolata, obtusa, carnosa, obscure ner- 
vosa ; caulina ima palmata, summis plerumque tripartitis : 
segmentis linearibus. Pedicelli breves, uniflori, calyces- 
que pube brevissima viscida tecti. Flores majusculi, lactei. 
Lacinice calycina ovatae, obtusae, carnosae, obsolete tri- 
nerves. Vetala obovato-rotundata, conniventia, calyce 
duplo longiora, triplinervia : nervis simplicibus ; medio 
recto; lateralibus curvatis. Filamenta lutea. Ant her a 

Much confusion has existed, and still exists, even in our latest 
works on Saiifragce, regarding this species, which appears to 
have arisen chiefly from the improper synonyms Linnaeus added 
to his plant. No doubt, had Linnaeus seen the plant those authors 
which he quoted intended by their imperfect figures and descrip- 
tions, he would have been at once convinced of its being widely 

vol. xiii. 3 k different 

430 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

different from the Swedish and Lapland plant. Indeed no two 
species can be more dissimilar than it and the S. muscoides of 
AVulfen, which La Peyrouse and Sternberg in their excellent 
works still insist on as being the real ccespitosa of Linnaeus. 

S. ccespitosa varies much in size, and in the number of flowers 
on each stalk, as well as of its cauline leaves. There are spe- 
cimens from the Linnaean Herbarium, collected by the late 
Dr. Solander on the Lapland alps, and preserved in the Bank- 
sian Herbarium, which accord exactly with Gunner's figure 3. 
They are taller and stronger than the general state of S. ccespi- 
tosa; but in no essential points do they differ. Gunner's figure 4, 
notwithstanding the greater number of flowers, ought also to be 
referred to this plant ; it certainly does not represent S. decipiens. 
I am inclined to think Willdenow's ccespitosa belongs more pro- 
bably to S. exarata than to this. 

89. S. stcllata, foliis creberrimis appresse imbricatis 5-fidis tri- 
fidisve : segmentis lineari-oblongis obtusis, caule bifloro, 
laciniis calycinis ovatis acutis, petalis obovatis. 

S. stellata. Pavon Mss. 

Habitat in frigidissimis Andium Peruvian Pavon. 1/ . (v. s. 
in Herb. Pavon. nunc in Mus. Lamb.) 

Herba dense caespitosa, Fragosce corymbosce (Fl. Per.) habitu 

admodum similis, pube glandulosa tecta. Surcidi erecti, 

conferti, foliis undique crebre imbricati. C aides erecti, 

vix unciales, graciles, biflori. Folia creberrima, appresse 

imbricata, omnia 5-fida vel trifida : segmenta lineari-ob- 

longa, obtusa, carnosa, subtus uninervia ; caulina sim- 

plicia, linearia, obtusa. Petioli breves, latissime dilatati. 

Flores lactei, majusculi. Calyces pube glandulos& brevi 

dense tecti: laciniae ovatae, acuta?. Petala obovata, tri- 

plinervia : nervis simplicibus strictis. 


Mr. 1). Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifrage 431 

Ons. A S. ccespitosd longe discrepal : habitu, foliis creber- 
rimis appresse imbricatis, petiolis latissime dilatatis, la- 
ciniis calycinia acutis et petalia obovatis. 

91. S. Bonplandii, pubescens ; foliis congestis 5-fidis tii/i<:ir-.\ <- : 
segmentis linearibus obtusis, laciniis calycinis taqceolatis 

acutis, petalis obovatis. 
S. peruviana. Bo upland in Sternb. Saxif. p. 55, /. 2'2. 
S. alpina. Pavon Mss. 
Habitat in Andium Peruvianorum suinmis Cordilleras dictis. 

Pavon, Bonpland. 2/ . (v.s. in Herb. Pavon. nunc in Mus. 

Herba densissime crespitosa, pilis brevissimis glanduiiferis 
confertissimr obtecta. Snrculi l>iv\ i»s, adsrcmlcntcs, rre- 
bre foliosi. Caides numerosissimi, unciales, erecti, oli- 
gophylli, glanduloso-tomentosi. Folia radicalia e1 sur- 
culina congesta, imbricata, quinque- vel tri-partita : seg- 
menta linearia, obtusa, carnosa, enervia ; caulina infe- 
riora tripartita : summis simplicibus lineari-lanceolatis. 
Pctioli brevissimi, lineares. Flores albi, terminales, terni, 
capitati, subsessiles, rarius solitarii. Calyces obconici, 
tomento glanduloso dense tecti : laciniie lanceolatae, acu- 
ta?, rectae. Petala obovata, triplinervia : limbo orbicu- 
lato, patente : nervis simplicibus; lateralibus inemvis. 
Stamina stylis longiora ; Jilamenta alba ; antherce flavte. 
This is the only species of Saxifraga discovered by the illus- 
trious travellers Humboldt and Bonpland in South America. 
While in Paris, my esteemed friend M. Kunth, the celebrated 
editor of the Nova Genera et Species Plantarum, had the kind- 
ness to permit me to examine the specimens of this plant in the 
Humboldtian Herbarium. These specimens appeared more dif- 
fuse and stronger than those of S. alpina (Pavon) in the Lam- 

3 k 2 bertian 

4.32 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

bertian Herbarium ; but in every essential point they seemed to 

91. S. magellanica , caulibus crespitosis procumbentibus, foliis 

linearibus trifldisve confertissimis glabris, ramis floriferis 
nudis axillaribus brevissimis unifloris. Lam. Encycl. vi. 
p. 686. 

S. magellanica, foliis congestis viscoso-pubescentibus ; infe- 
rioribus trifidis ; superioribus simplicibus, floribus sub- 
binatis subsessilibus. F er soon Sy nop. i. p. 491. Stcrnb. 
Saxif. p. 39. *. 11. a. 

Habitat ad Fretum Magellanicum. Commerson. 

Plant a caespitosa. Caules breves, procumbentes, foliosi. 
Folia inferiora trifida ; superiora indivisa, linearia, ob- 
tusa, glabriuscula. Flores solitarii, brevissime peduncu- 
lati. Fednnculi nudi. Calyx glaber : laciniis linearibus, 
obtusis. Petala obovata, calyce duplo longiora. Lam. 
loc. cit. (ex Gall, vers.) 

I am sorry that while at Paris I neglected to examine the spe- 
cimens of this in Commerson's Herbarium ; I have therefore 
followed Lamarck, as being the first who described it, in prefe- 
rence to Persoon and Sternberg, whose descriptions, and also the 
figure of the latter, disagree with Lamarck's description in some 
important points. 

92. S. exarata, pubescens ; foliis radicalibus quinque- tri-parti- 

tisve ; surculinis tripartitis : segmentis linearibus obtusis- 
simis supra exaratis, caule multifloro, laciniis calycinis 
ovato-oblongis obtusis, petalis obovatis : nervis simpli- 
S. exarata. Villars. Delph. iv. p. 674. t. 45. Lam. et De- 
cand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 374. 

S, ner- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 433 

S. nervosa. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 63. t. 39- Lam. En- 
cycl. vi. /;. 690. Persoon Synop. i. p. 490. Marsch. a 
Bieberst. Fl. Taur. Cauc. i. p. 316. Sternb. Saxif. p. 52. 

S. hypnoides. A Won. Ped. 1538. t. 21. f. 4. (excl. synon.) 

/3. pubescens, foliis radicalibus surculinisque profundi hri- 
partitis : segmentis lateralibus bifidis, rloribus longe pe- 
dunculatis subcorymbosis. 

S. pubescens. Poir. Act. Tout. iii. p. 327. Lam. et Decand. 
Ft. Franc, iv. /;. 375. Sternb. Saxif. p. 53. 

S. mixta a. et /3. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 41. /. 21. Per- 
soon Synop. i. p. 490. 

S. ca:spitosa. Villars. Dclph. iv. p. 672. (excl. syn.) Wttlfen 
inJacq. Collect, i. ;?. 290 ? J/ 7//o\ .S>. PL ii. p, 65(i f 

y. intricata, foliis radicalibus confertis patentibus cuncatis 
5-fidis, pedunculis divaricatis. 

S. intricata. Lapeyr. Saxif. Pyren. p. 58. t. 33. Lr/»?. c£ 
Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 374. Persoon Synop. i. p. 490. 

Habitat a, in summis alpibus Pyrenaeorum (La Pey rouse), 
Delphinatus (Hilars), Sabaudiae et Pedemontis (Allioni), 
Caucasi (Marschall a Bieberstein) ; fi et y in Pyrenaeis 
(La Pey rouse) , /3 etiam in Terra Nova (Herb. Banks.) 
if . (v. v. c. a, et s. spont. /3 et 7.) 

Plant a ante anthesin densissime caespitosa, postea surculosa, 
pilis brevissimis glanduliferis dense pubescens. Surculi 
erecti, bi- vel tri-unciales, rigidiusculi. Caules erecti, 
3 — 4- rarius 5-pollicares, multiflori, pube brevi viscidis- 
sima conferte suppediti. Folia radicalia 5 — 3-partita, de- 
flexo-patentia, rosulata ; surculina erecta, tripartita, ra- 
rissime indivisa : segmenta linearia, obtusissima, supra 
nervis lineatis exarata ; caulina profunde tripartita : seg- 
mentis lateralibus srepe bifidis. Petioli lineares plani, 


434 Mr, D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

conspicue trinerves. Pedunculi filiformes, unitlori, folio 
profundi tripartito bracteam mentiente ad basin cujus- 
que instructi, laterales subaequales ; terminali breviore. 
Flores candidi. Calyces obconici, pube brevi densa in- 
structi : laciniae ovato-oblongre, obtusae, carnosa?, obso- 
lete trinerves. Petala obovata, calyce duplo longiora, 
triplinervia, apice retusa : nervis simplicibus, strictis. 
Stamina subsequalia ; Jilamenta lutea ; anthem aureae. 

I have reduced to this plant the Saxifraga intricata and mixta 
of La Peyrouse, and the pubescens of Poiret, as neither of them 
affords sufficient or permanent characters to establish them as 
distinct species. It varies much in size and in the number of 
the segments of its leaves ; and likewise in the number of flowers 
on a stalk ; but its prominent features are always the same. 

93. S. Pavonii, pubescens ; foliis tripartitis : segmentis lineari- 
bus acutis nervosis, petiolis linearibus dilatatis subtus 
costatis, laciniis calycinis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, peta- 
lis obovatis. 
Habitat in Andium Peruvianorum locis frigidissimis. Pavon. 
il . (v. s. in Herb. Pavon. nunc in Mus. Lamb.) 

Herba pubescens, in csespitibus densis, planis vegetans. 
Surculi brevissimi, basi foliis emarcidis crebre instructi. 
Caules erecti, 4 — 5-unciales, oligophylli, 3 — 5-flori, pilis 
brevissimis glanduliferis tecti. Folia omnia tripartita, 
subtus insigniter costata ; inferiora deflexo-patentia ; su- 
periora erecta : segmenta linearia, acuta ; lateralibus ra- 
rissime unidentatis ; caulina inferiora tripartita ; supe- 
riora simplicia, lineari-lanceolata, acuta. Petioli dilatati, 
lineares. Pedunculi elongati, uniflori calycesque pube 
brevissima glandulosa dense tecti. Flores lactei, ad sic- 


Mr. D. Doi\'s Monograph of the Genus Saiifraga. 435 

cationem lutescentes. Cali/cis lacinice lineari-lanccolnkr, 
acuta?. Petala obovata, triplinervia : nervis rectiusculis, 
Obs. Apraecedente distinctissima: segmentis foliorum acu- 
tis, laciniis calycinis lineari-lanceolatis acutis et aliis cha- 

94. S. pedemontana, pubescens ; foliis aggregatis cuneato-spathu- 
latis digitato-sectis exaratis : segmentis lineari-oblongis 
integris tridentatisve, floribus corymbosis, laciniis caly- 
cinis lineari-elongatis acutis, petalis oblongo-spathulatis. 

S. pedemontana. A Won. Ped. n. 1540. f. 21. f. 6. (optima.) 
Lam. et Decand. Ft. Franc, iv. p. 372. Persoon Si/nop. i. 
p. 490. 

S. cymosa. IVahht. el Kit. PL liar. Hung. p. 91. t. 88. 

S. heterophylla. Sternb. Saaif. p. 50. t. 20. /. 1. et 2. 

Habitat in alpibus Pedemontanis (Allioni, Bellardi, et Bal- 
bis), Marmaroszensibus (Waldstein et Kitaibel). if. . (v. s. 
in Herb. Ventenat. nunc in Mus. Lessertiano). 

Planta dense coespitosa. Radix fusca, foliorum emarcido- 
rum rudimentis densissime tecta. Surcidi brevissimi, 
densk foliosi. Caules erecti, teretes, 4 — 5-pollicares, 
multiflori, pube brevissima glutinosa undique tecti. Fo- 
lia aggregata, cuneato-spathulata, levitcr pubescentia, 
digitatim secta, supra exarata, subtus costata ; adultiora 
deflexo-patentia ; juniora erecta : segmentis lineari-ob- 
longis, acutis, integerrimis tridentatisve ; caulina infe- 
riora cuneata, digitato-secta ; suprema tripartita : seg- 
mentis linearibus acutis. Ftorcs magni, campanulati, 
candidi, corymbosi. Calyces profundi 5-partiti pedicel- 
lique pube brevi viscida dense tecti : lacinire lineares, 


436' Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxif raga. 

elongatne, acutae, recto. Petala oblongo-spathulata, tri- 
plinervia : nervis rectis, simplicibus. Genitalia petalis 
breviora ; Jilamenta capillaria, lutescentia ; anther cb au- 
reae. Styli erecti, staminibus breviores. 

I had an opportunity, while in Paris in August 1821, of ex- 
amining several very fine specimens of this truly distinct species 
in the Herbarium of the late M. Ventenat, now in the possession 
of Baron Benjamin De Lessert. I take this opportunity, there- 
fore, of acknowledging my thanks to M. De Lessert for his kind- 
ness in permitting me to examine his extensive and valuable 
collection. These specimens were collected on the Pedemontese 
alps by Drs. Bellardi and Balbis, who communicated them to 
M. Ventenat. The Count de Sternberg is of opinion, that the 
ccespitosa of Wulfen is the same as this species ; but I am rather 
inclined to think (judging from the description) that Wulfen's 
plant belongs to S. exarata. 

95. S. moschata, pubescens ; foliis radicalibus trifidis ; surculinis 

trifidis indivisisve nervosis : segmentis linearibus acutius- 

culis, caule filiformi subracemoso, petalis anguste-ovali- 

bus calycem vix superantibus. 
S. moschata. Wulfen in Jacq. Misc. ii. p. 128. t. 21. f. 2. 

(bona.) Murr. Syst. Veg. xiv. p. 414. Willd. Sp. Pi. ii. 

p. 656. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 61. t. 37. {media.) Lam. 

Encycl. vi. p. 695. Persoon Sytwp. i. p. 490. Sternb. 

Saxif. p. 41. t. 11./. 3. 
S. caespitosa. Scop. Cam. 494. t. 14. 
S. exarata. Allion. Ped. 1539. f 2. (mala.) 
S. muscoides. Sternb. Saxif. p. 39. 1. 11. f 2. (omiss. var. /S 

et 7, et exclus. synon. Smith Brit.) 

Sedulum quod moschatellina alpina lutea vocari potest. 

Gesn. fasc. xxv. t. 6. f. 31. 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 437 

Tridactylites alpina. Bauh. Hist. iii. p. 754. (Jig. bene.) 
Habitat in alpibus Carinthiacis, Carniolicis, Sabaudicis, 
Salisburgensibus, inque Pyrenaeis. ~u . (v. v. c.) 

Planta ante anthesin dense caespitosa, laeviuseula, postmo- 
dum surculosa, glandulis brevissimis dense pubescens. 
Surculi erecti, elongati, graciles. Caules erecti, filiformes, 
graciles,2 — 3-unciales, nudiusculi, 3 — 5-flori. Folia radi- 
calia trifida, patentia, longe-petiolata ; surculina plerum- 
que trifida rarius indivisa, erecta, etiam longe petiolata, 
omnia supra lineis exarata : segmenta linearia, acutius- 
cula. Pctioli anguste lineares, tenues, submembranacei, 
supra lineA, exarati. Flores racemosi, breve pedicellati, 
ad basin cujusque pedicelli folio tripartita bracteam men- 
tiente instructi. Calyces obconici, dense glandulosi pu- 
bescentes : laciniae lineares, obtusae. Petala anguste ova- 
lia, acutiuscula, lutea, triplinervia, calyce parum longi- 
ora : nervis simplicibus, strictis. Filamenta brevissima, 
virescentia. Antkeree lutea?. 

The Count de Sternberg's t. 11. /. 3. is a very good repre- 
sentation of this plant, and not inferior to Jacquin's ; but he has 
inadvertently confounded it with the two following, from which 
it is very distinct. His variety y I have no doubt belongs to 
S, pygmcea. 

96. S. muscoides 9 glaberrima ; foliis radicalibus integris trifi- 
disve ; surculinis omnibus linearibus indivisis obtusis 
enervibus, caule gracillimo subtrifloro, petalis linearibus 
calyce parum longioribus. 
S. muscoides. Wulfen in Jacq. Misc. ii. p. 12.5. W'illd. Sp. 
PI. ii. p. 656. (exclus. synon. Scop. Cam.) Lam. E?i- 
cycl. v[. p.697. Per soon Synop. i. p. 491. Lam.etDc- 

voi. xin. 3 l cand. 

438 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

cand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 376. Marsch. o) Bieberst. Fl. Tanr. 
Cauc. i. p. 316. Sternb. Saxif. p. 39- 

S. caespitosa. Huds. Angl.p. 181. (exclus. synon. Linn, et 
Fl. Dan.) Lapeyr. Fyren. Saxif. p. 59. t. 35. an item 
t. 34? Sternb. Saxif. t. 11. /. 1 (media.) 

S. moschata. With. Brit. ii. p. 406. 

S. pyrenaica. Vill. Delph. iii. ^- 671. 

S. pyrenaica, foliis partim integris partim trifidis. Tournef 
Inst. 253. Segu. Veron. iii. p. 205. et i. p. 451. £. 9- /. 4. 
(6en<*.j f/fl//. Opusc. 292. *. 1. 

S. foliis integris et trifidis, caule subnudo paucifloro. Hall. 
Heh. 988. 

Habitat in alpibus Carinthiacis (Wulfen), Helveticis (Haller), 
Tridentinis (Seguier), Delphinatis (Villars), Gilanensibus 
Persian (Herb. Pallas), Caucasicis (Marschall a Bieber- 
stein), Pyrenseorum (La Peyrouse), in montibus supra 
Ambleside in Westmorlandia (Hudson). % . (v. v. c.) 

Planta virens glaberrima, densissime caespitosa. Surculi 
erecti, longiusculi, graciles. Caules erecti, biunciales, nu- 
diusculi, filiformes, gracillimi, plerumque trirlori, leviter 
glandulosi. Folia radicalia, integra vel trifida : lobis bre- 
vibus obtusis ; surculina omnia linearia, indivisa, obtusa, 
enervia, marginata, utrinque glaberrima nitida, rarius ad 
margines glandulis brevissimis parcissime instructa. Pe- 
dicelli breves, graciles • laterales medio longiores calyces- 
que glandulis brevissimis suppediti. Lacinice calycince 
lanceolatae, obtusissimse, trinerves. Petala linearia, pal- 
lida lutescentia, obtusa, emarginata, trinervia, calyce pa- 
rum longiora : nervis parallelis, simplicibus. Genitalia 
brevissima ; filamenta pallida ; antherce fuscoe. 

The above species, notwithstanding its being probably the 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 439 

most distinct of the whole section, has given rise to much con- 
fusion. It has been regarded by most authors as the real caspi- 
tosa of Linnaeus, as I have already shown in speaking of that 
plant. I am glad in being able to lix it as a British species, and 
also to restore to it the synonyms of Hudson and Withering, 
which I have done without hesitation from specimens collected 
at Ambleside in Westmoreland, and which had been sent to my 
late father, and preserved in his Herbarium. 

97. S. pygmaa, glaberrima ; surculis hrevissimis rosulatis, foliis 
lanceolatis enervibus glabris apice pbscindente-obtusis, 

laciniis calycinis late ovatis, petalis ovalibus vix calyce 

S. pygmaea. Haworth Misc. Nat. p. 168. 
S. muscoides y hemisphacrica. Lapcyr. Pyren, Sasif. p. 60. 

^.36. (optima.) Persoon Synop. i. p. 491. 
S. moschata. Engl. Bot. t. 2214. (exclus. synon.) 
S. moschata, /3. Lapeyr. 1. c. p. 62. t. 38. 
S. moschata y. Sternb. Saxif. t. 11. (3. f. 2. 
Habitat in Pyrenaeis, La Peyrouse. 

Planta glaberrima, densissime caespitosa, patula, humi de- 
pressa. Surculi brevissimi, rosulati, crebre foliosi. Caules 
iiliformes, graciles, paucifolii, 3 — 4-flori, glandulis hre- 
vissimis suppediti. Folia lanceolata, patentia, rosulata, 
carnosa, enervia, marginata, glabra, nitida, apice obscin- 
dente-obtusa. Flores hujus sectionis omnium minimi ful- 
vo-lutescentes. Calyces pedicellique glandulosi : lacinia; 
breves, late-ovatae, obtusissimae, trinerves. Potato ova- 
lia, integra, vix calyce longiora, viridi-lutescentia, punctis 
nitidis supra adspersa, trinervia: nervis simplicibus, ffts- 
co-rubris. Filamenta brevissima, purpurea. Antherce 

minutae, fulvae. 

3 l 2 Obs. 

440 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Obs. Prcecedenti valde affinis, sed satis differt : humiliore 
et densiore, surculis vix ullis, foliis lanceolatis breviori- 
bus crassioribusque apice obscindente-obtusis, laciniis 
calycinis brevibus late-ovatis, petalis ovalibus integris : 
nervis fusco-rubris, filamentis purpureis, antheris fulvis. 

Mr. Haworth first distinguished this species in his Miscellanea 
Naturalia, and gave it the very apt name which it now bears. 
This plant is given in English Botany as a British species, and, on 
the authority of the late Mr. James Donn of Cambridge, is said 
to be a native of Scotland : but some other plant must have been 
intended ; for I doubt much whether the present has been ever 
found any where in Britain. In Scotland I am certain it has not. 

98. S. tricuspidata y foliis radicalibus aggregatis cuneiformibus 

ciliatis acute tridentatis, caule adscendente racemoso, 

petalis lanceolatis calyce triplo longioribus. JVilld. Sp. 

PL ii. p. 657. 
S. tricuspidata. Rottb. Act. Hafri.x. p. 446. t. 6. Gunn.Nor- 

veg. 1046. Fl. Dan. t. 976. (bona.) Retz. Prod. Fl. Scand. 

ed. ii. n. 522. Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 693. Persoon Synop. i. 

p. 490. Sternb. Saxif. p. 54. Pursh Amer. Sept. i. p. 313. 
Habitat in Groenlandia et Terra Nov&. H . (v. s. in Herb. 


Planta densissime casspitosa, glabra. Surculi brevissimi. 
Caules laterales, adscendentes, teretes, 4 — 5-unciales, oli- 
gophylli, glabriusculi, multiflori. Folia radicalia aggre- 
gata, oblongo-cuneata, apice acute tridentdta : dente 
medio majore triangulari ; Iateralibus mucronatis : paging 
utrinque glabra : margine ciliato; caulina inferiora tri- 
dentata ; superiora indivisa. Pedicelli elongati, unirlori, 
calycesque leviter glandulosi. Flores lutei, magnitudine 

S. Hit- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saiifraga. 441 

S. HirdulL Lacinia cahftituB breves, ovatae, obtusae. Pc- 
tala lanceolata, calyce triplo longiota, punctata, tripli- 
nervia: nervis parallelis, simplicibus. Filamenia -lutes- 
ccntia, styli* longiora. Anthera croceae, 

99- S. ^rir/flc^//i/f5,foliisprimordialibu8iBtegrisspatliulafis ; cau- 
linis quinquefidis trifidisve, calycibus iirniformibns : laci- 
niis brevissimis, pet&lis obovatis apice truncatis. 
S. tridactylites. Linn. Sp. PI. 578. //. Suec. 353. 375. 

Gerard. Fl. Gall. 422. Gouan Motisp. 210. Gunn. Norv. 

.544. Scop. Cam. 550. PotUch. Pal. 403. ///"/>. J//-/. 

182. Lightf. Scot. 224. Curtis Lond. fasc. ii. t. 28. I ill. 

Delph. IV. p. 669- Roth Germ. i. 184. ii. 469. WUh. lint. 

406. Hoffm. Germ. 14.3. Willd. Sp. VI. ii. p. 6.54. Law. 

Encijcl. vi.p.693. Smith Brit. ii. p. 45 5. Engl. Bot.t. 501. 

(media.) Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 369- Persoon 

Synop. i. p. 490. Marsch. a Bieberst. FL Taur. Cauc. i. 

p. 315. Stemb. Sarif. p. 44. t. 17. Wahlenb. Lapp. 218. 

ejusd. Carpath. 121. 
S. annua. I^apeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 53. 
S. foliis omnibus trilobis basi angustis, caule erecto. Linn. 

Fl. Lapp. 173. Hort. Cliff. 168. 
S. foliis petiolatis trilobatis, caule erecto ramoso et folioso. 

Hall. Helv. 986. 
S. foliis trifidis basi angustis, caule erecto. Roy. Lugd. Ba- 

tav. 457. Saitv. Monsp. 208. 
Sedum tridactylites tectorum. Batik* Pin. 285. Moris. 

Hist. iii. p. 478. s. 12. t. 9. /. 31. (bona.) 
Paronychia altera. Dod. Pempt. 113. Tabern. 805. 
Paronychia rutaceo folio. Blackw. t. 212. 
/3. alpicola, major ; foliis radicalibus congestis; caulinis nume- 

rosioribus plerumque 5-dentatis. floribus duplo majoribus. 

S. tridac- 

442 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

S. tridactylites, /3. Linn. Sp. PL ed. i. p. 404. Fl. Snec. 

353. 375. Fl. Lapp. 173. (exclus. synon. Ponce.) 
S. adscendens. Sp. PL ed. altera 579- Maw*. _p. 884. ./IZ/iow. 

Pai. 1537. *. 22. /. 3. FP«#bi opwd Jacq. Coll. i. p. 197. 

t. 11. 12. y. 1. 2. Persoon Synop. i. p. 490. 

S. petraea. G«w«. Nora. 427. ^. 9- /. 1. 3. (exclus. sy- 

non. et descrip. Linn.) Fl. Dan. t. 680. Vahl. in Act. 

Hist. Nat. Uafn. 2. 1. p. 10. IVilld. Sp. PL ii. p. 654. 

(exclus. synon. Linn.) Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 694. (exclus. 

synon. Linn.) Lam. et Decand. FL Franc, iv. p. 370. 

Wahlenh. Lapp. 219. (exclus. synon. Linn.) ejusd. Car- 
path. 122. (exclus. synon. Linn.) 
S. hypnoides. Scop. Cam. 499- *. 16. 
S. Scopolii. Vill. Delph. IV. p. 670. 
S. controversa. Sternb. Saxif. p. 43. £. 16. Jig. omnes. 
Sedum tridactylites alpinum, caule folioso. Bauh. Pin. 284. 
Habitat a in Europae arenosis copiose ; /3 in Lapponiae, 

NdrvSgiae, Sabaudiae, Carinthiae, Carpathorum alpibus. 

©. (v. v. spont. a, fi v. s.) 

Radix fibrosa, annua. Caules erecti, ramosi, teretes, flexuosi, 
multitlori, pilis brevibus glanduliferis instructi. Folia 
radicalia conferta, spathulata, patentia, indivisa, peti- 
olata ; caulina cuneiformia, carnosa, quinquefida aut tri- 
fida vel rarius tridentata : basi angustata petiolique glan- 
dulis ciliata, lobis obtusiusculis. Pedunculi recti, fili- 
formes, subunirlori, calycesque pube viscida brevi tecti. 
Flores parvi, candidi. Calyces urniformes : laciniae bre- 
vissimae, obtusae, obscure trinerves. Petala obovata, tri- 
nervia, apice truncato-obtusa, calyce paulo majora : ner- 
vis shnplicibus, rectis. Filamenta alba, brevissima. An- 
thcrce luteal. Styli recurvati. 

100. S. pe- 

Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genu* Saxifraga. l\ - 

100. S. petrcsa, foliis radicalibus 5-lobo-paImatis ; caulinis tri- 

partitis incisisque, pedunculis longissimis unirloris. la 

ciniis calycinis linearibus acutis, petalis obnvatis apice 

truncatis emarginatisque calyce duplo majoribus. 
S. petraea. Linn. Sp. PL 578. (exclus. plerisq. sj aon.) IV ul- 

fen in J acq. Coll. \. p. 200. Jacq. Icon. Rar. i. t. 81. 

(bona.) Hoffm. Germ. 145? 
S. geranioides. Host. Synop. 2:31. 
S. rupestris. JVilld. Sp. PL ii. /;. 653. 
S. Ponae. Sternb. Saxif. p. 47. t. 18. (mala.) tt t. LI. /. 6. 
S. alba petraea. Po/w Ba/tf. apudClus. Hist. ii. /;. :>:37. cum 

figura bond. Pona If. p. 183. Segu. Veron. i. //. 447. 
S. bianca. Calceol. It. J 2. 
Sedum tridactylites majiis album. Banh. Pin. 284. P«Mf. 3 1 . 

Raii Hist. XIX. /;. 1043. Moris. Hist. iii. p. 379. ». 12. 

*. 9. /. 28. (&™r.) 
Sanicula aizoides alpina trifijdo folio major alba. Pluken. 

Aim. 331. t. 222. /. 3. 
Habitat in pnvruptis saxosis Montis Baldis (Pona, Seguier, 

Sternberg), in Carintlme alpibus (IVulfen). ©. (v. s. in 

Herb. Banks.) 

Plant a diffuse ramosa, pilis patentibus glanduliferis in- 
structa. Radix fibrosa, annua. Caules erecti, basi ra- 
mosi, 4 — 5-unciales. Kfl/rtielon^ati, subfasti^iati. Folia 
radicalia longe petiolata, 5-lobo-palmata, basi subre- 
niformia : lobis late ovatis, obtusis ; caulina omnia pe- 
tiolata, ima tripartita ; summa indivisa, elliptica, utrin- 
que acuta, multinervosa : segmentis inferiorumcuneatis; 
lateralibus bifidis medio plenmique trifido : lobis acu- 
tis. Pedunculi longissimi, unitlori, calycesque pube vis- 
cid&tecti. Flores candidi, illis S. tridactylitis qijadrupld. 


444 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxi/raga. 

majores. Calyx urceolatus : laciniae lineares, acutae, tri- 
nerves. Petala obovata, calyce duplo majora, tripli- 
nervia, apice truncata et emarginata : nervis simplici- 

The above description was taken from a specimen collected 
on Mount Baldo, and preserved in the Banksian Herbarium. 
Notwithstanding the very accurate figure which Pona has given 
of this plant, authors have been much disagreed regarding it. It 
is undoubtedly the plant Linnaeus intended by his S. pztrcea, 
although his synonyms are very incorrect. The learned Gunner 
justly remarks, in speaking of his petrcea (tridactylites (B), that it 
ill accorded with the description in the Species Pla?itarum, which 
has evidently been taken from figures or specimens of the present 
species, although Linnaeus regarded them as the same. 

10 1. S: adscendens, fuliis profunda tripartitis : segraentis cune- 
atis multifidis, pedunculis multirloris, pctalis ovalibus 
integris, caule adscendente paniculato. 

S. adscendens. Vahl. in Act. Hist. Nat. Hafn. 2. 1. p. 12. 
Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 655. (exclus. omnib. synon. praeter 
Vahlii et Gouanii.) Lam. Encycl. vi. p. 695. (exclus. ple- 
risq. synon.) Lam. et Decand. Fl. Franc, iv. p. 370. (ex- 
clus. syn. Linn.) 

S. petraea. Gouan Illust. 29. t. 17- /. 3. (bona.) 

S. aquatica. Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. 53. t. 28. (optima.) 
Per soon Synop. i. /;. 490. Sternb. Saxif. p. 48. t. 19. 
f. 1. et 2. (bona.) 

/3. caule virgato, foliorum lobis acutis subpinnatis, petalis 
lutescentibus. Lapeyr. loc. cit. t. 29- 

Habitat a et fi in scaturiginosis Pyrenaeorum. 7/ . (v. s. a in 
Herb. Vent, nunc in Mus. Lessertiano, et item in Herb. 


'» i n a Monograph of the Genus 8a i ifraga. 44.: 

Radii fibrosa, perennis, ca*spitosa. Surculi plures, breve*, 
foliosi. Caulcs adscendentcs. pedales aut ultra, foliosi, 
crassitie pennre anserinae, succulenti, pilis glanduliferis 
patentibus conferte suppieditL Folia radicalia petiolata, 
5-lobo-palmata, carnosa, utrinque glabra : segmentis 
late cuneatis, inciso-dentatis ; caulina omnia petiolata, 
profunde tripartita : segmenta in lobis Lanceolatis obtu- 
siusculis multisecta. Petioli breves, ad bases pra?sertim 
radiealium latissime dilatati. Flores coarctato-paniculati, 
albi, rarius lutescentes. Pedunculi multirlori calycesque 
pube glandulosa tecti. Calyx obconicus : laciniae ovato- 
oblongae, obtusiusculae. Fetala ovalia, Integra, tripliner- 
via : nervis simplicibus, rubcscentibus. Stamina insequa- 
lia stylis longiora ; fdamenta lutesccntia ; anthercc aume. 

This, which is a very distinct species, is the largest of the whole 
section, often exceeding a foot in height. I have retained Yahl 
and Willdenow's name in preference to that of La Peyrouse, on 
account of its priority. 

102. S. cuneata, glabra; foliis inferioribus longe-petiolatfs cu- 
neatis 5-lobatis ; superioribus subsessilibus lanceolatis 
indivisis, caule adscendente paniculato, petalis oblongis. 

S. cuneata. Willd. Sp. PL ii. p. 658. Lam. Encycl. vi. 
p. 700. Persoon Synop. i. p. 489- 

S. cuneifolia. Cavan. Icon. iii. p. 25. t. 248. 

Habitat in Hispanise niontibus frigidis juxta Castellfort. 
Cavan Hies. y. . 

Radii fibrosa, perennis. Caules plui*es, adscendentes, gla- 

bri. Folia inferiora longe petiolata (petiolis filiformibus), 

cuneata, utrinque glabra, basi intcgcrrima, apice 5-loba 

(lobis oratis, acutis) : superiors indivisa, srssilia. lance- 

\ ni,. xill. 3 M 'olata. 

446 Iff. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

olata, acuta. Flores paniculati. PeduncuU elongati, 
filiformes, stricti, imiliori, calycesque laeviusculi. La- 
cinue calycince ovatte, acuta?. Petala oblonga, obtusa, 
Candida. Stamina corolla breviora. Cavan. he. cit. 
Obs. Exempla hujus speciei nunquam a me visa; attamen 
ex descriptione et figura Clariss. Cavanillesii speciem ab 
omnibus esse satis diversam licet judicare. An recto in 
hac sectione aut melius in quarta sit collocanda ? 

103. S. globulifera, gemmifera ; surculis brevibus, foliis surcu- 
linis 5-fidis trifidisve nunc simplicibus lanceolatis acutis 
aristatisque, floribus paniculatis, laciniis calycinis ovali- 
oblongis obtusis, petalis obovatis. 
S. globulifera. Desf. At Ian t. ii. p. 342. t. 9(i. /. 1. Lam. 
Encycl. vi. p. 699- Persoon Si/nop. i. p. 490. Sternb. 
Saxif. p. 45. 
Habitat in cacumine Atlantis. Desfontaines. 1/ . (v. s. in 
Herb. Lessertiano, specim. a Clar. Desfontainio comrau- 

Plant a caespitosa. Radix fibrosa. Surculi 1 — 2-unciales, 
foliosi, basi rudimentis foliorum emarcidorum instructi. 
Caules erecti, filiformes, tripollicares, foliis paucis mi- 
nutis muniti, glabri. Folia radicalia et surculina, pe- 
tiolata, 5-fida vel trifida (segmentis lanceolatis), nunc 
simplicia lanceolata, acuta, seta diaphana terminata, 
triplinervia : nervis divisis. Petio U ciliati. Axilla fo- 
liorum gemmis subrotundis, pedunculatis, e foliis (sim- 
plicibus) ciliatis appresse imbricatis, posteriorum surcu- 
lorum formatis instructs . Flores candidi, S. hypnoide 
duplo minores, 5 — 7 in paniculam dispositi. Pedicelli 
tenues calycesque pube glutinosa levitcr suppediti. La- 
cinia cahjeina ovali-oblonga?, obtusa? . Petala obovata, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus SajcifiagH. 447 

calyce dupl6 longiora, triplinervia : nervis simpiicibus 

Obs. «S*. kypnoidi affinis, sed sails distincta. 

104. S. hypnoides, gemmifera ; surculis longissimis procumben- 

tibus, foliis radicalibus quinque- tri-partitisve ; surcu- 

linis simpiicibus linearibus rigidis ciliatis mucronato- 

aristatis, laciniis calycinis triangulari-ovatis aristatis, 

petalis subrotundo-obovatis. 
S. hypnoides. Sp. PL 579. Fl. Dan. f.348. Mill. Diet. 12. 

Huds.Angl. 182. Light/. Scot. 224. With. Brit. 407. 

Villars Delph. iv. p. (>74. t. 45. fft/W. -S>. P/. ii. p. 658. 

Lapeyr. Pyren. Saxif. p. .37. /. 32. Smith Brit. ii. p. 457 . 

-E;/o/. J^o^. /. 454. (mala.) Lam. Encycl. vi. />. (>0S. 

Persoon Synop. i. ;>. 4<)0. Lam. et Dccand. Fl. Franc iv. 

p. 376. Sternb. Saxif. p. 45. 
S. procumbens ; foliis linearibus integris trifidisque. Hort. 

Cliff. 168. Roy. Lugdb. 453. Sauv. Monsp. 208. GV/. 

Ge//\ 248. 
Sedum alpinum, trifido folio. Baith. Pin. 284. Moris. 

Hist. iii. p. 479. *. 12. t. 9- / 26. (&?«*/). 
Sedum muscosum, trifido folio. Rati Syn. 3.54. 
Sedum alpinum 7- CI as. Pann. p. 491. 
/3. viscosa, mollior et laxior ; floribus majoribus. 
S. viscosa. Ilortorum. 

y. angustifolia, surculis adscenclentibus, foliis longioribus. 
S. angustifolia. Uortulanorum. 
B. muscosa, duplo minor et tenerior ; seo mentis foliorum 

minimis, floribus minor i bus. 
1. pulchella, robustior : surculis crassioribus rigidioribus- 

que, gemmis obtusis confertioribus, foliis surculinis lati- 

oribus supra sulco exaratis, petalis latioribus. 

3 M 2 Ha hit at 

448 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

Habitat a in alpibus Helveticis, Austriacis, Pyrenaicis, 

Cambro-Britannicis, Anglise borealis ; in Scotiae monti- 
bus passim; (2, y, J, s in alpibus Scoticis. % . (v. v. spont.) 

Ilerba ante anthesin densissime csespitosa, glaberrima, 
postea laxa, surculosa, villis mollibus adspersa. Stir- 
culi procumbentes, longissimi, rigidiusculi, rubescentes. 
Caules erecti, 3 — 4-unciales, rubescentes, nitidi, fra- 
giles, 2 — 4-flori. Folia radicalia quinque- vel tripar- 
tita rarius indivisa, glabra, margine villis parcis cili- 
ata : segmentis linearibus, aristatis ; sureulina omnia in- 
divisa, linearia, acutissima, arista longa terminate, ad 
axillas gemmis ovatis, acutis instructa ; caulina pauca, 
lineari-laneeolata, indivisa. Pedunculi elongati, sub- 
unirlori calycesque pube brevissima viscida dense sup- 
pediti. Lacinice calif cince triangulari-ovatee, trinerves, 
mucronato-aristata? : mucrone recto. Petala subrotundo- 
obovata, plana, conspicue triplinervia, Candida, apice 
extus rosea : nervis simplicibus, rectis. 

105. S. condensata, surculis procumbentibus abbreviatis, foliis 
radicalibus 5-partitis; surculinis trifidis : segmentis line- 
aribus glabris aristatis, laciniis calycinis triangulari- 
ovatis acutis muticis, petalis ovalibus. 

S. condensata. Gmel. Fl. Baden, ii. p. 226. t. 3. 

S. densa et laevis. . Flortulanorum. 

Habitat in Sponhemiee rupibus (Omelin), in alpibus Scoti- 
cis (G. Don), it . (v. v. spont.) 

Herba glaberrima, nitida, jucunde viridis, ante anthesin 
densissime caespitosa, postmodo surculosa. Surculi pro- 
cumbentes, abbreviati, gemmis destituti. Caules plures, 
erecti, bi- rariits tri-pollicares, nudiusculi, glaberrimi, 


Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 449 

nitidi, 2— 5-flori. Folia radicalia 5-partita; Burculina 

triiida ad axillas nuda : segments anguste linearia acuta 

et breve aristata. Vvdunculi glabri, nitidi, unitlori, in 
a?stivatione curvati. Calyx puhe hiwissima lev iter in- 
structus : laciime ovatir. acuta-, mutiea\ Petaia ova- 
lia. alba, triplinen ia, apice extus rosea : nervis timpli- 
cibus, strict is. 

This species approaches near to the preceding - . but having 
proved it in cultivation, I am now fully satisfied of its being a 
distinct species. Its habit is so different, that it may be known 
at all times of the year by it alone. Its turculi are three times 
shorter than those of hyphoides, always quite smooth and green, 
never red, and destitute of the bulbous buds SO remarkable in 
S. hypnoides. 'The latter species is found alike in the plains, as 
well as on the tops of mountains. The 8, condensate, on the 
contrary, is met with only in elevated regions. It is not eon- 
fined to one spot alone, but extends over all the Scottish moun- 

106. S. elongella, surculis erectis brevibus, foliis radicalibus 
5- tri-fidisve ; surculinis plerumque tridentatis: dentibus 
mucronulatis, laciniis calycinis ovatis muticis, petalis 
S. elongella. Smith in Act. Soc. Linn. x. p. 340. Engl. 
Bot. 1. 2277. (exclus. synon. Donn Cantab.) Compend. 
Fl. Brit. 66. 
Habitat in Angusia. Scotige in rupibus humidis juxta Lin- 
trathen. G. Don. n . (v. v. c.) 

Herba clensissime ca?spitosa, ante anthesin glabernma, post- 
modern villis tenuissimis parcissime instructa. Surculi 
erecti, breves, rigidiusculi, basi foliis emarcidis crebre 

instruct! . 

4)0 Mr, D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saxifraga. 

instructi. Caules erecti, bi- rarius tri-unciales, subnudi, 
2 — 3-flori, glabriusculi. Folia radicalia 5-fida auttrifida, 
(segmentis lanceolatis,) rarissime simplicia ; surculina 
plerumque tridentata aut raro indivisa : dentibus late 
ovatis, mucronulatis. Petioli tenues, dilatati. Fedun- 
cull longissimi, uniflori, calycesque pilis glanduliferis 
leviter sparsi. Lacinice cahjeince ovata*, acutai, muticse, 
trinerves. Petala obovata, utrinque alba, triplinervia : 
liervis lateralibus, curvatis, ramulosis ; medio simplici, 

This species is totally distinct from all the varieties of S. hyp- 
noides, one variety of which is often cultivated in the gardens 
under the name, and mentioned in Donn's Cambridge Catalogue. 
I am therefore happy in having an opportunity of giving a full 
description of the real plant. In its native habitat it frequently 
bears long solitary peduncles, terminated by only one flower : 
but culture alters it in this respect. 

107. $. leptopkylla, surculis procumbentibus longissimis, foliis 
radicalibus 5-partitis ; surculinis tripartitis indivisisve : 
segmentis lineari-lanceolatis acutissimis divaricatis, la- 
ciniis calycinis oblongo-ovatis, petalis spathulatis inte- 


S. leptophylla. Per won Sy nop. i. p. 490. 
S. retroflexa. Ilortulanoruni. 

jo. angustifida, tenerior ; segmentis foliorum angustioribus. 
S. angustifida. Hortulanorum. 

Habitat a in alpibus lfelvcticis, et in Cambro-Britannia 1 
montibus;/3inmontibusCambro-]5ritannicis. 1/ . (v.v.c.) 

Flanta ante anthesin glaberrima, densissimc ca?spitosa, 
posted laxr diffusa^ surculosa, villis viscid js leviter 


»0N S Monograph uj 



entts baxifraga. 


sparsa. Surculi decumbentes, filifornn >. graciles, lon- 
gissimi, viridcs, gemmis destitute Caulcs plures, erecti, 
3 — 4-pollicares, rlexuosi, glabriusculi, nitidi, multitiori. 
Folia radicalia profunda 5-partrta ; sutcuHbm tripartita 
rarius indivisa. in axillis nuda : segnwattia lineari-Jance- 
olatis, acutissimis, aristatis, divaricatis : lateralibus hori- 
zontaliter porrectis. Flora cernui, candidi. Pedun- 
culi elongati calycesque pilis glanduliferis suppediti. 
Lacinice calycince oblongo-ovataj, trioerves, muerone re- 
ilexo apice instructs. Petala spathulata, integerriina, 
triplinervia : nervis simplicibus. rertis. Stamina aequa- 
lia ; Ji lament a alba ; antkera aurea*. 

This species, as well as its variety /3, is cultivated b\ my friend 
Mr. Macnab, of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, \\li<> 
received them from Wales. I have since my arrival in London 
had an opportunity of examining flowering specimens of it. The 
spreading divaricated segments of its leaves are a very striking 
character, and readily distinguish it from its congeners ; but 
nevertheless it affords sufficient marks besides that to rank it as 
a species. 

108. S. latevirens, surculis procumbentibus elongatis, foliis 5 — 3- 
partitisve: segmentis linearibus acutis, laciniis calycinis 
lanceolatis mucronatis, petalis spathulatis emarginatis. 
Habitat in Scotiae alpibus. G. Don. % . (v. v. spont.) 

llerba lretissime virens, ante anthesin densissime ca^spitosa, 
glaberrima, postea laxc diffusa, surculosa, villis longis 
adspersa. Surculi elongati, procumbentes, gemmis de- 
stituti. Caules pauci, erecti, tripollicares, glabri, oli- 
gophylli, subtriflori rarius unirlori. Folia radicalia 5- 
partita : surculina omnia tripartita : segmenta linearia. 


4.52 Mr. D. Don's Monograph of the Genus Saiifraga. 

acuta, apice recurvata ; caulina ima 5-ficla, superiora in- 
divisa lanceolata, acuminata. Flores campanulati, can- 
• didi, in restivatione cernui. Calyces pedicellique pube 
viscida instruct! : laciniae lanceolate, trinerves, mucro- 
natae : mucrone recurvo. Pet a la spathulata, tripliner- 
via, apice emarginata : nervis simplicibus, strictis, vi- 

This very distinct and elegant species was first discovered by the 
late Mr. G. Don of Forfar, on the mountains of Angusshire and 
Aberdeenshire, where it grows on moist rocks in very elevated 
situations. I have nlso observed it myself subsequently on hills 
to the north of Loch-Lomond. Plants of it from that quarter 
are now growing in the garden of my highly valued friend, Pa- 
trick Neill, Esq., Secretary of the Wernerian Natural History 
and Caledonian Horticultural Societies of Edinburgh. 

In concluding this Monograph, I have to make (p. 348) an 
important alteration in the specific character of S. ligulata, 
namely, to substitute glahris for utrinque hirsutis ; the paginae of 
the leaves being quite smooth. A similar alteration is also ne- 
cessary in the description of the same species. 

XX On 

( 453 ) 

XX. On a Fossil Shell of a fibrous Structure, the Fragments of 
which occur abundantly in the Chalk Strata and in the Flints 
accompanying it. By Mr. James Sowerby, F.L.S. $c. 

Read November 1, 1814. 

Having, with many others, experienced the want of sufficient 
information to discriminate the genera to which certain shells 
belong, and not being satisfied with what has been done, espe- 
cially regarding the genera of fossil shells, I am induced to offer 
the following observations to the Linnean Society, in the hope 
that some person, who has more leisure, experience and judge- 
ment than myself, will in the course of time favour us with some 
further elucidation of so interesting a subject. 

I hope I may be pardoned for the length of the detail which 
I am about to lay before the Society, because accurate distinc- 
tions and observations are found to be more than ever necessary 
in the present discerning age, in which such a multiplicity of 
subjects necessarily arise to improve science. 

In a memoir on the mineralogical geography of the environs 
of Paris, under the article " Chalk Formation/' by Messieurs 
Cuvier and Brongniart, in the Annates du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, torn. xi. p. 293, there arementioned "some fragments 
of shells, which from their tabular form and fibrous structure 
cannot be referred to other than the genus Finna ; but if we 
were to infer from the thickness of the fragments the size of 
the individuals to which they must have belonged, we must con- 

vol. xiii. 3 n elude 

454 Mr. James Sowerby on a fossil Shell 

elude that these testacea must have been monstrous. We mea- 
sured one 12 millimetres (*47 of an inch) thick, while the largest 
kind of pinna known is only '08 of an inch thick/' Conceiving 
that I knew these fragments from their fibrous structure, I felt 
satisfied from the active state of inquiry that it would soon be 
understood, and for some time I paid very little attention to the 
subject ; but my friends from time to time sending me specimens, 
none of which gave me the idea of a pinna, I was induced to ima- 
gine that this common shelly substance varied much in form, and 
so much so, that the generic names sent with specimens also va- 
ried, and that it would eventually prove to form a distinct genus. 
In the opinion that the striated fossil spoken of by Brongniart and 
Cuvier is the same as those sent to me from various places, I am 
confirmed by a remark of the Rev. W. Conj^beare, in the second 
volume of the Transactions of the Geological Society, where I find 
several specimens figured, and the following observation : " the 
flat surface of a flint has been originally occupied by a large piece 
of the striated shell, the fragments of which occur so abundantly 
in the chalk strata and accompanying the flints, being very com- 
monly considered as mutilated portions of fossil pinnaz" At page 
179 of the same work it is mentioned, that there are found in the 
chalk with flints, "a longitudinal transversely rugose ostrea-form 
bivalve, of a fibrous structure, and fragments of another fibrous 
shell of a large size and unknown genus/' The expressive figures 
annexed to Mr. Conybeare's paper confirm my suspicions as to 
the identity of these shells, but not that they belong to the Pinna 
genus ; indeed, from a fragment of a hinge mentioned by Cuvier 
as in the collection of M. Defrance, I am happy to find that, 
greatly coincident with my own opinion and observations, some 
doubt has arisen and suspicion been created that these shells are 
not Pinnce. 

About twenty-three years since, before my time was so much 


)rous Structure. 455 

occupied as it has been during that period in drawing and en- 
graving English botany, c\c. in my way to Cambridge 1 stopped 
long enough at Royston to run up to a chalk-pit, where I picked 
up a small specimen of this shell, but altogether the most perfect 
one I have ever met with, with respect to the information which 
may be obtained from it. A year or two since, the penetrating 
Miss Benett, of Norton-House, Wilts, collected in abundance 
some shells very much resembling a sort of muscle, which she sent 
me, and of which the better specimens were returned after 1 had 
made such observations as I desired. On returning them, I 
observed to her, that the hinge might bo discovered if some of 
the chalk were carefully removed, and I find the hint was taken. 
At the same time, upon a careful examination and comparison of 
my own Royston specimen with a few parts of hinges which I 
had collected together, and which were generally considered as 
belonging to this shell, I was enabled to determine with accuracy 
the proper character and situation of the hinge ; from which it 
became quite easy to see that the difficulty of ascertaining its 
genus was owing principally to our ignorance of those important 
points. I now beg leave to lay before this Society the result of 
my inquiries, and of the comparison of numerous specimens 
varying in size, shape and locality. 

Definition of the Genus. An irregular gibbous beaked 
bivalve shell, of a fibrous structure. Hinge forming a long 
furrow, transverse to the beak, lateral, linear, divided by 
numerous sulci across it. Cartilage partly external, partly 
internal. No visible muscular impression. 

This genus will be found sufficiently distinct from Tenia and 

* Ab 's fibra et xegct[io$ testa. 

3n2 Crenalula 

456 Mr. James Sowerby on a fossil She It 

Crenatula in many particulars, although apparently related to 
them in its hinge : it consists entirely of a substance composed 
of parallel perpendicular fibres, and much more conspicuously 
so than Pinna or any other genus. 

From specimens in my possession I have made the outlines I 
now present to the Society, Tab. XXV. It will be easily seen how 
Cuvier and Brongniart had it not in their power to understand 
the fragments they found, and how such fragments might mis- 
lead any one. They are found in the flints and among the chalk, 
both hard and soft, in all those places where chalk occurs in 
England, &c. The shells are from an inch to two feet or more 
in length, and generally very thin for their size, except at the 
hinge and extremities. The hinge is generally lost or closely 
enveloped in the chalk or flint, so as to be concealed, or else it 
lies in confusion among the fragments. The part behind the 
hinge or beak is of the finest possible thinness, while some of the 
other extremities and the hinge are many lines thicker than the 
more central parts. A shell of about three inches in diameter 
may be about the tenth of an inch thick ; and I have one, which 
if perfect would be about eighteen inches in diameter, not half 
an inch thick : there are found fragments even larger, which 
undoubtedly belong to this genus. I have one five-eighths of an 
inch thick, from Wiltshire. Thus, if we were to infer from the 
thickness of the fragments the size of the individuals to which 
they must have appertained, supposing them to belong to the 
genus Pinna, we must conclude that these testacea would have 
been indeed ?nonstrous : but when it is known that they form a 
peculiarly characterized genus of a less regular construction, 
we may form a much more moderate idea of them. Upon a 
fair calculation, the specimen measuring five-eighths of an inch 
thick must have formed part of a shell two feet six inches long ; 
whereas, had it been originally part of a pinna, if calculated 


>rous Structure. 4.57 

according to the proportions of one in my possession two feet 
long, the shell to which it belonged must have been at least twenty 
feet long. Indeed I have fragments of a fossil shell, apparently 
belonging to this genus, found near Bath and Oxford*, which 
upon such a calculation must have formed parts of shells at least 
120 feet long. I learn from my kind friend Mr. Gideon Mantel], 
of Lewes, that this species of shell may be traced on the face of 
some of the chalk cliffs sometimes to four or five feet in diame- 
ter. They are accompanied in general by the Plagiostuma spi- 
iiosa, tab. 78. Min, Cone, and some other curious species not 
before settled. 

That species of this genus of which 1 have chiefly spoken I 
would distinguish by the specific name Cuvieri, in honour of the 
extensive abilities of the discerning Cuvier. 

In many places a fibrous secretion of carbonate of lime, much 
resembling this, sometimes occurs from very thin to many inches 
thick, spreading in a stratified manner over many acres, which 
might from the structure be taken for fibrous shell. See Brit. 
Min. t. 345, middle figure. I have specimens, by the kind at- 
tention of Miss E. Benett, found at Osmington, the fibres of 
which are very thin, and five inches long, yet by various speci- 
mens they may be traced to the form of the cone in cone coral 
(as it is commonly called), a peculiar crystallization. Brit. 
Min. t. 149- 

Having said thus much in hopes of assisting and gaining in- 
formation, I must now add a few words in explanation of the 

* Brie. Min. t. 345, the upper and lower figures, express such fragments : and on 
the 1 st of June 1 8 1 8, 1 had the pleasure of receiving, by the favour of an intelligent and 
kind friend, from near Caen in Normandy, two pieces, one with the hinge, and another 
with the muscular impression, both resembling Ostrea : possibly these may lead, as the 
former, to a more marked attention and complete discovery. If an oyster, it is en- 
titled to a name expressing its more extraordinary fibrous distinction. 


458 Mr. James Sower by on a fossil Shell, §c. 

drawing, Tub. XXV. It represents a piece of chalk from Sus- 
sex, which had a number of fragments apparently belonging to 
one large shell, of the inside of which the chalk itself appears to 
have been a nearly complete cast, showing the undulations as well 
as the thickness and distance of the overhanging striae, all cor- 
responding in proportion to smaller specimens : to this I have 
added, in dots, the outer margin and the hinge in proper propor- 
tions, fig. 1. Thus there is no doubt that these shells have been 
very large ; and this leads to the conclusion, that they must have 
grown very fast, or have been some time in a quiet situation, and 
in immense quantities, before the catastrophe that enveloped 
them in the chalk and in the infiltrated flints of large dimensions, 
as well as in small pebbles. For more accurate information as 
to the general outline of the large figure, I have added an inner 
view of the Royston specimen, showing the hinge and parts of 
the opposite shell broken, the lower edge appearing about the 
middle, and the rest filled with chalk, fig. 2. ; also a view of the 
outer part of the shell, showing the general contour, fig. 3. 

XXI. Softie 









>v * 











fe&f T 

. /gj 



( 459 ) 

XXI. Remarks on Hypnum recognition, and on several nezv 
Species of Roscoea; in a Letter to William George Mat on, M.D. 
F.R.S. V.P.L.S.,from Sir James Edward Smilh, M.D. I.R.S. 
Pres. L.S. 

Read December 5, 1820. 

My dear Sib, 
Permit me to offer you a few remarks, relating to Botany, 
made last summer in the course of a journey to Liverpool. 

I was happy to find the Botanic Garden there in a very flou- 
rishing state, and a taste for the scientific study of plants be- 
coming more and more prevalent. The greatest curiosities in 
that collection perhaps were Nepenthes dcstillatoria, raised, in 
great plenty, from East Indian seeds, and beginning to show the 
singular appendage to its leaves ; as well as a new Cypripedium, 
and the Paris polyphylla, Rees's Cyclopaedia, vol. 26, both brought 
alive from Nepal. Serapias Lingua from the south of Europe 
was scarcefy less rare or interesting. 

The garden is peculiarly rich in hardy perennial plants, espe- 
cially of the natural orders of Composite and Caryophyllece. 1 
never before met with the true Arenaria saiatilis, either in a 
living or dried state, except in the Linnaean Herbarium ; what 
Mr. Hudson and many others have taken for this species being 
nothing more than A. -cerna. 

Among the greenhouse plants I was shown a line bush of 
JVilldenovia teres, in full flower, a plant hitherto unknown to 
some of my most learned friends in the metropolis, of which I 

inclose a specimen. 


460 Sir J. E. Smith's Remarks on Hypnum recognitum, 

The Ferns, chiefly raised from seed by Mr. Henry Shepherd, 
according to the method of which an account has been published 
in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society *, are beyond all 
example copious and luxuriant in the Liverpool stoves ; as are 
the scitamineous plants, to which last one large hot-house is ex- 
clusively allotted. There the singular property of some new 
species of Curcuma, perhaps not confined to them alone, of se- 
creting, and retaining in their bractece, a copious watery fluid, 
has been first observed. Among the various specimens, both 
living and dried, of this natural order, which Mr. Roscoe, still 
intent upon their study, has received from Dr. Wallich of Cal- 
cutta, and which are chiefly the produce of Nepal, we have re- 
cognised four new species of Roscoea, in addition to the purpurea, 
discovered in that country by Dr. Hamilton, on which I founded 
the genus, in Exotic Botany. By these I was enabled to con- 
firm, and in some degree to improve, the generic character, as 
well as to define all the species, under the superintendence of 
my learned friend. Till either of us can give a more ample ac- 
count of these plants, I beg leave here to present you with their 
generic and specific distinctions. 

ROSCOEA. Sm. Exot. Bot. «. ii. 97. 

Ess. Char. Anther a biloba, incurva, terminalis, stylum vagi- 
nans; basi bicalcarata. Corolla ringens, limbo duplici; 
labio superiore fornicato. Calyx monophyllus, tubulosus. 

1. R. purpurea ; Exot. Bot. t. 108; spied foliorum vaginis ob- 

voluta, calyce obliquo integro. 

2. R. gracilis; spica exsertd pauciflora laxd, calyce retuso. 

3. R. elatior; spied exsertd multiflora subcoarctata, calyce re- 


* Vol. iii. p. 3.S8. 

4. R. spi~ 

and on several new Species of Roscoea. 


4. R. spicata ; spica exserta multitiorti coarctata, calyce emar- 

ginato nudo, foliis lanceolatis. 

5. R. capitata ; spica exserta capitata multirlora, calyce bicus- 

pidato ciliato, foliis linearibus. 

These new species all partake, more or less, of the habit of the 
original one, and are well distinguished by characters derived 
from the calyx, that being the part, in Roscoea, in which the 
real specific differences principally reside. 

Returning by Matlock, I spent a fortnight, in the latter part 
of July, in revisiting that beautiful scenery, which I have, in the 
course of thirty years, so often explored. Here J had gathered, 
in 1790, the Hypnum recognition ; but for want of noting the 
precise spot, I had never been able, in any subsequent visit, to 
find this rare and elegant moss again ; nor has any other botanist, 
I believe, ever noticed it in Britain. It grows, copiously enough, 
among some large massy stones and rocks, overshadowed with 
trees and brush-wood, behind the principal inn, called the Hall. 
A steep and devious path, of difficult ascent, leads up the hill to 
these rocks, which, being mentioned in English "Botany by the 
epithet of romantic, have obtained exclusively the appellation of 
" the Romantic Rocks," and are pointed out by the guides to 
strangers under that name. Here grow Paris quadrifolia, Poly- 
podium calcareum, and numerous, though not the most uncom- 
mon, Orchidea. 

The Hypnum recognition clothes the surface of these shady 
broken rocks, and fills up many of their interstices, in loose 
patches or tufts ; but the capsules are rather uncommon. They 
are perfected in July or August. 

This moss being, as I trust, clearly defined in the Flora Bri- 
tannica, and figured in English Botany, tab. 1495, I am some- 

vol. xiii. 3 o what 

46*2 Sir J. E. Smith's Remarks on Hypnum rccognitum, 

what surprised at the obscurity in which it is involved in the 
Muscologia Britannica, where it is not allowed the rank of a spe- 
cies, or even of a variety, beino: altogether confounded with the 
common Hypnum proliferum. Neither are the above works, 
where alone it has hitherto been announced as a British plant, 
cited at all ! I am very sure this omission, like several similar 
ones, arises from no disrespect, either to these books or their 
author. The confusion and mistakes in the references given in 
the Muscologia, which I must now correct, prove this article not 
to have received the usual attention of the able writers of that 
work, Professor Hooker and Dr. Taylor, to which alone I attri- 
bute every omission as well as mistake. 

Hypnum proliferum, so admirably delineated in the Flora Lon- 
dinensis of Mr. Curtis, fasc. i. t. 72, stands in p. 103 of the 
Muscologia with the following references, the figure just men- 
tioned being unaccountably neglected. 

" II . proliferum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1590. Turn. Muse. Hib. 
" p. 156. Engl. Bot. t. 1494. H. tamariscinum. Hedw. St. 
" Cr. v. iv. t. 3. Moitg. et Nest I. n.4i. H. recognitum. Hedw. 
" Sp. Muse. t. 67. f. 1 — 5. H. delicatulum. Hedw, St. Cr. v. iv. 

" t. 35. H. parietinum. Willd. . Dill. Muse. t. 35. 

"f. 14. et t. 38./. 6." 

Of these, Turn. Muse. Hib. should be 157, a matter indeed of 
little importance. The synonym is correct, as are the refe- 
rences to Linnaeus, and English Botany, and to H. tamarisci- 
num of Hedwig ; but it should be his Sp. Muse. t. 61. f. 1 — 5, 
as quoted in Fl. Brit., not his Stirpes Cryptogamica. H. delica- 
tulum of Hedw. Stirp. Crypt., which is t . 33 of that work, not 35, 
and which is also t. 83. /. 6. of Dillenius, not 38. /. 6, is as- 
serted by Hedwig to be undoubtedly a different species ; nor 
have I a doubt that what he received from Dr. Muhlenberg, and 


and on several new Species of Roscoea. 


has figured in detail, is so. This is bipinnate. His /. 2. is 
exactly copied, without acknowledgment, from the figure of Dil- 
lenius, £.83./. 6, coloured gratuitously ! This is tripinnate. Its 
coming from Pennsylvania does not prove it the same species. 
The plant of Dillenius is indeed what Linnaeus meant for //. de- 
licctt ulum ; but there is no specimen in the Linniean Herbarium, 
nor have I examined that which I presume to be preserved at 
Oxford. This delicatulum may be a small variety of the prolife- 
rum, which species is found in various quarters of the globe ; 
but, though well aware of that circumstance, I durst not, in the 
Flora Britannica, refer to this plant of Dillenius, and still less 
to the obviously different bipinnate one of Hedwig. But I have 
cited, without scruple, the European //. delicatulum of Schra- 
der's Spicilegium 73, and H. delicatumof Ehrhart's Cn/ptogamia, 
it. 301, from a comparison of specimens. Both these synonyms 
are omitted in the Muscologia. Dillenius's tab. 35. f. 14, is 
unquestionably right, as quoted by all authors. The synonyms 
of Haller, Vaillant and Morison, to be found under this species 
in Fl. Brit., are well worthy of notice, though left out of th 
Muscologia. Vaillant's representation of /if. proliferum, t. e 35. 
f. 1, though correct, being smaller, and far less specious, than 
that of //. splendens, t. 28. f. 1, and especially t. 29- f. 1, has 
caused a general confusion amongst foreign botanists ; cleared 
up, I trust, by authentic records, and not without some pains, 
in the Flora Britannica ; which work might perhaps, according 
to general usage, and not without advantage, have been quoted 
in the Muscologia. 

So much for the real H. proliferum. The rest of the syno- 
nyms, though not separated, belong to the recognition , just now 
recognised, after a lapse of thirty years, at Matlock. — These are, 

H. recognitum. Hedwig. Stir p. Crypt, v. iv. t. 35, and Sp. 
Muse. p. 261 ; not t. 67. f. 1 — 5 of the latter work ; neither is 

3 o 2 it 

464 Sir J . E. Smith's Remarks on Hypnum recognition, $c. 

it delicatulum of the Stirp. Crypt, t. 35, which ought, as above 
mentioned, to have been quoted /. 33. It is indeed H. delica- 
tulum of Willdenow's Prodromus, and, according to Hedwig, of 
the generality of Europaean Floras on the continent. The plate 
of Engl. Bot. t. 1495, is not noticed in the Muscologia. 

This moss is probably to be found in other parts of Britain, 
though as yet not noticed by any botanist. I am very sure my 
friends, whom I have thus freely corrected, can never have ex- 
amined a specimen, or they could not have confounded it with 
the H. proliferum, from which it differs in not being above half 
so large, of a less rich and beautiful green, with only bipinnate, 
not tripinnate, stems, and a short conical lid, instead of one 
with a long taper beak. Having now compared these two spe- 
cies, in a fresh state, I can speak to their distinctions even more 
decidedly than I could in the Flora Britannica. 

The Cyathea fragilis of Fl. Brit. (Polypodivm fragile of Lin- 
nreus) assumes many different appearances at Matlock, inso- 
much that I had flattered myself with having found a new species 
there in the autumn of 1818. But having sowed the seeds of 
this and the common kind, according to Mr. Henry Shepherd's 
method, the plants produced, now growing in perfection, prove 
not even varieties of each other. Poly podium calcareum was raised 
at the same time ; as well as a kind of Aspidium, from the high 
rocks on Cromford moor, like the common dilatatum, but smaller, 
of a darker green and more rigid habit. This last is a mountain 
plant, found also in Scotland, and I have often thought it might 
prove a distinct species. Notwithstanding all possible care, I 
have not been able to cultivate it with any success, so as to de- 
termine this point. 

I remain, &c. 

Norwich, Nov. .00, 1820. J. K. SMITH. 

XXII. lit- 

( 46;) ) 

XXII. Remarks on the Genera Orhicula and Crania of Lamarck, 
with Descriptions of two Species of each Genus ; and some 
Observations proving the Patella distorta of Montagu to be a 
Species of Crania. By Mr. George Brettingham Souerby, 

Bead March 17, J 818. 

The opportunity of addressing the following observations to the 
Linnean Society of London, has been lately afforded me by a 
circumstance, very common indeed in its kind, though at the 
same time I may be allowed to say fortunate, as far as regards 
the subject of the present communication and its results. 

Among a quantity of ballast lately brought to the parish of 
Lambeth for mending the roads, were several stones, evidently 
collected on the sea-coast, and which, in the numerous irregula- 
rities of their surfaces and the cavities with which they were per- 
vaded, contained a considerable number of small shells, some of 
them of singular characters and of uncommon and little known 
species. I have made several attempts to ascertain what part of 
the world the ballast was brought from, but all my inquiries have 
hitherto proved fruitless ; though from some slight circumstances 
I have reason for supposing that it has been brought from the 
northern coast of Africa. I could not, however, consider this a 
sufficient reason for withholding the information I thus have it in 
my power to communicate, more especially, as the discovery 
among the shells thus procured, of a species of Lamarck's genus 
Orhicula, has led to a further discovery of the real character and 



Mr. G. B. Sowrrdv's Remarks 

proper situation in the natural system of the shell described by 
Montagu under the name of Patella distorta, Linn. Trans, xi. 
p. 195. t. 13. f. 5. 

The first specimen I had ever seen of the genus Orbicula was 
sent to my father some months ago by Mr. Holloway, from 
Portsmouth ; it was found by him precisely under the same cir- 
cumstances as those under which I have myself obtained speci- 
mens : but this specimen was so very much distorted, and withal 
so new in its appearance, that it was impossible to form an opi- 
nion upon it. 

The next specimen of this genus that it has fallen to my lot to 
examine, was in the possession of Mr. Mawe, from whom I 
am informed it has passed into Lady Wilson's cabinet : this is 
another species, very much resembling, if it be not, Orbicula 
norvegica ; it is larger than any of the former, and was attached 
to the convex outside of a grey flint pebble, and not defended 
by a cavity in the stone. The dried animal remains within, by 
which we are enabled to show that it belongs to the family of 
terebratuloid shells, the Branchiopoda of Cuvier. 

The discovery above mentioned, of a number of specimens of 
the genus, has led to a more intimate acquaintance with its cha- 
racters and habits ; and as the means are thus offered to our use, 
it may not be improper to give an amended generic character, 
and such additional information concerning the genus as I have 
been able to collect from the specimens themselves. 


Bivalve, inequivalve, nearly orbicular, compressed, fixed ; up- 
per valve patelliform, with four internal muscular impres- 
sions, two rather large and approximating near the centre, 
and two smaller and more distant placed near the posterior 
Lower valve flat, with corresponding muscular im- 


on the Genera Orbicula and Crania of Lamarck, 407 

pressions and a rather obtuse process placed at the inner end 
of a fissure near the centre. Hinge none. 

The animal has two ciliated arms or tentacula, and adheres bv 
a muscle or ligament, which passes through the fissure. 

The character of the genus given by Lamarck is as follows : 

"Orbicule. Coquille orbiculaire, applatie, fixee et compos6e 
de deux valves, dont l'inferieure tres mince adhere aux 
corps qui la soutiennent. Charniere inconnue. 

" Orbiculier. Acephale sans pied et sans prolongemens tu- 
buleux ; mais muni de deux bras alonges, (ranges, qui 
s'etendent au gre de 1'animal, et qui rentrent dans la co- 
quille en se roulant en spirale." 

It is here observable, that Lamarck says the animal has no 
foot ; but I apprehend it would not be improper to call the 
muscle or ligament which passes through the fissure near the 
centre of the lower valve, and which is the only part by which 
the shell is attached, by that name ; it certainly very much re- 
sembles the foot of the animal inhabitant of Patella. 

The only species of this genus, with which we are at present 
acquainted, either by description or figure, is the one upon which 
Lamarck has founded the genus : he calls it 0. norvegica, and it 
is described and figured by Muller in Zoologia Danica under the 
name of Patella anomala : it is distinguished from O. lavis by its 
having numerous radiated decussating stria?, of which that spe- 
cies is destitute. How Muller, who knew well all its characters, 
and had examined it in its living state, could do so much violence 
to nature as to name it Patella*, I confess myself completely at 

a loss 

* " It is not easy to understand why that famous naturalist has so arranged it among 
the Patella, instead of constituting a particular genus, since it does not belong to the 
genus Patella, not only as being a bivalve, but also from the difference of the animal 


" The 

468 Mr. G. B. Sower by's Remarks 

a loss to imagine ; he does however seem, by his specific name 
anomala, to have doubted the propriety of placing it in that 


I now close my observations upon this subject, only adding the 
specific characters of the 0. norvegica, and the newly-discovered 
species which I designate 0. lavis. 

Orbicula l&vis. 
O. valvulis tenuibus laevibus. 

Tab. XXVI. /. 1. 

Habitat in mari, saxis adherens. 

Orbicula norvegica. 
O. valvula superior striis plurimis elevatiusculis ex vertice ad 
marginem decurrentibus. 

Tab. XXVI. /. 2. 
Syn. Lamarck Anim. sans vertebr. 

Miilhr Zool. Dan. i. t. 5. p. 14. Patella anomala. 
Habitat in mari, ad littora, saxorum in cavitatibus affixa. 

Obs. When any part of the lower valve does not lie close to the 
stone, the radiating striae may be perceived decussating the 
striae of growth. ^.^^j .i 

The following observations, principally upon the genus Crania 
of Lamarck, will be found to be in a great measure connected 

" The shell is very small, sprinkled all over with elevated points, which make it rough 
to the touch : its upper valve is larger, and has a projecting apex ; the lower valve ad- 
heres to old shells and other hard substances in the depths of the North Sea. 

" The animal which inhabits it is represented by two red masses, with two elon- 
gated arms, blue and fringed ; the fringes thick, rather curled, yellow. It seems that 
Muller had not the means of observing it with sufficient accuracy, for he does not de- 
scribe it with that precision which is generally observable in all his writings. He does 
not even speak of the hinge, of which it is true that he had no suspicion according to 
the idea which he had formed of the genus of the shell." Bosc, vol. ii. p. 243. 


on the Genera Orbieula and Crania of Lamarck. [69 

with the foregoing, and have been elicited by the smie dis- 

From an attentive examination of two specimens of the shell 
described and figured in the Linnean Transactions, under the 
name of Patella distorta, I was led to suspect that it might be ;t 
bivalve shell, and probably related to the genus Orbieula, and 
belonging to the family of Terebratulidea. 1 have it now in my 
power to show that this suspicion is verified: for Mr. Bullock 
has obligingly communicated a stone from one of the Shetland 
islands, to which are attached several specimens of this shell 
(Patella distorta). Upon lifting one of these, I was not a little 
pleased to discover, in a dry state, the two fringed arms or fcen- 
tacula common to, and characteristic of, the Terebratulidea ; and, 
firmly adhering to the stone, another valve, white, extremely 
thin, except at its edges, and having four muscular impressions 
corresponding with those of the upper brown valve ; but two of 
these muscular impressions are certainly so near together, that I 
do not wonder that, upon a slight examination, Lamarck should 
have described the genus Crania as having in the lower valve 
three oblique perforations. It therefore appears that this shell, 
instead of being a Patella, may properly be considered a bivalve 
shell, and that it belongs to Retzius's genus Crania, of which 
Lamarck gives the following characters : 

" Coquille composee de deux valves inegales, dont l'inferieure 
presque plane et suborbiculaire est percee en sa face interne 
de trois trous obliques et inegaux. La superieure, tres con- 
vexe, est munie interieurement de deux callosites saillantes." 

These characters however do not appear to me quite satisfactory. 
I would suggest the following as an amended generic character. 

Bivalve, inequivalve, nearly orbicular, compressed, fixed ; upper 
vol. xin. 3 P valve 

470 Jdfr. G. B. Sower by's Remarks 

valve patelliform, with four internal muscular impressions ; 
lower valve adhering, nearly flat, with four corresponding 
muscular impressions, two near the centre, approximating 
and nearly united, and two near the posterior margin, distant. 
No hinge. 

Lamarck does not seem to have been acquainted with the ani- 
mal inhabitant of this genus ; and indeed our knowledge of it 
must necessarily remain very limited, until we shall have an op- 
portunity of examining it immediately upon its being taken from 
its native deeps. All that can be distinguished in the dried spe- 
cimen are the four ligaments or muscles which attach the two 
valves together, and the two fringed arms or tentacula. 

It is obvious that this genus differs very materially from Or- 
bicula, particularly in the manner in which it is attached ; the 
whole of the lower valve of Crania being firmly attached and 
adhering closely to the stone, whereas the Orbicula adheres only 
by an apparently cartilaginous foot, which passes from within 
through the elongate aperture near the centre of the lower valve, 
and spreads over a surface of the stone equal to about one-eighth 
of the surface of the shell. In the appearance of the dried ani- 
mal very little difference is observable between the two genera. 

Lamarck gives as the type of the genus Crania, the Anomia 
craniolaris of Linne, a shell which is certainly very little known 
in this country. I have however seen specimens of it on a coral 
from the Mediterranean ; and on some of these, the impressions 
on the attached valve, on account of their having been some time 
exposed, as I conceive, and being more liable to decomposition 
than the other parts of the shell, have been corroded away in 
part, so as to appear rather hollow. I hope it will not be 
thought irrelevant if I here attempt the characters of the two 
species of this genus with which I am at present acquainted. 


on the Genera Orbktthi and Crania of Lamarck. 47 1 


C. valvula superior tenuis lievis. Tab. XXVI. f. ;}. 
Syx. Anomia craniolaris. Linn., <$-c\ 

turbinata. Poli, ii. p. 189. t. 30. 

Patella Kermes. Humphrey. 

distorta. Mont. Linn. Trans, xi. p. 19-5. t. 13. f 5. 

Crania personata. Lamarck, Anim. sans Vert. 138. 
Habitat in mari Mediterraneo, coralliis adfixa ; et in mari Sco- 

tico, saxis adha3rens. 

Humphrey, who described the upper valve under the name of 
Patella Kermes many years ago, afterwards discovered his error; 
Montagu never had an opportunity of examining the shell in its 
natural situation, or he would have undoubtedly discovered his. 
The only difference observable between the specimens from 
Shetland and those from the Mediterranean, is in the thickness 
and irregularity of the lower valve ; those from the latter sea 
being very thick and irregular ; whereas, those from Shetland are 
much thinner, and more regular in their shape ; but this diffe- 
rence I imagine may be easily accounted for from the different 
situation of the respective specimens ; the one being found upon 
rugged old corals, and the other being attached to a compara- 
tively smooth stone*. 


C. valvula superior radiatim striata, striis elevatis, ex vertice ad 
marginem decurrentibus ; valvula inferior postice. produc- 
ts Tab. XXVI. /. 4. 

* Since this paper was read, I have seen Poll's figure of this shell, which he calls 
Anomia turbinata ; he also gives several views of the animal inhabitant, under the name 
of Criopus, which is certainly strongly corroborative of my expressed opinion, founded 
upon the observation mentioned above, that it belongs to the family of Terebratulidea. 
I am concerned, however, to be under the necessity of stating, that Poli has confounded 
Miiller's Patella anomala (the Orbicula of Lam.) with it, expressing his astonishment 
at Miiller's not having observed the lower valve, and naming it Patella. 

3 p 2 This 

472 Mr. G. B. Sowerby's Remarks 

This is a fossil species, of which the two valves have been found 
in considerable abundance, but always separate, in a compact 
marly stratum, in the department de la Manche in Normandy, 
and communicated to my father by our very liberal friend 
C. Duherrissier de Gerville. 

1 had named the above species C. product a ; but since the Paper 
was read I find it has been described by M. Defrance, and figured 
in the Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles under the name of C. an- 
tiqua, which I have therefore adopted. It is also described in La- 
marck's Hist. Nat. des Anim. sans Vert. t. vi. part 1. p. 239. 

The delay which has attended the printing of this Paper gives 
me an opportunity of noticing two or three mistakes into which 
M. de Blainville and M. de Lamarck have fallen, upon receiv- 
ing some specimens of the Orbicula norvegica. M. de Blainville* 
has confounded it with Patella distorta of Mont., and also with the 
Criopus of Poli, a name given by Poli to the animal alone of the 
Crania personata ; but he refers it rightly to Patella anomala of 
Midler, and to the genus Orbicula of Lamarck. 

Lamarck has fallen into the same mistake in referring Poli's 
Anomia turbinata to his own genus Orbicula ; but, unhappily for 
science, he is obliged to see with the eyes of others ; and this 
circumstance will account for his having made a new genus, con- 
stituted from a specimen sent to him by my father, of the Orbicula 
norvegica, under the name of Discina, and even for his havino 
placed it in another family. The genus Discina ought therefore 
to be wholly erased from Lamarck's Hist. Nat. des Anim. sans 
Vert. t. vi. p. 236 ; and the description and greater part of the 
observations under it, might with propriety be transferred, to 
replace the description of his Orbicula, the observations to which 
might remain. 

* Bull, des Sciences, May 1819. 


Bwu-.lirm.sWioI A/// 'M, ^. / : 4 - 


" -, 






on the Genera Orbicula and Crania of Lamarck. 4J3 

REFERENCES to the accompanying FIGURES. 

Tab. XXVI. 

Fig. 1. Orbicula ljevis. 

a. Attached to a grey flint pebble, which is nearly coated by the 

root of an Isis. 

b. Another view, to show the elevation. 

c. Inside of the upper valve, showing the two fringed arms. 

d. Inside of the lower valve. 

Fig. 2. Orbicula norvegica. 

a. A very young specimen. 

b. A full grown one. 

c. Specimen showing the fringed arms extended like rays beyond 

the shell. 

d. Inside of the upper valve. 

e. Inside of the lower valve. 
f. Under part of lower valve. 

Fie. 3. Crania personata. 

* ° 

a. Piece of sandstone, with several specimens of various sizes 

attached to it, from Orkney. 

b. Inside of the upper valve, do. 

c. Inside of the lower valve, do. 

d. Ditto, with the dried animal, do. 

e. Inside of a lower valve, from the Mediterranean. 

Fig. 4. Crania antiqua. 
a. Outside of upper valve, b. Inside of do. 
c. Inside of lower valve. 

XXIII. A Com- 

( 474 ) 

XXIII. A Commentary on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part J. 
By Francis HamilUn, M.D. F.R.S. and L>S. 

Read May I, 1821. 

TenCxA, p. 1. Jig. 1 — 4. 
Cocos nucifera of Willdenow. 

The resin mentioned by Syen in the notes, as produced by this 
palm in Ceylon, seems doubtful. I never heard of such ; and 
suspect that what he saw was the produce of some other tree, 
perhaps of the Sterculia Balanghas, which in Malabar is called 
mountain coco-nut. The place of growth assigned to this tree 
by Willdenow is improper. It should have been, " Habitat 
ubique in maritimis inter tropicos praesertim arenosis." 

Caunga, p. 9- fig* 5 — 8. 
Areca Catechu of Willdenow. 

The figure of Plukenet (Phyt. t. 309. /. 4.), quoted for this 
plant, and no doubt intended by him to represent it, seems to 
me to have been taken from some other, which had been sent to 
him by mistake. It evidently represents a young palm, as newly 
shot up from the ground, but seems rather a Phcenix or Elate 
than an Areca. 

The name Areca has probably been taken from Garzia ab 
Horto, who, according to the commentator, says that the nut, 
not only in Malabar but in other places, is by people of rank 


Dr. F. Hamilton on the llortus Matabaricus, Fart I. 475 

called Areca. Who these nobles were I cannot say ; but I presume 
they were Portuguese, who obtained the name Areca by some 
misconception ; for it is not used by any native of India that ever 
I heard. The specific name Catechu (in the Encyclopedic Ca- 
thecu) evidently arises from a mistake, originating I believe with 
Dale, who imagined that the Terra Japonica, or Catechu of Eu- 
ropean druggists (Kath of the natives), was the produce of this 
palm; an error once very common, but from which the Ilortus 
Malabar icus is free. 

The most remarkable quality of this nut, and that for which it 
is so much used in India, is its narcotic or intoxicating power, 
not noticed by the Brahmans of the Dutch Governor, who in- 
deed often overlooked the real qualities of plants, and ascribed 
to them such as are at least very doubtful. 

Carim — Pana, p. 11. Jig. 9. 
Borassus Jlabelhformis, fcem. Willd. 

Am Pana, p. 13. Jig. 10. 

Borassus Jtabelliformis, inas. Ibid. 

The uses for which this palm is so much employed in India, 
are totally omitted in this work, which on such subjects is very 
superficial and incorrect. The leaf mentioned by Syen in his 
note, evidently did not belong to this palm, but to the Corypha 
described in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii. p. 1. 

Schunda Pana, p. 15. Jig. 11. 

This is quoted in the Encyclopedic MSthodique and in Willde- 
now for the Caryota urens. As however the Seguaster major of 
Rumphius (Herb. Amb. i. 64. t. 14.) is also quoted by both au- 
thorities, and was indeed considered by Rumphius as the same 


476 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

with the Schunda Pana ; yet, as I have great doubts on this head, 
and think the two plants different, I do not know which Linnaeus 
meant. I know the Schunda Pana well, and found it common 
in the eastern parts of the province of Bengal, as well as on the 
western mountains of the Indian peninsula ; but I no where ob- 
served those large leaflets, that Rumphius represents as placed 
along the middle rib of the leaves. The distinction is perhaps 
of no great consequence, as the uses and qualities of both kinds 
seem to be nearly the same, and to be excellently described by 


Bala, p. 17. fig. 12—14. 

This is usually quoted as the Musa paradisiaca ; and when 
Linnaeus wrote the Flora Zeylanica, he knew no other species. 
No plant having had more care bestowed on its cultivation, a 
vast number of varieties have been reared, and are continued by 
being raised from offsets taken from the root. In one of these 
varieties, the Schundila Canim Bala of the Hortus Malabaricus 
(p. 20), the male spathes fall off as the fruit ripens, leaving the 
whole spadix, that remains, covered with fruit. The same hap- 
pens in a great many other varieties, especially such as are most 
fitted for eating without the preparations of cookery, and was 
supposed by Linnaeus to afford room for a specific distinction, on 
which he founded the Musa sapient um ; and subsequent authors 
have increased the number by adding the Musa maculata, and 
Musa rosacea, mentioned by Willdenow. The author of the Ency- 
clopedic (Suppl. i. 569.) judged wisely in rejecting these as spe- 
cies, and, in my opinion, should have followed the same course 
with the Musa sapientum of Linnaeus, none of the varieties of 
which differ more from the varieties of Musa paradisiaca than a 
codling apple does from a pepin. Dr. Roxburgh was finally of 
the same opinion with me ; for although he described a Musa 
sapient urn and a Musa paradisiaca, yet he acknowledges (Hort. 


on t/te Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. 477 

Beng. 19, note 1), that they are mere varieties. In fact, he was so 
puzzled by circumstances, that he quotes the Uort us Malabaricus 
for neither plant : for the fruit-bearing tree in figure 12 has the 
male spathes deciduous, while in figure 13 they are represented 
as persistent. As these two species should be united, and as the 
names sapient um and paradisiaca are liable to some objections, 
the Latin name Pala, used by Pliny (Hist. Nat. lib. xii. sect, xii.), 
should be revived ; for there can be no doubt that this is the 
Arbor Pa la ; and Pliny's example shows the urbanity (to use the 
Roman phrase) of adopting into botanical Latin the foreion 
names of plants ; for the word Pala is no doubt the same with the 
Bala of Kaerulu or Malabar. How much better are such names 
than the monstrous would-be Greek words ending in pogon,carpos, 
lobus and the like, with which we are now overwhelmed ! Rheede 
was indeed very unfortunate in his choice of names, selecting in 
general the most barbarous appellations of the vulgar dialect in 
preference to the polished words of the Sanscrita. But in nu- 
merous instances Rumphius has shown how even the most un- 
couth words may be polished ; and it is much to be regretted, 
that the taste of Linnaeus was suited to approve most of Rheede's 

Amba Paia, p. 21. Jig. 15, 1. 

Carica Papaya, mas auctorum. 

Papaia Maram, p. 23. fig. 15, 2. 
Carica Papaia, famina. 

Carica, being the Latin name for a kind of fig, seems to have 
been ill applied to this genus. 

Every thing that I have seen induces me to believe, with 
Rumphius and Dr. Roxburgh, that this tree is an exotic in 
India. Few plants have less affinity to others than this ; so that 

vol. xiii. 3 q it 

4/8 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

it is very difficult to say to what natural order it should be re- 
ferred. Jussieu considers it allied to the Cucurbitacece which 
have the germen above the calyx ; but its erect woody stem, and 
want of tendrils, seem strong objections. I think that it rather 
comes nearer some of the Euphorbia, especially to the Jatropha, 
several species of which, like the Papaya, when wounded, pour 
forth a limpid juice of very peculiar qualities. The affinity with 
the Euphorbia is confirmed by the circumstance of Linnaeus 
having mistaken the Aleurites triloba for a Papaya, which he 
called Posoposa. See Willdenow Sp. PL iv. 815. 

Ily, p. 25. Jig, 16. 

Linnaeus, like the older botanists from the time of Pliny at 
least, considered this plant as a species of Arundo. These older 
writers knew it as the vegetable which produced a stony sub- 
stance used in medicine, and called Tabashir or Mambu ; and 
Mambu, corrupted into Bambu, came to be the name by which 
the tree itself was known in Europe (Plukenet^/???. 53.), although 
it was never known by any name like this in an Indian language. 
On the discovery that this plant could not be an Arundo, it was 
formed into a new genus, which Retzius called Bambos, from the 
specific name previously given by Linnaeus; but Jussieu, reject- 
ing this ill-formed word, adopted Nastus, by which name the 
Arundo indica is said to have been known to the Greeks. Will- 
denow, very unwilling to adopt anything from Jussieu, and dis- 
liking the Bambos of Linnaeus, not very tractable in the Latin 
declinations, made a new word, Bambusa ; and M. Palisot de 
Beauvois (Encycl. Meth. Snp. v. 494.), on observing some slight 
differences in the flower, made two genera, Bambusa and Nas- 
tus ; and probably some other person will make as many genera 
as there are species; for I have observed no two species in 
which there were not considerable differences in the flower. 


on the Ilorlus MalakaricHSi Part I '. 479 

The circumstance of producing the substance called Tabax'ir 
or Tabashir, cannot, I believe, be considered as affording a spe- 
cific character: because I am persuaded that this substance, very 
minutely divided, pervades most parts of all the species that J 
have seen ; and it is only under particular circumstances thai it 
collects in the hollow joints of the plant, forming considerable 
masses, such as are employed as a drug. Many thousand plants 
may be cut without finding a morsel : and, so far as I could 
learn, it is chiefly found in woods or thickets consisting most I v 
of it alone, and growing oir a dry stony soil, where the plant 
does not reach to a great size, and has a strong tendency to 
flower ; for the cultivated Bambu very seldom does so. Most of 
the older writers taking (he production of this drug as their spe- 
cific character, their synonyma may be rejected, as common to 
several species. 

Linnaeus contented himself with making one species ; and in 
the Flora Zeylanica quoted for this the Ily of the Hortus Malaba- 
ricus, adding no reference to other authors that could render us 
doubtful of what he meant. Since then, however, to the 77// of 
the Hortus Malabar icus, botanists in describing the Bambusa arun- 
dinacea have added the Arundarbor vasaria of Ilumphius. As J 
consider the two plants quite distinct, I am at a loss to say which 
is the Bambusa or Bambos arundinacea (Willd. Sp: PL ii. 245. 
Enc. Meth. viii. 701). Dr. Roxburgh seems to have been aware 
that they could not be the same, and only quotes the Ily for his 
Bambusa arundinacea (Hart. Bcng. 25.) ; but then he seems to 
have some way imagined that the Ily represented the Bambu 
most commonly planted about villages, and which is destitute of 
thorns, while in fact the Ily has thorns, and I have little doubt 
is the same with the Bhcru or Beheor Baugsa of the Bengalese, 
which in the Hortus Bengalensis is quoted for Dr. Roxburgh's 
Bambusa spinosa. It is true that for this Dr. Roxburgh also 

3 q 2 quotes 

480 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

quotes the Arundarbor spinosa of Rumphius (Herb. Amb. iv. 14. 
t. 4) ; but in this I think he was mistaken, the plant of Rumphius 
beins at times almost scandent, and even its smallest branches 
are armed with spines ; while the Bheru is the most erect Bambu 
that I have seen, and the spines are chiefly confined to the prin- 
cipal stem. Rumphius himself (p. 11.) thought that the Ily of 
Rheede was his Arundarbor fera (p. 16.), in which I entirely 
agree with him ; and I think that the Bheru Bangsa, which I 
have described, is the second variety of Rumphius with a lofty 
straight stem. The figure in Rumphius (iv. t. 4.), referred to 
by Burman as that of the Arundo fera, I cannot well reconcile 
with the description, and doubt of its even representing any 
Bambusa. Further, I am persuaded that the Arundarbor vasa- 
ria of Rumphius is the Bambu most commonly cultivated in 
Bengal, and is probably the plant which Dr. Roxburgh called 
the Bambnsa arundinacea. I shall now content myself with men- 
tioning the synonyma belonging to the Hi/, with such circum- 
stances as may serve to distinguish it as a species. 

Bambusa spinosa. Hort. Beng. 25. B. trunco erecto spinoso^ 
vaginis petiolaribus hispidis. 

Arundarbor fera secunda. Humph. Herb. Amb. iv. 14; sed non 
fig. 4. quae vix speciem Bambusoe repraesentat. 

Arundo arbor. Linn. Fl. Zeyl. 47. 

Arundo Bambos. Linn. Sp. PL in Burm. Fl. Ind. 30. 

Arundo indica arborea maxima, cortice spinoso, Tabaxir fun- 
dens. Burm. Thes. Zeyl. 35. 

Bheru Bangsa Bengalensium. 

Colitur ad pagos Indiae rarius ; in sylvis praesertim India? au- 
stralis frequentior. 

Truncus elatus strictus, ad nodos spinis validis geminis vel ter- 
ms armatus. Rami brevissimi, pinnatiformes. Vagina his- 
pid a?, 

on the llortua Maladaricus, Fart F. 481 

pidae, ultra folium ore ciliato producta\ Folia supra nunc 
nuda, tunc scabra et pilis raris aspersa ; subtus nuda. I'a- 
nicula terminalis laxa, ramis longis, pendulis, raris, articu- 
latis, indivisis. Spicules ad articulos confertee, lanceoiata-. 
imbricatae floribus alternis, distichis. Flores in singulis spi- 
culis inferiores neutri valvula interiore minula : superiores 
masculini bivalves, valvulis ovatis, equitantibus. Yalvula 
exterior maxima, deorsum convexa ; interior tenuis, deor- 
sum concava, marginibus ad angulum inrlexis, angulis cili- 
atis. Stamina sex. 
Femininam vel Hermaphroditam non vidi florentem. 

Malacca Schambi 1 , p. l 27 . Jig. 17- 
Nati Schambu, p. <29- Jig. 18. 

Jambu is a Sangscrita word, the first letter being pronounced 
as in English : but, as this sound is not given in the Dutch lan- 
guage, Rheede writes the word Schambu. The Portuguese seem 
to have written it Gambit ; but in all the pronunciation is nearly 

Rheede begins his description by remarking that there are 
two kinds of Schambu ; the Malacca, called so from having come 
from that country ; and the Nati Schambu, of which he gives no 
explanation, but I conceive the meaning to be this. In the 
vulgar dialect of Malabar, Nada or Nata is analogous to Desa 
of the Sangscrita or Hindwi, and signifies a country or territory ; 
while Nati or Desi signifies any thing belonging to the coun- 
try or indigenous. Nati Schambu, therefore, is the indigenous 
Schambu. I am convinced, however, that by some misunder- 
standing Rheede has reversed the names : and that the tree 
which he calls Malacca Schambu is indigenous in Malabar, as in 
all parts of India Proper ; while the Nati Schambu is a native of 


1 82 Dr. F rancjs II A m i i/ro n 's Commen tarij 

the Eastern Islands, and in Malabar is found only about Euro- 
pean settlements. Much therefore of what is said by Syen, in 
the note concerning this species, must be considered as belong- 
ing to the Nati Schambu. This has given rise to many difficulties 
in quoting the older accounts of the two kinds ; for, among the 
later botanists, there can be no doubt that the Malacca Schambu 
is the Eugenia Jambos, while the Nati Schambu is the Eugenia 
malaccemk; which shows that Linnaeus knew the real country of 
at least the latter plant. 

Of the synonyma quoted for the Malacca Schambu in the Flora 
Zeylanica by Linnaeus, that of Bauh. Fin. 441. may be considered 
as belonging to the Nati Schambu. The same may be affirmed 
of the Jambosa domestic* of Rumphius (Herb. Amb. i. 121. /. 37), 
first introduced by the elder Burman among the synonyma of 
the Malacca Schambu. This was corrected by his son in the Flora 
Tndica (114.), while he introduced another error equally great, in 
supposing the Jambosa silvestrh alba of Rumphius to be the same 
with the Eugenia Jambos. This error continues in Willdenow ; 
and the authors of the Erie. Meth. (iii. 197.) do not venture 
to reject it altogether, but consider the two plants as varieties. 
This Malacca Schambu or Eugenia Jambos, indeed, is not at all 
mentioned by Rumphius, except in a paragraph (iv. 123.) where 
he says that a tree of it stood before the castle of Victoria in 
Amboyna, where it was called by the Portuguese name Jambo 
d'agoa rosada. From this I conclude that it was an exotic, and 
had been introduced by the Portuguese from India Proper, 
where it grows in abundance : although Rumphius, from the 
name given to it by Rheede, considers it as having come from 
Malacca. As properly synonymous with this species we may 
add the Jambos fructu luteo, mespili forma odorata, Gambu dicta. 
Burm. Thes. Zeyl. 125. This indeed is the only form in which 
I have seen the tree ; and I suspect that those who describe it 


on the Hortus IMalabaricus, Part I. 488 

with a pyriform fruit confound it with the Jambosa domestiea of 
Rumphius, both having the smell of roses. 

"With respect to the synonyma of the Nati ISchambu, or Eu- 
geniam alaccensis, we may observe that the Jumbos sylvestris 
fructu rotundo cerasi magnitudine of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 125) 
quoted by Linnaeus in the Flora Zeylanica (187), and by the 
younger Burman (Fl. hid. 114.), may be safely omitted, as 1ms 
been done by "Willdenow. It is probably the same with some of 
those described by Rumphius under the name of Jambosa .syl- 

These difficulties in the synonyma seem to have prevented 
both the Hortus Malabaricus and Herbarium Amboinense from 
being quoted in the Hortus Bengalensis for either the E. maiac- 
censis or E. Jambos. 

Ciiampacam, p. Si. Jig. 19- 

There is no doubt of this plant being the Mickelia Champaca 
of authors : but there is strong reason to doubt the propriety of 
separating the Michelias from the MagjioUas. The number oi 
petals is not a sufficient character, as it is liable to considerable 
variation even in the same individual ; nor can the fruit of the 
Michelia be called a berry, in the sense that word now obtains. 
There is a fleshy juicy aril round the seeds : but still the fruit 
consists of two valves; and in a Michelia which I have seen, and 
which it is very difficult to distinguish by a well defined charac- 
ter from the Champaca, the valves of the capsule are completely 
dry and hard, and finally, the habit or general appearance 1 of the 
Michelias is not different from that of the Magnolias. 

Exenc r, 

484 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

EhENGi,p. 33. Jig. 20. 
M ww sops Elengi of authors. 

Maniapumeram, p. 35. Jig. 21. 
Nyctanthes arbor truth of authors : called Scabrita by some late 

Mania is probably the proper native name, Pu signifying 
flower, and Maram tree. In Pegu I was shown this as the tree 
on which the inhabitants reared a silkworm, probably the same 
with the Tessar of Bengal, on which account the people there 
call it Vo-za ban, Bombycis arbor. In India Proper the tube of 
the corolla is used as a dye. 

Conn a, p. 37. Jig. 22. 
Cassia Jistula of authors. 
Gflertner was perhaps excusable in thinking that the Cassia of 
Linnreus should be divided into two genera, Cassia and Senna, 
as Tournefort had done : but for what reason Persoon proposes 
to change the decent enough name Cassia into the uncouth Ca- 
thartocarpus, I cannot say. Bad as this name is, Willdenow 
has lately contrived a worse, and the Cassia is now become 
Bactyrolobium. I must further observe, that the Linnaean gene- 
ric character, taken from the stamina, distinguishes these plants 
from all others with facility : while the limits between the Cas- 
sias and Sennas, drawn from the structure of the legume, are 
not easily to be defined even in species which differ remarkably 
in their general appearance. Thus the fruit of the Cassia sophera 
does not properly open into valves, and is divided by transverse 
membranes into many cells, somewhat like the Cassia Jistula ; 
but in other respects it resembles much the true Senna, while 
many species, in size and splendour of flowers, resemble the Cas- 
sia Jistula, but produce a leafy legumen opening with two flat 


on the Hortus Malabo ricus, Part I. 


valves. The cathartic pulp is by no means universal among 
the species best defined as Cassias. 

BALAM PULLI,p. 39- fig- 23. 

Tamarindus indica auctorum. 

The specific name is a vile pleonasm, as being contained in the 
generic appellation, which signifies the Date of India. 

CODDAM PULLI,_p. 41. fig. 24. 

It is now generally admitted that Linmeus was wrong in con- 
sidering this as the tree which produces the true Gummi gutta 
or Gamboge ; and that he was also wrong in separating it as a 
genus from Garcinia. As he was in an error respecting the 
Cambogia, modern botanists, in uniting the two genera, have 
acted right in retaining the name Garcinia ; and when Willde- 
now made the Cambogia a Garcinia, it would have been better if 
he had not retained Cambogia as the specific name, as it still 
leads to error ; for I believe there is no further ground for sup- 
posing the drug called Camboge to be produced in Ceylon. 

Atty alu, ;;. A3. Jig. 25. 

In the Flora Indica of Burman (226.) this name is read Altij- 
alu, which is retained in Willdenow, and even in the generally 
accurate Hortus Kewensis, probably owing to the authors having 
quoted on the authority of Burman without examining the Hor- 
tus Malabar icus. 

The Atty-alu is usually conjoined with the Grossularia domes- 
tica of Rumphius, and quoted for the Ficus racemosa If Hid. Sp. 
PL iv. 1146. Enc. Meth. ii. 496. I think, however, that the 
two plants are different ; and although the Grossularia domestica 
is quoted in the Encyclopedic with doubt, I suspect that it is 
the plant described in this work, especially as it quotes the 

vol. XUI. 3 k Grossularia 

486 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Grossularia sylvestris of Rumphius as a mere variety, and that 
without doubt. The author of the Hortus Kewensis has there- 
fore doue wisely in not quoting the Grossularia domestica for the 
Atty-alu, which I am persuaded is represented in the Herba- 
rium Amboinense iii. t. 94. Although in the explanation of this 
plate it is said to represent the Caprificus aspera latifolia, this 
can by no means be reconciled with the description, which 
I think belongs to the Ficus symphytifolia Encycl. Meth. ii. 498 ; 
and I have no doubt that this plate (94.) represents the Gohi 
glabra of Rumphius, iii. 151. Further, I know that Dr. Rox- 
burgh, when I returned from Ava, considered the Atty-alu as 
the same with his Ficus glomerata, although he does not quote it 
in the Hortus Bengalensis, deterred probably b}^ Willdenow's 

The synonyma of this tree I therefore consider to be as follows : 
Ficus glomerata, Hort. Beng. 66. AVilld. Sp. PI. iv. 1148. En- 
cycl. Meth. Sup. ii. 656. 
Ficus racemosa, Hort. Kew. v. 488. 
Gohi glabra, Herb. Amb. iii. 151. t. 94. perperam ad Caprificum 

asperam latifoliam relata. 
Udumbar Sans. Dumbar Hind. Jugya Dumar Beng. Sa-pann- 

gaeh Barm. 
Habitat ubique ad pagos India. 

Itty Alu, p. 45. fig. 26. 

In the Encyclopedic Methodique (ii. 493.) this is quoted for the 
Ficus Benjamina joined with the plant figured in Plukenet (Phyt. 
243. /. 4.) ; and nothing in either work contradicts the opinion 
that both authors meant the same plant, although the figure of 
Plukenet, having no fruit, is rather doubtful. Willdenow, who 
had only seen a plant without flower, which he took to be the 
Ficus Benjamina, adds as synonymous the Varinga parvifolia of 


on the llortus Malabaricus, Part I. 487 

Rumphius (Herb. Amb. iii. 139. t. 90.), which I consider as n 
different plant : for Rumphius says "fructus scssiles." Now the 
fruit of the Itty alu is on a stalk. In order, indeed, to obviate 
this difficult}', Willdenow calls the fruit rcccptaculum subsessile : 
and the figure in Rumphius, probably all that Willdenow ever 
consulted, has indeed this appearance in some parts : but this 
must be attributed to the carelessness of the draughtsman, for 
Rumphius was too blind to be able to check Mich errors, which 
were frequent. It remains therefore doubtful whether we are to 
consider the Itty alu or the Varinga parvifolia as the Ficus Ben- 
jamina of Willdenow ; only the term receptaculum subsessile, 
used in his specific character, is not at all applicable to the for- 
mer : and as the same term is continued in the llortus Kewensis 
(v. 487.)? some doubt isthrownon the plant meant in this valuable 
work, although it quotes only the Itty alu. I have not seen any 
tree that I could consider as the Itty alu ; nor in the llortus 
Bengalensis is any mention made of the Ficus Benjamina. I 
have, however, seen what I consider as both kinds of the Va- 
ringa parvifolia of Rumphius. 

Arealu, p. A7.Jig. 27- 
This is the Ficus religiosa of the llortus Kevcnsis (v. 484.), al- 
though in this work Willdenow (Sp. PL iv. 1134.) is quoted; 
and his plant is liable to some doubt, as besides the Arealu he 
also quotes the Arbor conciliorum of Rumphius. Willdenow in- 
deed says that the figure given by Rumphius is bad ; and no 
doubt, as it represents a plant totally different form the Arealu, 
so it ought. Prom this circumstance, however, we may infer 
that Willdenow really meant the Arealu to be his Ficus religiosa, 
as it was that of Linnseus, the proper synonyma being given in 
the Flora Zeylanica (372.): for it must be observed, that while 
Willdenow added the Arbor conciliorum, he omitted the Arbor 

3 b 2 zeylanica 

488 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

zeylanica religiosa of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 29), from whence the 
specific name was borrowed. In the Encyclopedic Methodique 
(ii. 493.) the Arbor conciliorum is considered as a variety of A realu ; 
but I have no doubt of their being entirely different species. 
Although the Arealuwas particularly sacred among the heretical 
sect of Buddha, and is the Bo-dhi been chiefly venerated among its 
adherents in Ava ; yet the veneration for it was too deeply seated 
among the populace to be eradicated ; and among the orthodox 
of the day, it and the next tree hold nearly an equal place. 

Peralu, p. 4^9. Jig. 23. 

This tree was described by Commeline under the name of Fi- 
cus bengalensis folio subrotundo, fructu orbiculato, which in the 
first edition of the Species Flantarum was united with an Ame- 
rican tree figured by Plukenet (Phyt. t. 178. f. 1.) to form the 
Ficus bengalensis. Plukenet considered his plant as the same 
with the Toiakela of Rheede (Hort. Mai. iii. t. 64.), to which in- 
deed it has as great a resemblance as the Peralu ; but it is not 
likely that an American Ficus should be the same with either. 
His plant, however, still continues united with the Peralu in 
Willdenow ; and, although not mentioned in the Hort us Ke wen- 
sis, is perhaps the plant meant in that work, as Sloane's MSS. 
are quoted, and these probably relate to a plant of Jamaica. 

When the Peralu was added to the Ficus bengalensis I can- 
not exactly say ; but probably it was by Linnaeus when he pub- 
lished the second edition of the Species Plant arum. In the En- 
cyclopedic Methodique (ii. 494.) the American plant of Plukenet, 
with its synonyma, was so far separated from the Peralu, as to 
be considered a remarkable variety ; but in treating of the Pe- 
ralu, the compiler of this useful work has been led into a great 
mistake in supposing it to be the Pipala of the Hindus ; for al- 
though equally sacred with the tree so called, it is the Vata of 


on the Ilortus Malabaricus, Part I. 489 

the Sanscrita, written Vadoe by Rheede, and in the vulgar dia- 
lects corrupted to Bar, Bat, Barga, &c. ; while the Pippala of 
the Sanscrita is the Ficus religiosa. From the vast size to which 
the Peralu grows ; from its great celebrity all over India : from 
its being found near almost every village as a sacred plant, I 
have no doubt of its being the Ficus indica of the Greeks and 
Romans, and it is the Banyan tree of modern travellers. The 
other trees quoted by European botanists for this celebrated 
plant being rare, confined to a few woods, and altogether un- 
noticed and unknown to the bulk of the natives, I applaud 
Dr. Roxburgh for rejecting the barbarous specific bengalensis, 
and for restoring to the Peralu the ancient appellation of Ficus 
indica (Ilort. Ben g. 65). 

Folia basi sinu parvo cordata vel retusa, apice obtusa, subtus 
saepe subtomentosa, semper pilosa, subquinquenervia : nervi 
enim plerumque quinque supra basin coalescunt, et pneter 
eos ad basin sunt duo minuti. Fici globosi, pubescentes, 
magnitudine nucis moschata*, calyce vel involucro triphyllo 
arete cincti. 

B.UPARITI, p. 51. fig. 29- 

In the Flora Zeylanica (258.) Linnaeus annexing numerous 
synonyma, and probably with tolerable accuracy, called this 
Hibiscus joliis cordatis integerrimis, which in the Species Plant a- 
rum became the Hibiscus populneus ; and at the same time several 
changes were made in the synonyma, not for the better, as a 
doubt arises concerning the plant meant, by adding the Novella 
litorea (Herb. Amb. ii. 224. t. 74.), which I consider as a diffe- 
rent species, from the form of the fruit, that opens in five valves, 
and from its growing only on the sea-shore. Both however con- 
tinue united not only in AVilldenow and the Encyclopedic, where 
the Bupariti continues a Hibiscus, but even in Gartner (ii. 253), 


490 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

who removes this plant to a genus which he calls Malvaviscus. 
His description of the fruit is only applicable to that of the jBm- 
pariti, which must therefore be considered as his plant : and in 
the Hortus Kewensis (iv. 224.) the Novella litorea is properly 
omitted. See further under next head. 

Paiiiti seu Tali Pariti, p. 53. Jig. 30. 
This stands nearly on the same footing with the Bupariti, want 
of care in quoting the synonyma having rendered doubtful the 
plant meant. Under the name Ketmia zeylanica semper virens et 
florens, TilicE folio, flore luteo, the elder Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 136) 
collected a number of synonyma, some of them such as the 
Arbor solis of Herman, belonging certainly to the Bupariti, while 
the American plant of Plumier in all probability belonged to 
another species. Linnaeus in his Flora Zeylanica (259-) taking 
up the plant of Burman, with the American plant of Plumier, 
but rejecting all the other synonyma of the Thesaurus Zeylanicus, 
added them to the Pariti, and formed the species which he 
afterwards called Hibiscus tiliaceus. In the Species Plant arum, 
especially as it now stands in Willdenow's edition, the synonyma 
of the Flora Zeylanica have undergone many changes, and not all 
for the better. To the original American plant has been added 
another, yet both are acknowledged to want one of the chief spe- 
cific characters. The Novella of Rumphius (Her^b. Amb. ii. 218. 
t. 73.) is restored, although Rumphius himself considered his 
Novella as the Bupariti of Rheede, and his Novella rubra (Herb. 
Amb. ii. 223.) as the Pariti. With regard to the former he was 
certainly mistaken ; but with regard to the latter he may be right. 
Burman, however, in his notes on the Novella rubra, considers it 
as a mere variety of Novella, which is probably the case ; and 
the Novella has perhaps therefore been joined with propriety to 
the Pariti, with which however the description agrees better than 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. \\)\ 

the figure, Rumphius from the defect of sight being unable not 
only to judge concerning the care of his draughtsman, but even 
to know whether or not the figure intended was actually joined to 
the description. 

These differences have perhaps induced the author of the 
Hortus Kcwensis to quote neither Rheede nor Rumphius for the 
Hibiscus tiliaceus ; and in the Hortus Bengalensis the Novella 
alone is quoted for this plant, while the Pariti is considered as 
a distinct species, called Hibiscus tortuosus by Dr. Roxburgh. 
Notwithstanding this, I may venture to say that the Pariti is the 
plant usually taken for the Hibisctu tiliaceus by botanists ; and is 
evidently the one described in the Encyclopedic Mithodique (iii. 
351.), although the figure referred to in the Supplement (iii. 216.) 
has as little resemblance as the Novella to the Pariti. 

On the whole, Plukenet's synonyma (Aim. 16*.) to the two 
plants of the Hortus Malabaricus are the best and most certain, 
and seem sufficient to lead us to a more full and exact list of the 
names which the Bupariti and Pariti bore in the older authors ; 
only to the list for the latter we must add his own plant, de- 
scribed in the Amaltheum (vi. /. 355. f. 5.), although he does 
not seem to have recognised that he had previously mentioned 
it : but the figure is perfectly characteristic. 

The author of the Encyclopedic Mithodique considers the figure 

of Plukenet (t. 178. /. 3.) as representing the Pariti, while Plu- 

kenet considered it as the Ficus indica of Pliny, Strabo, and other 

ancients. That he was mistaken in this, there can be no doubt ; 

but, notwithstanding the form of the stipulae strongly supports 

the Encyclopedic, I scarcely think that Plukenet could be so far 


Cudu Pariti, p. 55. Jig. 31. 

After having inquired much into the subject, and seen the 
cultivation of cotton carried on in a great extent of India, I am 


492 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

persuaded that what in general are called species of Gossypium 
are mere varieties, differing vastly less than the varieties of cab- 
bage (Brassica okracea) reared in our gardens. 

In the first place, the plant being annual, or growing to a small 
tree with a woody stem lasting for years, is a mere accidental 
circumstance, owing to the manner of treatment. In many 
places, the farmer considers it most for his advantage to sow the 
seed at a season when the seed, being brought rapidly forward, 
will produce plants which when two or three feet high will 
nower, and give a great return by producing numerous large 
well-filled capsules ; immediately after which the exhausted 
plant is ploughed down for some crop of another kind, in order 
to restore the strength of the soil before another crop of cotton is 
taken : but the very same seed, if sown in a corner at another 
season, so as to come on less rapidly, will produce plants that 
last five or six years, that grow ten or twelve feet high, and that 
acquire a woody stem as thick as a man's leg. In some parts of 
the country an intermediate management is preferred. The 
seed is sown in distant rows, at a season when the plant will not 
flower until it reaches five or six feet high, and then becomes a 
strong shrub. The plant thus reared, with weeding and manure, 
lasts several years, and in each produces several crops ; on which 
account, one manner of management is called Baramasya Capas, 
or twelve-month cotton. Some varieties of the plant are reck- 
oned by the farmers more suitable than others for each variety 
of cultivation : but 1 am confident that every kind known in 
India might be reared in all the three ways, and thus become an 
annual, a shrub, or a tree. 

In the next place, the number and form of the lobes in each 
leaf, the number of glands, and the various degrees of pubes- 
cence, on which botanists have attempted to found specific di- 
stinctions, in this genus are equally uncertain with the duration 


oti the Ilortus Malabaricus, Part I. 493 

of the roots, all being liable to great variation in plants produced 
from the same seed: the pubescence is however the best criterion 
of the three, and may serve at least to distinguish varieties. 

The variety of appearance produced by cultivation on cotton 
did not altogether escape the notice of Rumphius, as may be 
seen (Herb.Amb. iv. 34.), where he describes the place of growth, 
and in the paragraph (36) beginning " sacerdotes Egyptii." But 
when he described his Gossypium latifolium as a distinct species, 
which is merely the Gossypium reared into a tree by planting it 
in a corner, as I have mentioned, he seems to have neglected his 
former observations ; yet he acknowledges that his Gossypium 
latifolium is the same with the Kudu Pariti, although no two va- 
rieties resemble each other less than the figures in the two au- 
thors. I am however convinced that he is here right ; and so 
far as I saw in the province of Malabar, the only manner in 
which cotton was raised by the natives, was as the little trees 
reared in corners of gardens ; it was not cultivated in fields for 
sale. Neither do I blame Linnaeus for joining with these two 
arborescent varieties the Gossypium herbaceum, Sec. of Plukenet 
(Aim. 172. Phyt. 1. 188. /. 3.) ; although this, having been treated 
in the usual manner by sowing in a field, was a herb and not a 

If the Gossypiums are therefore to be divided into species, 
we must altogether neglect the divisions of modern botanists, 
derived chiefly from circumstances which I am persuaded are 
accidental, and return to the characters on which C Bauhin 
and the botanists of other days chiefly relied ; and I would pro- 
pose three species, adding one to the two originally marked out 
by Linnaeus, in reality, I am persuaded, on the characters of the 
older botanists, although Linnaeus assumed others less satisfac- 
tory, the adopting their characters having been contrary to the 
rules which he thought necessary to propose. 

vol. xiii. 3 s Specie* 

494 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Species 1. 

Gossypium album, lana semineque albis. 

Gossypium herbaceum. Burnt. Fl. Lid. 150. (excluso synonymo 

Gossypium frutescens, animum, folio trilobato Barbadense. 

Pink. Aim. 172. Phyt. t. 188. /. 1. et forte f. 2. et t. 299- 

Colitur praesertim in Egypto, Asi& Minore, Syria, et Antillis. 

Species 2. 

Gossypium nigrum, lan& alba, semine nigricante. 

Kudu Pariti. Hort. Mai. i. 55. t. 31. 

Gossypium. Herb. Amb. iv. 33. 1. 12. ; et Gossypium latifolium. 

Herb. Amb. iv. 37- t. 13. 
Gossypium herbaceum, &c. Pluk. Aim. 172. Phyt. t. 188. 

/. 3. 
Gossypium arboreum. Burm. Ind. 150. 
Colitur praesertim in Indid vetere et aquosd. 

Species 3. 

Gossypium croceum, lana crocea. 

Gossypium religiosum. Hort. Beng. 51. Willd. Sp. PL iii. 805. 

Colitur in Indi& Gangeticd rarius, in China plurimum. 

Chovanna Mandaru prima, p. 57. fig. 32. 

There can be no doubt that this is the Bauhinia variegata of 
authors, although the specific character given in Willdenow, and 
copied in the Hortus Kewensis, will little enable one to distin- 
guish it, especially from the Candida, the only difference between 
these plants being in the colour of the flower. I therefore con- 
sider them as mere accidental varieties. In the south of India 


on the Ilortus Malabavicus, Part I. 495 

the tree seldom is bare of leaves; but these being old when the 
tree flowers, they are then smooth. In the north, again, the 
leaves fall entirely before the flowers appear ; and the new ones 
do not expand until the flowers have almost decayed, and then, 
being fresh, they are hairy below. On this account, I at first 
thought that the plant which I found in the north was different 
from that which I had formerly described in the south ; but a 
more careful examination convinced me that there was no real 
difference. Both the white and red varieties are equally liable 
to this variation ; and the same is the case in another difference 
that occurs in this species : some flowers, between the five fertile 
stamina, which each contains, have an equal number of minute 
barren filaments, alternating with those which are fertile : others 
want these appendages. 

Mandaru seems to be the generic name for the Bauhinias in 
the languages of Kaerulu, both sacred and vulgar, which in the 
greater number of plants do not agree. The names however 
used by the Brahmans of Malabar, according to Rheede, are 
generally the same, or nearly so, with those given in the Hindwi 
dialect, which are commonly mere corruptions from the Sans- 
crita, and are probably only those used by the Brahmans in 
common conversation, and not such as are used in their scien- 
tific works, which are almost all written in the last-mentioned 
dialect. The generic name for the Bauhinias, which I heard 
used in Carnata, was Canchala, evidently the same with Can- 
chana the Hindwi, or Canchun the Bengalese name used in the 
north, and preserved in Canschena Pou of Rheede (p. 63.) as a 
specific name, Pou being the corruption for Phula (Flos, Flower), 
usual in Malabar. These circumstances being premised, I shall 
give a description of this species, comprehending both B. vark- 
gafa and B. alba, such as appears to me entirely applicable to 


3s? Bauhinia 

496 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Bauhinia variegata, calyce hinc ad fundum fisso, antheris fertili- 

bus quinque. 
Habitat in sepibus et ad pagos templaque Indiae. 

Arbuscula ramulis angulatis, pubescentibus. Folia alterna, sub- 
rotunda, sinu brevi utrinque bifida, nervis circiter undecim 
subtus prominulis, et venis plurimis reticulata, supra nuda, 
subtus nunc fere tomentosa, tunc nudiuscula, lobis utrin- 
que obtusissimis. Petiolus brevis, pubescens, ad extremita- 
tem utramque incrassatus, canaliculars. Stipules deciduae, 
duplicate ; interior setacea. Racemi (vel capitula) brevis- 
simi, 3 — 6-flori, ex axillis foliorum anni praeteriti prode- 
untes. Pedicelli conferti, squamula un& vel altera minuta 
ovata ad basin bracteati, paulo supra basin articulati, dein 
incrassati, angulati, subpubescentes. Flores magni, odorati, 
variegati petalo imo coloratiore. Calyx latere disrumpens, 
nervis quindecim striatus, apice quinquedentatus. Petala 
ad unum latus deflexa, unguiculata, lanceolato-ovata, acuta, 
intermedio latiore, ad basin conduplicato. Filamenta quin- 
que (aliquando, sed non semper, alia quinque his alterna, 
minuta, sterilia), petalis opposita, adscendentia. Anthera in 
filamentis longioribus quinque fertiles, versatiles, oblongae. 
Germen pedicellatum, lanceolatum, pilosum. Stylus crassus, 
pilosus. Stigma obtusum. Legumen planum, marginatum, 
acuminatum, saepius pentaspermum, inter semina angusta- 
tum, valvis inter semina conniventibus subquinqueloculare. 

Varietas a, petalis quatuor roseis, purpureo-venosis, quinto pur- 

pureo fusco et flavo variegato. 
Chovanna Mandaru prima. Hort. Mai. i. 57. Jig. 32. 
Bauhinia variegata. Burm. Ind. 94. Willd. Sp. PL ii. 510. En- 

cycl. Meth. i. 389- Hort. Kew. iii. 23. Hort. Beng. 31. 
Mandaru prima species. Pluk. Aim. 240. 


on the Ilortus Malabaricut, Part I. 497 

Varietas /3 petalis quatuor albidis, quinto intits rlavo et viridi va- 

Bauhinia Candida. Willd. Sp. PL ii. 510. Ifort. Keu\ iii. 23. 
liort. Bene. 31. 

Chovanna Mandaru secuxda, />. 5$. Jig, 33. 
The Bauhinia purpurea of authors. 
So far as I have heard, it is most usually called by the same 
names with the B. variegata, from which indeed it differs but 
little ; and it is equally entitled to the name variegata, as it has 
four purple petals, and the fifth finely variegated with white. 
Although the plant is well known, I shall note the difference! 
between it and the description of the B. variegata. 

Rami teretes. Folia apicem versus, lobis divergentibus, dilatata. 
Petiolus brevissimus. Stipulce persistentes. PcdicttU api- 
cem versus articulati. Flores parum odorati. Calyx cori- 
aceus, reflexus, quinque-carinatus, latere dehiscens, apice 
integer. Petala longius unguiculata, cuneata, venosa, un- 
dulata. Filamenta decern, quorum septem minima, setacea; 
tria, summum nempe, et ab hoc secundum, utrinque Jongi- 
tudine fere corollae, petalis opposita, et haec versus incurva. 
Afithera sagittate. Legumen longissimum, planum, line- 
are, valvis inter semina plura conniventibus. 

Velutta Mandaru, p. 61. fig. 34. 

It is generally agreed to call this the Bauhinia acuminata, al- 
though the lobes of the leaves are sometimes rather blunt, and 
never acuminated ; but they are not so much rounded as in the 
two last-mentioned plants. So far as I have heard, it is seldom 
distinguished from them by any appropriate name, being usu- 
ally called Canchun. 


498 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Plukenet (Aim. 240.) says that he received a specimen from 
Jamaica. If actually of the same species, the plant had proba- 
bly been brought from India ; but nearly similar plants are 
often mistaken for each other, and these mistakes lead to an opi- 
nion of plants extending much further than in reality is the case. 
Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 45.) indeed quotes a plant of Sloane as sy- 
nonymous with the Velutta Mandaru ; but this was probably 
what Plukenet saw. These two authors, however, should be 
added to the synonyma in Willdenow ; especially Burman, who 
gives a description. His synonyma respecting the Thomaa ar- 
bor must be received with caution ; as this name is said to be 
derived from the flower having been stained red with this saint's 
blood : but there is no red about the flower of the Velutta Man- 
daru. The following; are the most remarkable of its characters: 

Folia sinu parvo cordata, apice biloba, lobis semiovatis saepins 
acutiusculis. Calyx acutus, uno latere dehiscens, reflexus. 
Petala undique patentia, obtusa, Filament a decern fertilia, 
basi coalita, alterna breviora, declinata. Stamina minime 
diadelpha, ut voluit Linnaeus. . 

Canschena Feu, p. 63. Jig. 35. 

Since the time of Linnaeus, botanists agree in calling this 
plant the Bauhinia tomentosa, a most improper appellation ; as, 
when the foliage is fully grown, it is nearly destitute of hairiness. 
The description in Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 44.) shows clearly that 
this is the plant which he meant, and is good ; but here also we 
must receive with doubt, or rather altogether reject, the syno- 
nyma referring to the Arbor sancti Thoma, in cujusfloribus appa- 
rent sanguinecE stria, ab effuso sanguine F>. Thomce enatai, which, 
I agree with Plukenet, should be entirely referred to the Bauhi- 
nia variegata. Plukenet (Aim. 240.) considers his Mandaru 

quart a 

on the Hortus Maiabaricus, Part L 499 

quarta species as the Canschena pou, and different from the Man- 
daru Madaraspatense $c. quoted by Willdenow (Sp. PL ii. 511.) 
as synonymous with the Bauhinia tomentosa. 

The author of the Encyclopedic (i. 390.) is quite wrong in 
stating that the leaves have no sinus at the base, asany one may 
be convinced by looking at the figure of the Canschena pou. In- 
deed, in the Botanical garden at Calcutta I saw a species from 
America remarkably allied to this, and which only differed, so 
far as I could observe, in having folia basi rotundata neccora'ata, 
and in wanting the large purplish mark near the bottom of the 
petals. The description in the Encyclopedic is also fault v in re- 
presenting the flowers as standing in the axillae of the leaves. 

Folia utrinque biloba, subrotunda lobis obtusis. Stipuhc su- 
bulatae marcescentes. Pedunculus primo quasi terniinalis, 
sed prodeunte ramulo revera oppositifolius, biflorus. Flo- 
re* nutantes, flavi. Calyx ovatus, acutus, latere uno dehi- 
scens, basi intus tuberculis quinque munitus. Petala tu- 
berculis calycis alterna, sessilia, subrotunda, subrequalia, 
marginum altero interiore oblique convoluta. Filamenta 
decern, alternis longioribus, basi unita. Anthera omnes 
fertiles. Legumen pedicellatum, lineare, acuminatum, pla- 
num, valvis inter semina ovalia 10. s. 12. transversa con- 
niventibus. Flos marcescens rubescit ut in Hibisco popul- 
neo, Gossypiis pluribus, et aliis Malvaceis flore flavo. 

Marotti,;?. 65. Jig. 36. Enc. Meth. iii. 713. 
I cannot discover that this tree has been introduced into any 
of the modern botanical systems ; but I have had an opportu- 
nity of observing the Marotti in the province of Malabar, and 
another species of the same genus in the hills of Tripura and 
Camrupa, bounding the province of Bengal on the east. I have 


500 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

great difficulty in referring this genus to any of the natural or- 
ders of Jussieu ; sometimes thinking that it had a kind of resem- 
blance to the Berber ides : at others, that it came nearer the third 
division of the Tiliacece : and at others, to the third division of 
the Jura tit ice ; but I am dissatisfied with all these arrangements. 
In the opinion of the authors of the EncyclopSdie, this plant and 
the Pangi of Rumphius {Herb. Amb. ii. 182.) have an affinity, 
and in the general structure and the qualities of their fruits they 
have a general resemblance ; but, if I understand the descrip- 
sion of Rumphius, the seed of the Pangi has no perispermum. 
The Marotti has perhaps a still greater affinity with the Hydno- 
carpus, belonging, like it, to the Polygamia dioecia of Linnaeus ; 
but in place of having hermaphrodite and female trees, it has 
hermaphrodite and male. On account of the resemblance of 
Marotti to Marattia, I shall prefer the Bengalese name for the 
genus, and describe first the species found on the hills of Tri- 



Herm. Calyx pentaphyllus. Petala quinque ; squama totidem 
petalis opposite. Stamina 6 — 15. Germen superum. Stig- 
ma peltatum, sessile. Bacca lignosa, uniloculars, pulpo 
farcta. Semina nidulantia, plura. 

Masculini in diverse arbore flores. Calyx, petala, et stamina 
ut in hermaphrodito. Germen nullum. 

Species 1. 
Chilmoria dodecandra, staminibus 10 — 15 indefinitis. 
Chilmori Bengalensium in Tripura. 
Habitat in montibus Indise ultragangeticae. 
Specimina misi ad D. J. Banks anno 1798. 

Arbor elata ramis cinereis, laevibus. Folia alterna, lato-lanceo- 

* Gvnocardta. Roxb, Corom. iii. p. 95. 


on the Hortia Malabaricui, Part /. 501 

lata, vel ovato-oblonga, integerrima, acuta, utrinquc niiida, 
subcostata, vcnosa, pollices 8 longa, duo lata. retinitis 
teres, canaliculatus, ad apicem tncrassatus, brevissimus. Sti~ 
pulce, si ullrc, caduca?. Pcdunculus interfbliaeeus, Bparsus, 
patens, petiolo brevior, uniflorus, teres, nudus. Flares h< r- 
bacei, parvi. Calyx 4- seu 5-phyllus, deciduus, foliolis sub- 
rotundis, concavis, longitudine petalorum. Petala 5 seu 6 
tenuia, subrotunda, concava, ad marginem villosa ; squama* 
totidem petalis opposite, et his magnitudine Bequales, eras- 
siores. Filament a longitudine petalorum, receptaoulo in- 
serta, erecta, subulata, villosa. Anthem* cordate. Ger- 
men ovatum, tomentoso-sericeum. Stigma quadripartifom 
laciniis horizontalibus, obtusis. Dacca pedicellata absqiu- 
calycis vel styli rudimento, depresso-subrotunda, epider- 
mide tecta granuloso, cortice crasso li^mu ^labm tecta, 
pulpo carnoso farcta, unilocularis. Semina plura, absque 
ordine in pulpo nidulantia, ovalia, compressa, latere rccti- 
ore crassiore. Integumentum triplex : exterius membra - 
naceum, pulpo adherens ; medium durum, fragile, crassius- 
culum, ad latus crassius politum, in circumferentia dera- 
sum, album ; interius membranaceum, tenue. Albumen 
album, forma seminis carnosum. Embryo rectus transver- 
sus. Colyledones contigua?, subrotundaj, plana?, crassiuscu- 
lac, rectae. Radicula recta crassa ad medium lateris semi- 
nis crassioris tendens. 

Masculinos flores non vidi. 

Seminibus oleum expressum ad morbos cutaneos reprimendos 
a Bengalensibus adhibetur. 

Species 2. 

Chihnoria pentandra, staminibus quinque. 
Marotti. Ilort. Mai. i. 65. t. 56. 

vol. xiii. 3 t Marathi 

502 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Marathi Malyalae. 

Surati in Haiva. 

Habitat in sylvis Indian australis oceanum versus occidentalem. 

Arbor praecedenti simillima. Rami angulati. Folia oblongo- 
ovata, acuminata, serrata, nuda, costata, crassa. Petiolus 
compressus, canaliculatus, subpubescens. Stipules caducae, 
geminae, laterales, e basi lata sensim angustatae, erecta3, in- 
tegerrimae, tomentosae. Pedunculus axillaris, solitarius, uni- 
florus, petiolo duplo longior, medium versus squamula una 
vel altera bracteatus. 

Hermaphroditae arboris calyx pentaphyllus foliolis inaequalibus, 
subrotundis. Petala quinque, hypogyna, tenerrima, ad mar- 
gines pilosa, altero marginum interiore obliquo, sessilia, 
subrotunda : squama totidem, petalis multo minores. Fi- 
lament a quinque subulata, hypogyna, germine breviora, pe- 
talis alterna ; anthera parva?, didymae. Germew maximum, 
superum, ovatum. Stigma maximum, peltatum," sessile, 
quinquepartitum, laciniis bifidis, obtusis. Bacca lignosa, 
unilocularis, farcta, tomentosa, subrotunda, coronata acu- 
mine papilliformi, ad apicem obtuso, stellato. Semina an- 
gulato-ovata, acuminata, funiculis umbilicalibus e basi se- 
minis crassiore enatis ad parietes fructus exteriores affixa. 
Perispermum oleosum. Embryo rectus. Cotyledones planoe. 
. Ttadicula funiculum versus descendens. 

Masculini floris descriptionem habui e Doctore Andrea Berry. 
Huic pedunculus communis axillaris, solitarius, 5- seu 6-flo- 
rus. Calyx et corolla ut in hermaphrodito. Filament a quin- 
que, convergentia, subulata, ad basin pilosa. Anthera 
erectae, obtusae, emarginatae. Pist ilium nullum. 

Oleum lucernis aptum, et psoram adversus usurpatum, e semi- 
nibus exprimitur. 
»bs. iEgle et Feronia fructum habent nonnihil similem. 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. #Q3 

Can i ram, p. 67. Jig. 37. 
The Strychnos NtiX Vomica of Authors. 

NlLICAMAKAM, p. 69- fig. 38. 

The name should have been written Nilica maram : the latter 
word signifying tree, and the former word being in the posses- 
sive case. Is Hi is the proper name, and Neli is the name by 
which I found the tree called all over the south of India, while 
we have other species, of what the natives consider the same 
genus, in the Kirga Neli and Neli Poli. It is true that Zanoni 
uses the word Nellika as in the nominative case ; but it should 
have been Nelli kai, that is, the fruit A T e///, Kai in the dialects 
of southern India signifying fruit. The name Anvali, used by the 
Brahmans of Malabar, according to Rheede's orthography, seems 
to be a corruption of the Sanscrita Afnalaki, in the llindwi cor- 
rupted into Amlaki, and in the Bengalese into Amla. From the 
Hindwi name is derived the Emblica of Europeans, which by 
Linnaeus was made a species of Phyllanthus. As this genus has 
for some time stood, it may be defined : 

Plantae inter Euphorbias inter tropicas nascentes, foliis minori- 
bus, structura riorum et fructus haud bene cognita. 

Croton is a genus differing merely in having larger leaves. 

As European botanists have been acquiring more knowledge 
of the structure of individuals, they have been separating from 
both Phyllanthus and Croton various species to form new genera ; 
but having been directed by no general views, and having not 
been aware how few of the species correspond to the generic 
characters of Croton and Phyllanthus given by Linnaeus, these 
new genera have been formed with little judgement, and gene- 
rally upon some one trifling variation in the fructification, which 
will be found to include a few species in no manner remarkably 

3 t 2 like 

504 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

like each other, and to exclude several plants that have a strong 
resemblance to those possessed of the mark on which the gene- 
ric character is founded. Accordingly, scarcely any two bo- 
tanists are agreed about the new genera separated from the Phyl- 
lanthus and C rot on ; and some, not without strong reasons, seem 
inclined not only to replace them where they stood, and even to 
join several genera that Linnaeus himself had separated upon 
grounds perhaps no better than what have induced later botanists 
to encroach on his arrangement. 

The name Phyllanthus, given to the Nilicamaram by Linnaeus, 
was founded on the supposition that the leaves were merely pinnae 
of a compound leaf, and the flowers, being in the axils of these 
pinna?, of course were supported by the rachis of the leaf. In 
some of the species, this supposition of Linnaeus is certainly con- 
firmed by the appearance of stipulae at the junction of the small 
branches that have leaves, with the larger that are bare : but 
many species want this mark ; nor do I know of any common 
character drawn from the fructification, by which the two kinds 
could be distinguished. Many botanists talk of the species pro- 
vided with such stipulae as having pinnated leaves, and of the 
species wanting these stipulae as having simple leaves : but they 
do so with little strictness ; and, on the authority of Jussieu, I 
doubt much of these small branches which support the leaves 
being proper common petioles, as, when the leaves change, these 
little branches do not fall off, but produce new branches, each 
of which acquires supports like stipulae. 

Willdenow and the author of Hortus Kewensis have removed 
the Phyllanthus from the order of Triandria, where Linnaeus 
placed it, to the Monadelphia, to which no doubt some species 
belong ; but they do not confine themselves to such alone, 
the Phyllanthus Emblica belonging to the Monoecia Syngenesia. 
Further, as its fruit is what I would call a drupa, and not a cap- 

on the Hortus Malabaricus, Pint I. 505 

sule, I think that Gaertner lias done right in describing it as a 
separate genus, under the name Emblica. Jn the Supplement to 
the Encyclopedic (Art. Anvali) it is erroneously stated to differ 
from the Plujllanthus in having two seeds in each cell of the 
fruit: such is the case in every BhyUantku* that I know, al- 
though we must allow, on the authority of Jussieu (Gen. PI, 425. ), 
that some species of Vhyllanthufi have only three seeds in each 

The name Shrubby P/n/llantlnis given in the llortns Kewtntii 
(v. 335.) to this plant is peculiarly unfortunate, there being in 
the genus a great many shrubs, with this only tree ; for in reality 
it is nearly in size like the Holly, growing, when undisturbed, 
twenty or thirty feet high ; but when young assuming the appear- 
ance of a large bush, and in that state producing in abundance 
both flower and fruit. The latter having been accurately de- 
scribed by Gsertner, I shall only describe the flower, and men- 
tion some circumstances by which the plant may be distinguished 
from another species which I have seen, and which J shall de- 
scribe at length, adding some account of a tree with a similar 
fruit, but of which I have never seen the flower. 

Species 1. 
Emblica officinalis. Gcertn. ii. 122. t. 108. f. 2. 
Phyllanthus Emblica. Willd. Sp. PL iv. 587- Enajcl. Meth. v. 

301 ; Snpp. i. 403. Hort. Kew. v. 335. linn. Fl. Zcxjl. 333. 
Nilacamaram. Hort. Mai. i, 69- t. 38. 
Mirobalanus Embilica. Herb. Amb. vii. 1. t. 1. 
Acacia zeylanica floribus luteis, &c. Burm. Thes. Zeyl. v. ; ubi 

omnia erroris plena. 
Habitat ubique in India, siccioribus gaudens, sed humida non 


Arbor erecta ramulis foliosis fasciculatis : rami basin versus sparsi, 


506 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

apicem versus trifarii. Folia obtusa, avenia. Pedunculi 
axillares stepius tres, in alis foliorum inferiorum masculinos 
rlores, in alis superiorum fcemininos gerentes. 

Masculus flos sexpartitus, coloratus, apetalus, inferus, laciniis 
subrotundis, concavis, conniventibus. Filamentnm nullum. 
Anther a tres, biloculares, coalitae in corpus globosum, um- 
bilicatum, calyce tectum. 

Foemininus rlos apetalus, coloratus, hexaphyllus, marcescens, 
foliolis oblongis, recurvis. Filament a nonnulla, absque an- 
theris, lacera germen circumdant. Germen ovatum, mag- 
num, superum. Stylus nullus. Stigmata tria, bifida, pa- 
tentia, laciniis bifurcis, obtusis. 

Species 2. 

Emhlica pisiform is, caule arbusculoso, scandente, floribus fcemi- 

ninis medium ramuli occupantibus, foliis linearibus. 
Shiray in Carnata. 
Habitat in sylvis durioribus Indian australis Mediterranean. 

Arbuscula scandens, Emblicce officinali juniori simillima. Rami 
teretes, fusci, ad folia denticulato-nodosi. Ramuli foliosi 
absque stipulis saepius gemini, bifarii, patentes, angulati, 
persistentes. Folia alterna, minuta, in singulis ramulis plu- 
rima, bifaria, approximata, pinnas folii compositi menti- 
entia, subsessilia, linearia, ad basin oblique emarginata, 
acuta, integerrima, glabra, venosa, nervo marginali cincta. 
Stipula propria?, geminae, laterales, marcescentes. Pedun- 
cuU masculini ex axillis foliorum fere omnium terni, pen- 
duli, folio dimiclio breviores, filiformes, nudi. Fceminini 
duo vel tres prope ramuli medium solitarii, crassiores, bre- 
viores. Flores albi, foemininis majoribus. Fructus magni- 
tudine pisi. 

c? . Calycis folioia sex oblonga, obtusa, patula, duplice serie po- 


on the Jlortiis Malabaricus, Part I. 507 

sita. Glanduhe sex per paria approximate, subrotundee id 
fundo calyeis. Filamentum unieuni. centralc teres, erec- 
tum, longitudine calyeis. AntJuin tres, bilocularcs, lon- 
gitudinaliter dehiscentes, in corpus unicum coalitae. 
?. Calyx inferus, marcescens, hexii])h\ llus. Germen trilobum, 
infra margine integerrimo brevissimo mellifero cmctum. 
Stylus longitudine calyeis, ad basin I'civ trifidus, laeiniis 
erectis. Stigmata magna, biloba, horizontalia. Capsula 
baccata, depresso-triloba, lobis suleatis. Corta tenuis. Pu- 
tamen corneum, triloculare, loculis medio longitudinaliter 
dehiscentibus. Semina in singulis loculis bina, hemisphav 
rica, receptaculi central] affixa. 

Species :). 

Emblica Palasis, foliis ovalibus. 

Arbor indica, pyrifolia, fructu nucis moschaUe simili, tricapsu- 
laris. Cattakai Malabarorum. Pluk. Man*. 23. pl.2. f.S36. 
Palasi Magadlnw 
Wodagu Chera?. 
Habitat in montosis Angae, Magadha3, Cheree. 

Arbor magna, materie firma. Hamuli bifarii, teretes, nudi. Folia 
alterna, bifaria, ovalia, sed ad petiolum saepins acutiuscula, 
apice nonnunquam retusa, integerrima, venis valde reticu- 
lata, sed vix costata, nuda, subtiLis glauca. Petiolus brevis- 
simus. Stipulaz in fructifera planta obsolete. 1'lorentem 
non vidi. Fructus piscicidi, in ramulo brevi noduloso sae- 
piOis solitarii, aliquando gemini, magnitudine nucis mos- 
chatae, absque calyce subumbilicati, drupaeeo-capsulares, 
sulcis sex vel rariiis octo exarati. Cortex succulentus, sub- 
lactescens, maturitate deciduus. Cocculus osseus, sulcis sex 
vel octo polaribus exaratus, suturis tribus seu quatuor de- 


508 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

hiscens, tri- vel quadri-locularis, parietibus et septis duris 
crassis. Semina, abortu forte, solitaria, meniscoidea, sub- 
rotunda, ex apice loculi interiore apicem versus suspensa. 
Integument um duplex : exterius molle, glutinosum ; inte- 
rius politum. Albumen tenue. Embryo rectus, non spiralis. 
Cotyledones plana?, crassae, laterum altero ad umbilicum 
verso. Radkula ad extremitatem seminis pendulam posita. 

Odallam, p. 71. fig> 39- 
Rumphius, in describing his Arbor lactaria (Herb. Amb. ii. 
243. t. 81.), fell into the mistake of quoting the Odallam as syno- 
nymous, in which he was followed by Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 251.), 
who for his Manghas lactescens, Sec. quotes both with many syno- 
nyma belonging partly to one, partly to the other, and partly 
perhaps to neither ; for neither his drawing nor description can 
be well reconciled with either, having sessile blunt leaves, while 
the fruit is much smaller than that of the Odallam, and of a very 
different shape from that of the Arbor lactaria. Although, there- 
fore, Burman no doubt quotes many authorities referring partly 
to the Arbor lactaria, and partly to the Odallam, I doubt much 
of either being the plant figured and described by him : yet this 
plant of Burman is the true original of the Cerbera Manghas of 
Linnaeus, who in the Flora Zeylanica (106.) quotes the Odallam 
with doubt, and does not notice the Arbor lactaria. By the 
time, however, that the younger Burman wrote (Flor. Ind. 66.), 
all the three plants were united, and continued to be so until 
Gartner separated the Odallam, calling it Cerbera Odallam, with 
a barbarous indeclinable termination, and withal mis-spelt, as 
Rheede uses Odallam : but a typographical error in the Flora 
Zeylanica having produced Odollam, it continued to be used by 
almost all botanists, until corrected in the Hortus Kewensis, in 
which work it is quoted, without synonyma, for the Cerbera 


on the Hurl us MaiabaHcus, Part I. 509 

Manghas. I am on the whole persuaded that, as the Cerlmn 

Manghas stands in Willdenow, it contains three species. 

1. Ccrbcra Manghas, foliis obtusis, sessilibus. 

Manghas lactescens foliis Nerii crassis, venosis, Jasmini Sore, 
fructu Persica? simili, venenato. Burm. Thcs. Zeyl. 151, 
t. 70. f. 1. omissis synonymorum pluribus. 

Cerberafoliorumnervis transversalibus. Linn. FLZeyl. 106. 

Manghas sylvestris, lactescens, venenata, Jasmini flore et 
odore. Pluk. Aim. 241. 

Cerbera fruticosa. Ilort. Beng. 19? 

2. Ccrbcra Odallam, foliis acutis, petiolatis, drupis dispermi- 

bus. Gccrtn. ii. 193. t. 124. /. 1. llort. Deng. 1<). 
Manghas orientalis angustifolia, ossiculo cordiformi, blQOfl 

nucleos continente. Pink. Aim. 241. 
Odallam. Hort. Mai. i. 71. t. 39- 
Cerbera Manghas. Ilort. Kew. ii. 65. 

3. Ccrbcra lactaria, foliis acutis, petiolatis, drupis monospermi- 

Cerbera Manghas. Gccrtn. ii. 192. t. 123. ct 124. / 1. 
Arbor lactaria. Herb. Amb. ii. 240. t. 81. 

As the name Manghas has thus been taken up so variously, 
and has nothing to recommend it, we might perhaps drop it alto- 
gether, and adopt another, such as the fruticosa of Roxburgh, 
provided his plant is the same with that of Burman. 

Mail ansciii, /;. 73. fig. 40. 

The elder Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 142.), in mentioning the Li- 
gustrum inclicum seu Alcanna of Herman, without quoting the 
Mail-anschi, as he ought to have done, proposes as a query, if 
the Poutaletsie of Rheede (iv. 117.) be not the same. Linn;eus 

vol. xiii. 3 c *n 

510 Dr. Franco Hamilton's Commentary 

in the Flora Zeylanica (135.) adopted this opinion without doubt; 
and, although he mangled the name into Poutaletsce, he added 
all the synonyma by which the Cyprus of the ancients had been 
known to the older botanists, and formed his Lawsonia ramls in- 
ermibits. He however perceived that the Mail anschi was no 
doubt of the same genus with the Cyprus of the ancients, and pos- 
sessed of the same qualities ; but he considered it as of a distinct 
species, which he called Lawsonia ramis spinosis. He no doubt 
was perfectly right in so far as related to the Mail anschi and 
Poutaktsie being different species ; for they are not even of the 
same natural order nor Linnaean class ; and the latter, besides, 
has none of the qualities of the Cyprus Jussieu, therefore, in 
his Genera Plantarum (367, 222.), rejected this plant from the 
genus Lawsonia ; yet still the compilers of the Encyclopedic (iii. 
107.) considered it as only a different species, which they called 
Lawsonia purpurea. Since, however (Supp. iii. 39. ), they have 
removed it from that genus, owing to the discovery of M. Des- 
fontaines, that it had one petal and four stamina, which indeed 
might have long before been known from Jussieu, or even from 
Rheede. The compilers, however, justly considered the cir- 
cumstance of the branches of the Mail anschi terminating some- 
times in a spinous point, as not sufficient to distinguish it as a 
species from the Cyprus of the ancients growing in Egypt and 
Arabia, where these spines are said not to occur. The whole 
synonyma of the Lazvsonia spinosa and inermis, except the Pou- 
taktsie, were therefore united under the denomination of Lazv- 
sonia alba, only the plant with spines was considered as a variety. 
I am however persuaded that even this is going too far ; for in 
the same hedge I have observed plants in all degrees, some 
having a great many branches ending in thorns, some only a few, 
and some none at all. Although, therefore, both Willdenowand 
the Hortus Ketcensis continue the distinction, I am persuaded 


on the Hart us Malabaricut, Part I. 5\\ 

that it is erroneous, unless the plant of Egypt has some other 
mark, besides the want of thorns, to distinguish it from the Mail 
ansc/ii. Indeed, the genus Lazcsonia properly consists of only 
one species, the A cr onychia appearing to be a different genus ; 

and as the names spinosa and incrmis will thus be laid aside, we 
should have Cyprus or Cypros (Pliny uses both) for a specific 
appellation, the name by which the plant has been known to tin 
learned in Europe since the time of Dioscorides. 

Cumbulu, p. 75. Jig. 41. 

Linnams (Sp. PI.) and Burman (PL Ind. 131.) took this to be 
the Bignonia Catalpa, a plant which is not found spontaneous in 
India; but this has been abandoned. Gnertner (i. 2690 1|,M 
pointed out that it was a real species of Gmclina, but gave it no 
name, nor did he describe it. Neither Willdcnou . however, nor 
the Encyclopedic Methodiqae mention it as a Gmclina, the latter 
(ii. 224.) comparing it with the Clerodcndrum, the Tittius of 
Rumphius, and the Cyrtandra of Forster. It is a very common 
tree in India, the Gumbhari or Gutnhar of the natives, and in 
the Ilortus Bengalensis (46.) is called Gmclina arborea. The 
Bignonia Catalpa of Burman is no doubt the same plant. 

Drupa magnitudine pruni minoris, oblique-subrotunda, lareruin 
uno convexiore, basi tecta calyce parvo subpentagono, 
apice retusa, glabra, pulpa crassa ad putamen adha3rente 
succulenta : succus flavo tingens. Nux dura, crassa, ob- 
ovata, lsevis, e basi antro magno obliquo ad apicem fere 
pertusa, bilocularis. Receptaculum carnosum, antrum nu- 
cis implens. Semina solitaria. 

Nux secundum Rheedium rugosa. In germine paulo aucto, sunt 
rudimenta seminum quatuor circa corpusculum centrale. 
Seminum duobus abortientibus corpusculum centrale fit an- 
trum nucis cum receptaculo. 

3 u 2 Cakschi, 

512 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Cansciii, p. 76. fg. 42. 

Linnaeus quoted this for his Trevia nudiflora ; and it continues 
in Monoecia tetrandria in Burman (FL lnd. 198.) without any 
synonyma, exept that of Commelin quoting the Canschi by the 
Latin name given by Syen. The description, however, which 
Linnaeus gave of his Trevia (Jiores hermaphroditi genuine infero, 
stylo anico) was so totally different from the Canschi, that I am 
persuaded he had some other plant in view, and quoted the 
Canschi by mistake. In the Encyclopedic (viii. 39-) the Trevia 
was described as in Linnaeus. Soon after W illdenow, not recog- 
nising the plant from such a description, published it as a new 
genus, which he called Rottlera ; but, when he published the 
fourth volume of his Species Plant arum, he had discovered that 
his Rottlera and the Canschi were the same. He therefore called 
it Trewia nudiflora, at any rate changing a little the former ortho- 
graphy, and introducing a letter unknown in the Latin tongue. 
In thus changing his name Rottlera I think he was wrong, because 
in all probability Linnaeus had quoted the Canschi by mistake, 
and described a Trevia not now known : and further, because 
the Rottlera tinctoria of Dr. Roxburgh does not, I am persuaded, 
differ from the Canschi so much that it ought to be considered 
as belonging to a different genus. It is true that Willdenow 
places the one in the order Icosandria, and the other in Poly- 
andria ; but that is a paper difference only, and not distinguish- 
able in nature. I have therefore no objection to the Mallotus of 
Loureiro being joined with the Canschi, although Willdenow 
should not have done so, because the Mallotus has not the cap- 
sula tetracocca, tetrasperma, quadrilocularis, which he ascribes to 
the Canschi as its diagnostic character ; but I know that this cha- 
racter is quite fallacious. I have however a strong objection to 
the Tetragastris ossea of Gaertner (ii. 130.) being made the same 


on the Florist Malabaricus, Pari I 513 

species with the Consent, (he fruit of which is not like that of the 
Tetragastru "inftrne in quatuor tobot pulvinnias, dittanies, quasi 
totidcm ventres, divisa." \\ hether or not the Tetraga$4rU be a 
Trewia or Rottlera, cannot be decided until the flower is known. 

The Canschi is a very common tree in India, and varies very 
much in its appearance, so that at times I have thought that 
several different species, nearly indeed resembling each other, 
might be traced ; but on a careful examination, I am persuaded 
that the marks of distinction on which I relied are fallacious. Jn 
Bengal, the natives usually give names totally different to the 
male and female trees; and in many cases the foliage U so like 
that of the Ciunbalu last noticed, that they are often confounded 
under the same common name, Qumhar. I have also heard the 
Canschi called Pita/i in Matsya, Bcrkal and Bankcd/i in Cam- 
rupa, and Banphul in Magadha. 

In the following description all the variations that I have no- 
ticed are mentioned. 

Arbor excelsa ramis teretibus, nudis : ramulis novis tomentosis. 
Folia opposita, altero ininore, nunc deltoideo-ovafa, tunc 
subcordata (utraque forma in tigura Uheedii conspicitur), 
integerrima, acuminata, quinquenervia, venosissima ; ju- 
niora utrinque pilis stellatis pubescentia, adulta glabra ; in 
India boreali ante rlorescentiam decidua. Petiolus brevis, 
depressiusculus, supra sulco exaratus, primo tomentosus, 
dein glaber. Stipuke geminae, laterales, setaceae, caduca\ 
Glandtda plana utrinque prope apicem petioli in pagina 
folii superiore. 

In masculina arbore Raccmi saepius ex axillis foliorum anni 
pneteriti, rarius in surculis novis infra foliacei, soJitarii, 
penduli, elongati. Pedunculus compressiusculus, tomento- 
sus. Pedicelii terni longitudine florum, squama communi 


514 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

solitaria, decidua bracteati. Flores herbacei, tomentosi. 
Calyx reflexus, 2 — 4-phyllus foliolis ovatis, acutis, concavis. 
Tilamenta plurima longitudine calycis receptaculo carnoso 
insidentia. Anther ce orbiculatae, utrinque emarginatse, ad 
margines dehiscentes. 

In calyce numerus naturalis quaternus videtur, nunc uno tunc 
alter o foliolo cum alio conjuncto. 

In arbore foeminina pedunculus axillaris, solitarius, erectus, 
pulverulentus, petiolo longior, nunc uniflorus, tunc elonga- 
tus in racemum paucirlorum, folio brevior. Flores pulvere 
albido tomentosi, pedicello crasso brevi insidentes. Br ac- 
ted squamiformis solitaria, decidua, ad basin rloris. Calyx 
inferus, striatus, apice quadridentatus, deciduus, germini 
arete adherens, eoque brevior, nunc ad unum latus dis- 
rumpens, tunc in foliola 2, 3, vel 4, divisus. Germen sub- 
rotundum. Stylus brevissimus, teres. Stigmata 2 — 5, su- 
bulata, longa, intus barbata. 

Pomum subrotundum, pedunculum versus acutiusculum, obso- 
lete tetragonum, magnitudine juglandis. Cortex crassus, 
carnosus. Loculamenta totidem cum stylis, dissepimentis 
tenuibus discreta, monosperma. Semina arillo pulposo an- 
gulato loculum implente tecta, subrotunda, nigra, polita, 
sublentiformia, nuciculosa. Testa ossea, crassiuscula. 

In germine etiam loculamenta sunt monosperma. 

Palega-pajaneli, p. 77- Jig- 43. 
Quoted erroneously in the letter-press as figure 44. 
This is the Bignonia inclica of authors ; and the synonyma, if 
we remove the Pajaneli of Rheede, seem to be accurately given 
in the Encyclopedic Methoclique (i. 423.), composing a species 
with two varieties differing in the size of the leaflets ; and a little 
in their form ; but both, it is to be presumed, having bipinnated 


on tin Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. 

. > i j 

leaves. It is not uncommon in every part of India, chiefly in 
hedges or near houses, where it is planted as an ornament, or 
rather singularity; for it is a lurid foetid plant, of an uncouth 

Pajaneli, [). ?0. jig, I y 

Quoted erroneously in the letter-press as figure 45 ; an error 
which several botanists have copied, without I suspect 
having read the description, or looked at the number on 
the plate. 

The Pajaneli does not seem to have been noticed by European 
botanists, until it was quoted in the Encyclopedic as a variety of 
the Bignonia indica, and conjoined with plants that very possibly 
are such ; but this, having only simply pinnated leaves, is totally 
different, although of nearly the same size, and equally lurid and 
uncouth. The variety of the Encyclopedic Willdenow made a 
different species, which he called Bignonia longijolia, which how- 
ever he defines foliis bipinnatis ; and if he saw any such plant, 
it must be quite different from the Pajaneli. He does not how- 
ever say that he ever saw the plant, and he has perhaps bor- 
rowed his account entirely from Rheede ; and this he must have 
done without reading the description, taking it for granted that 
the leaves, like those of the Palega Pajaneli, were doubly pin- 
nated, and drawing his character entirely from the figure. 

Loureiro quotes the Pajaneli for the Bignonia indica a, which 
is therefore the same with the Bignonia longijolia of Willdenow. 
Perhaps, however, Loureiro really described a plant with doubly 
pinnated leaves, and therefore it may only be his quotation that 
is erroneous. Persoon, again, quotes Hort. Mai. i. t. 45., pro- 
bably meaning this same plant for his Spathodea indica, which is 
therefore Bignonia longijolia of Willdenow, and not the Bignonia 
indica. as Persoon suspected. 


516 T>r. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

As I found this plant in the province of Canara, and presented 
a drawing to Sir J. E. Smith, I shall annex a description. 

Bignonia Paiajielia, foliis impari-pinnatis, multijugis ; foliolis 
integerrimis semicordatis, calyce ventricoso, bilabiate 

Pajaneli. Hort. Mai. i. 79- t. 44. 

Bignonia longifolia. JVilld. Sp. PL iii. 306? 

Cuntra (planta claudicans) Taulavae. 

Habitat in sylvis Indiae australis, oceanum versus occidenta- 

Arbor foetida, facie B. indica, trunco brevi, nodoso, simplici. 
Rami pauci, stricti, subulati, ordine cicatricum ovaliurn 
duplici spiraliter notati. Folia apices versus ramorum ap- 
proximata, opposita, cum jmpari pinnata. Pinna circiter 
duodecim parium, latere inferiore angustato, abbreviate, 
semicordatae, integerrimae, acuminata?, glabra?, costatae, ve- 
nosissimae, pedicellatae. Pctiolus communis pinna brevior, 
estipulaceus, supra carinatus, subtus rotundatus. Thyrsus 
terminalis, erectus, tres vel quatuor pedes longus, teres, 
compositus e pedunculis oppositis, brachiatis, compressis, 
farinosis, bis bifidis, subseptemfloris. Bractece squamiformes, 
caducae, parvae, ad divisiones pedunculi gemina?. Flares 
maximi, extus lurido-purpurei, intus albidi. Calyx pulvere 
ferrugineo aspersus, ante floris maturitatem pulpo glutinoso 
albido farctus. Calyx campanulatus, quinquangularis, bi- 
labiatus : labium superius longius, obtusum, bilobum, infe- 
rius trilobum, obtusum. Corolla, tubo angustato, campa- 
nulata, calyce duplo longior, obliqua, lobis quinque crispis, 
ad marginem lanatis incisa. Filamenta quinque, quorum 
quatuor inferiora e basi tubi crassa, declinata, compressa, 
dydynama,antherifera: quintum minimum, filiforme, sterile. 
Antherarum per paria conniventium, corolla breviorum lo- 


on the Hortus Malebaricus. Part I. 


culi oblongi, basi tantum uniti. Germen receptaculo car- 
noso, convexo, maximo, cinctum, anceps. Stylus compres- 
sor, longitudine staminum. Stigma e lamellis duabus lance- 
olatis, acutis, conniventibus conliatum. Fructum Don vidi. 

Pala, p. 81. fig. 45. 
By a mistake in the letter-press quoted as figure 46. 

Linnaeus and Burman (Flor. Intl. 69.) joined the Lignum scho- 
lare of Rumphius (Herb. Amb. ii. 246.) with the Curutu Pala. 
next described in this work, and with a plant of Breynius formed 
the Tabcvnamontana scholaris, being righl as to the genus respect- 
ing the Curutu Pala, but wrong as to the Lignum scholare, which 
is an Echitcs. There is reason, however, from the specific name 
to believe that the Lignum scholare was in reality the plant which 
they meant to describe. The error soon became evident, and. 
in place of the Curutu Pala, the Pala was joined with the Lig- 
num scholare to form the Echites scholaris (Lncycl. Meth. ii. 341.), 
the plant of Breynius being left out, although 1 have no doubt of 
its being the Pala. As, however, the leaves of the Lignum scho- 
lare are sharp-pointed and have prominent veins, and as those 
of the Pala diner in both respects, Willdenow (Sp. PL i. 1241.) 
seems with propriety to have rejected it as synonymous with the 
Lignum scholare, which is the only authority for the Echites scho- 
lar is, thus leaving the Pala unoccupied. I think that this is a 
common tree in Bengal, is there called Chhatin, and is what 
Dr. Roxburgh {Hort. Beng. 20.) called the Echites scholar is ; but 
the circumstances above mentioned lead me to doubt the accu- 
racy of this opinion, although there can be no doubt of the Pala 
and Lignum scholare being very nearly allied species. As I may 
have misunderstood Dr. Roxburgh's meaning, who in the Hortus 
Bengalensis quotes neither Rheede nor Rumphius, I shall de- 
scribe the Pala. 

vol. xiii. 3 x Echites? 

518 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Echites ? Pala, foliis verticillatis, obtusis ; folliculis filiformibus, 
longissimis ; paniculis verticillatis. 

Pala. Hort. Mai. i. 81. t.45. 

Nerium lactescens malabaricum maximum pentapltyllum poly- 
anthemum, flore minimo racemoso odorato viridi-albicante, 
siliquis propendentibus longissimis Breynii. Prodr. ii. p. 86". 

Habitat in pinguioribus India; locis. 

Arbor inter grandiores : rarnuli subumbellati, teretes, punctis 
elevatis aspersi, lactescentes. Folia ad internodia verticil- 
lata, quina, sena vel septena, oblongo-cuneata, obtusa, in- 
tegerrima, glabra, supra nitida, venis transversis non pro- 
minulis striata. Petiolus brevissimus, anceps, glaber. Sti- 
pulce solitariae, erectae, obtusae, brevissimae, persistentes, 
intrafoliaceae. Paniculce terminales, nunc solitaries?, tunc 
duae tres vel etiam quatuor, foliis breviores, patentes ; ramis 
duplice serie verticillatis, teretibus, pilosis, horizontalibus, 
nunc bifidis vel trifidis, tunc saepms simplicissimis. Flores 
capitati, sessiles, ex albido viridescentes, odore gravi melleo 
scatentes, magnitudine mediocres. Bractea vagae, squami- 
formes, parvae. Calyx pilosus, ultra medium quinquefidus, 
obtusus, inferus. Corolla hypocrateriformis utrinque pilosae 
tubus calyce multo longior, medio angustatus, annulo se- 
toso coronatus. Limbi subadnati, aestivatione imbricati, 
tubo brevioris, quinquepartiti laciniae obovatae, laterum in- 
teriore gibbosiore tenuiore, obliquae. Filamenta quinque 
brevissima ex apice tubi partis angustioris. Anthtrce con- 
niventes, ovatae, adnatae, acuminatae, inclusae. Germen uni- 
cum, ovatum, pilosissimum. Stylus teres, longitudine sta- 
minum. Stigma capitatum, cylindraceum, mucrone du- 
plice coronatum. Folliculi duo foliis multoties longiores, 
penduli, filiformes. Semina comosa. 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. 


Curutu Pala, p. 83. Jig. 46. 

Quoted by mistake in the letter-press as 47- 

In giving an account of the last plant, I have mentioned the 
mistake of Burman in uniting this, which is a Tabernicniontana. 
with the Lignum scholare, an Echites. When this error was rec- 
tified, the Curutu Pala w T as called Tal)trnamontuna alttrni folia 
{Hilld. Sp. PL i. 1246.), nothing being known of it except from 
the Hortus Malabaricus, where indeed some of the leaves are 
represented in the figure as alternate, although others are placed 
opposite; a very great error, not uncommon in this work, as 
may be seen in the Canschi, fig. 42. and Caniram, //>. 37. of this 

Mr. Brown (Prodr. Nov. Hoi. i. 468.) considers the Curutu 
Pala as very nearly allied to his Tabernccmonlana oricntalis, and, 
except the form of the bractes (mbulata), I see nothing in his 
specific character to distinguish the plants. The Curutu Pain, 
however, is so nearly allied to the single variety of the Taberna- 
montana coronaria, that I shall only endeavour to point out in 
what they differ ; as I shall give a full account of the T. coronaria 
in treating of the Nandi Ervatam (Hort. Mai. ii. /. .54. and 55.), 
only premising that, except from the smell, it would be very dif- 
ficult to say whether the full-flowered T. coronaria belonged to 
the Nandi Ervatam minor or to the Curutu Pala : and still I am 
in doubt concerning this circumstance, the natives of Camrupa 
considering: the Curutu Pala as the wild T. coronaria, while those 
of Malabar seem to be of the contrary opinion. 

Although very unwilling to change names, I consider the 
alternifolia so objectionable, that it cannot possibly be retained, 
and therefore I readily adopt the name given to this plant by 
Dr. Roxburgh. There is reason however to suspect that the 
Ntrium divaricatum of Willdenow, with all its synonyma, should 

3x2 rather 

520 Dr. Francis -Hamilton's Commentary 

rather be referred to this species than to the Nerium coronarium, 
as has been done in the Hortus Kewensis. 

1, Taberncemontana crispa. Hort. Beng. 20. 
T. orientalis. Brown Prodr. Nov. Hoi. i. 468? 
T. alternifolia. Willd. Sp. PL i. 1246. 
Nerium divaricatum. Willd. Sp. PL i. 1236? 
Curutu Pala. Hort. Mai. i. 83. t. 46. 
Apocynum indicum sylvestre inodorum siliquosum, seminibus 

papposis, floribus albis amplis. Burm. Zeyl. 25. 
Cat (spontanea) Tagar Bengalensium in Camrupa. 
Habitat in dumetis Camrupae spontanea : colitur in horto bo- 

tanico ad Calcuttam e China missa. 

Folia quam in T. coronaria longiora, undulatiora, acuminatiora ; 
flores pauciores : sed neque in caule, vel foliis, vel fulcris 
aliquem characterem inveni deter minatum, unde differen- 
tiam specificam haurire possem. Flores e viridescente-albi 
fauce rlavo, odore debili. Calyx obtusus. Tubus corolla 
infra medium dilatatus. Limbi laciniarum margo exterior 
rotundata, vel quasi truncata, neque in processum acutum 
producta. Anther <z infra tubi medium positae. 

2. Taberncemontana coronaria, flore simplice. Hort. Beng. 20. 

Encycl. Meth. Sup. v. 275. 
Nerium divaricatum. Willd. Sp. PL i. 1236 ? 
Nerium foliis lanceolato-ovatis, ramis divaricatis. Linn. FL 

Zeyl. 109 ? excluso synonymo Burmanni. 
Jasminum malabaricum aurantiae foliis, flore pentapetaloide, 

niveo, fragrantissimo, Kandi Ervatam minor. Hort. Mai. ii. 

t. 55. Pluk. Aim. 196. 

Banka Bengalensium in Camrupa. 

Colitur in hortis Indise rarius. 


on the Tlortus Malabaricut, Part I. 521 

Flores e flavescente-albidi, valde odorati. Calyx acutus. Co- 
rollce tubus ad basin et supra medium dilatatus. Lacinia- 
rum limbi margo exterior angulata. Anthercc supra ttlbi 
medium positae. 

3. Taberncemontana coronaria, flore plow. Ilort. Beng. 20. e.i- 
cluso synonymo Hort. Mai. ii. t. .55. 

Nerium coronarium. JVilld. Sp. PI. i. 1256. excluso syno- 
nymo supra dicto. 

Jasminum indicum, odoratum, aurantias foliis. album, flore 
multiplice roseo, e Maderaspatana, forte Nandi Ervatam 
major. Hort. Mai. ii. t. 54. Vluk. Aim. 197. exeluso sy- 
nonymo Hernand. 

Jasminum zeylanicum, folio oblongo, flore albo pleno, odo- 
ratissimo. Burm. Thcs. Zeyl. 129. t. 59. 

Flos Manilhanus. Herb. Amb. iv. t. 39. 

Tagar Indorum. 

Colitur ubique in hortis Indiae. 

Flores albi, odoratissimi, ita pleni et distort!, ut nota^ specificir. 
quibus praecedentes-distinguuntur, obsolete fiunt. 

Codaga Pala, p. 85. Jig. 47. 
By an error in the letter-press quoted as 48. 

In the Flora Zeylanica (107.) Linnaeus joined this with the 
Nerium indicum, &c. of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 167. t. 77 • )? who 
however does not say that his plant is the same with the Codaga 
Pa/a ; but only says that it was reckoned the same with a plant 
of Herman, which Burman considered as his Nerium indicum. 
In fact, the two plants are quite difterent, the Codaga Pala being 
an Echites, while the Nerium indicum of Burman I have no doubt 
is the plant which Dr. Roxburgh (Hort. Beng. 19.) called Ne- 
rium tinctorium. 



Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

The younger Burman (Fl. hid. 68.), in imitation of Linnaeus 
in the Species Plantation, gave the name of Nerium antidysente- 
ricum to the plant of the Flora Zeylanica, 'changing the quotation 
of a plant from Ray for one from Plukenet (Aim. 35.), which is 
of a very doubtful nature, Plukenet merely proposing as a query, 
if his plant may not be the Codaga Pala. But it is impossible 
to say whether the younger Burman had in view the plant de- 
scribed by his father, or the Codaga Pala. 

Willdenow (Sp. PL i. 1236.), leaving out the doubtful plant 
of Plukenet, continues the Nerium ant idy sent ericum as he found 
it, with the synonyma of the elder Burman and Rheede. 

In the EncyclopSdie (iii. 455.) the synonyma are little improved 
by restoring that of Ray ; but the circumstance mentioned, of 
the folliculi adhering together at the upper ends, would seem to 
imply, that the author meant the plant of Burman, although the 
medical qualities mentioned are borrowed from Rheede. 

Finally, in the Hortus Kewensis (ii. 68.) we have the Nerium 
antidysentericum of Willdenow quoted for the JVrigJitia antidy- 
senterica of Brown, which, from the generic character given bv 
that excellent botanist (Prod. Nov. Hoi. i. 46?.), is certainly neither 
the Nerium indicum of Burman, nor the Codaga Pala; but I have 
no doubt is of the same genus with the Nelem Pala of the Hortus 
Malabaricus (ix. t. 3 and 4.) ; but to this I shall again return. 

Dr. Roxburgh in his MSS., as they stood in 1796, described 
a plant almost every part of which was strongly but agreeably 
bitter, and which in almost every respect agreed so well with the 
Codaga Pala, that he then had no doubt of its being the same, 
and he called it Echites antidysenterica, as it belonged to this 
genus. On my return from Ava, I showed him specimens and 
a drawing of what T called the Echites pubescens, which seemed 
to have equal claims to be considered as the Codaga Pala, the 
figure of which in some parts looks as if hairy ; and it is this 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Fart I. 523 

circumstance almost alone that distinguishes my plant from that 
of Dr. Roxburgh. It must however be observed, that the latter 
is much more bitter, and therefore is more likely to possess 
powerful medical qualities. Those however ascribed to the 

Codaga Pala rest on slender foundation, the people employed 
by the worthy Dutch Governor to report the medical qualities of 
the plants he described, appearing to have been endowed with 
a very moderate share of judgement. 

Reserving for another occasion what more I have to say con- 
cerning the Wrightia antidysenterica, 1 shall now give an account 
of the two plants quoted by Linnaeus for t\ic Cerium antidysente- 
ricum, hoping thus to render the account of the Codaga Pain 
more clear than it has hitherto been. 

Since I returned from Ava (171X>) I have had frequent oppor- 
tunities of seeing the Echites pubescent in various parts of India, 
and I have also met with the smooth-leaved plant described bv 
Dr. Roxburgh, who in the Hortus Bengalensii does not quote the 
Codaga Pala for his Echites antidy sent erica. Whether or not he 
thought that the Echites pubescens had a better claim, I cannot 
say : for my own part, I continue doubtful. The leaves in 
Rheede's description are neither said to be smooth nor hairy 
and the terms in which he speaks of the bitterness (saporis amari, 
et minus pungent is) do not imply any great intensity ; while the 
Echites pubescens is bitter, somewhat with the flavour of Broom, 
although not nearly so strong in taste as the E. antidysenterica : 
and these are almost the only points in which the plants differ. 
Leaving the Echites antidysenterica to the account of Dr. Rox- 
burgh, I shall describe the Echites pubescens, of which the spe- 
cimens and drawings sent from Ava are probably in the collec- 
tion of Sir Joseph Banks, and a copy of the drawing is in the 
Company's Library, while I have given to this collection speci- 
mens of both plants. 



Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Kchites pubescens. Mss. Buchanani in Musao Banksiano. 
Codaga Pala. Hort. Mai. i. 85.t. 49? 
Habitat ubique in Indiae montibus aridioribus. 

Arbor statura Punicae, erecta, ramis teretibus fuscis, ramulis 
compressis pubescentibus lactescentibus subsulcatis. Folia 
petiolata, minora tres, majora novem pollices longa, ple- 
rumque oblonga, aliquando ovata, nunc basi integra, saepius 
obtusa, aliquando acuta, tunc sed rarius cordata, apice acu- 
minata, margine acuto cartilagineo integerrima, supra pilis 
brevissimis erectis, subtus pilis brevibus mollibus pubescen- 
tia, costata, venosa, rugosa. Petiolus brevissimus, lateri 
angustiori rami insertus, canaliculars, pubescens, estipu- 
laceus. Fedunculi axillares, dichotomi, multiflori, folio bre- 
viores, teretes, pubescentes. Bractea ad divisiones pedun- 
culi subulate, breves, deciduae. Tlores fastigiati, albi, odo- 
ratissimi, magnitudine Jasmini. Calyx erectus, quinque- 
partitus, pubescens, laciniis linearibus acutis. Corolla \\y- 
pocrateriformis. Tubus paulo supra basin incrassatus, pen- 
tagonus, dein subulatus, calyce longior, et extra et intra 
pilosus. Faux fere clausus, nudus. Limbus quinqueparti- 
tus, laciniis lanceolatis, obliquis. Filament a brevissima, 
basi tubi cylindrico inserta. Anthera parvse, subulatae, in 
partem tubi tumidam inclusae. Germina duo absque cor- 
pusculis lateralibus. Stylus clavatus, bisulcus, lono-itudine 
staminum. Stigma acutum. Folliculi duo glabri, teretes, 
sed ad semina subtorulosi, penduli, divaricati, uno pedali, 
altero saepius breviore. Semina comosa. 

Now to return to the Kerium indicum, siliquis angustis erectis, 
longis, geminis of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 167. t. 11.), which has 
been confounded with the Codaga Fata. It may be readily distin- 
guished by the singular manner in which the points of the folli- 

on the Ilortus MalabarJcus, Part I. $25 

culi are united. I have already said, that from this circumstance 
I am certain that it is the plant which J)r. Roxburgh called the 
Nerium tinctorium, although he docs not quote the figure of 
Burman, and although it differs as much from the generic cha- 
racter of Nerium, as given by Mr. Robert Brown, as the Wrightia 
does : for in place of having five scales on the mouth of the tube 
of the corolla, like the Nerium, or ten scales, like the Wrightia, 
it has numerous filaments, some undivided and others branched. 
Not having at hand the valuable treatise on Asclepiadea by this 
excellent botanist, I do not know what he calls this eenus. It 
is however to these filaments that we must refer (he following 
words in Burman's description : " Flores staminibui multis in 
conum acutum collcctis ornati." The anthers form the cone ter- 
minating the bunch of many filaments, which crown and orna- 
ment the flower in a very singular manner ; and these are more 
conspicuous in the living plant than in the drawing, probably 
taken from a dried specimen. 

In spring (1811) 1 found a tree named in the Hindwi dialect 
Dud' Koraia, which I took for the Nerium tinctorium, as it pos- 
sessed this character in its flowers : but, towards the end of 
the same year, the people who had formerly accompanied me 
brought a branch with fruit, which they considered as the DueT 
Koraia ; and it seemed to me also to agree perfectly with the 
account of the leaves, &c. which I took on the former occasion. 
The fruit at once showed me that it was different from the Nerium 
tinctorium ; but I may have been mistaken in supposing that the 
fruit and flower belonged to the same species : and the name 
Bud' Koraia is given also to other plants, and especially to the 
Echites pubescens, which I have just described. I shall however 
give a description of this Nerium like the indicum of Burman, 
in order to distinguish it clearly from that plant. Dud' prefixed 
to the name Koraia signifies milky. 

vol. xiii. 3 y Nerium 

526 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Nerium Corcea, corona floris filamentosa, ramosa; folliculis apice 

Habitat in montibus Magadhae saxosis. 

Frutex magna, vel arbuscula statura Punicae, ramulis oppositis 
lactescentibus, compressiusculis, subtomentosis. Folia op- 
posita, subovata, integerrima, costata, venis minute reti- 
culata, supra pilis rectis subglutinosa, subtus pilis albis 
substellatis tomentosa, inferiora obtusa, superiora acumi- 
nata. Petiolus brevissimus, estipulaceus. Pedunculus com- 
munis terminalis, brevissimus, trifidus, flore ad ramum ter- 
tium opposito : rami glutinoso-pilosi, teretes, dichotomi ax- 
illis floriferis. Flores albidi magnitudine florum aurantii, 
suaveolentes, pedicellati. Bractea lineares, patulae, per- 
sistentes, ad singulas cymae divisiones, numero ramos 
aequantes. Calyx pubescens, quinquepartitus, laciniis ova- 
libus, obtusis, margine undulatis, inaequalibus. Tubus co- 
rolla teres, longitudine calycis. Fauces coronatae filamentis 
pluribus setaceis, limbo dimidio brevioribus, nonnullis ad 
medium multifidis. Limbus tubo triplo longior, extr& pu- 
bescens, plano-patulus, laciniis oblongis, obtusis, obliquis, 
margine interiore tenuiore. Filament a quinque brevissima 
ex apice tubi. Anthera filamentis continuae, subulate, 
conniventes, intus pilosse, loculis lateralibus. Germen bi- 
loculare. Stylus clavatus longitudine fere antherarum. Stig- 
ma turbinatum, antheris conniventibus tectum, et his fere 
adhaerens. Folliculi teretes, glabri, sesquipedales, apice 
discreti, patentes. Semina comosa. 

Pili in pagina foliorum inferiore in Nerio tinctorio simplices. 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. 527 

Tin da Pari; a, p. 87. Jig, 48. 

By mistake quoted in the letter-press as 49. 

This is the Morns indica of Linnams, who, when be established 
the species in the Flora Zeylanica (33?.), quoted thi> almost alone 
the plant of Commelin being the same, and the quotation from 
Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 47.) throwing no light on the subject. Lin- 
naeus, however, was quite mistaken in supposing tin- figure in 
Rheede to represent the female tree; it is no doubt the male. 
with the flowers collected in little capitula, and the stamina ex- 
panding: but with great propriety Rheede adds a separate figure 
of the fruit. It seems to have been these male capitula, taken 
for the female tiower, that induced Linnaus to consider this as 
a Morus; but the description of the fruit ought to have convinced 
him that the plant could not belong to that genus. 

In the younger Burman (17. Ind. 198.) we find an addition 
made to the synonyma by introducing a real Morns indica de- 
scribed by Rumphius (Herb. Atnb. vii. 9- t, 5.), but totally dif- 
ferent from the Tinda Pan/a. The Morns indica continues in 
the same state in TVilldenow (Sp. PI. iv. 378.) and in the Ency- 
clopedic Mcthodique (iv. 378.), only the latter quotes Loureiro, 
who certainly meant the Morns indica of Rumphius, as he men- 
tions silk-worms being fed on its leaves, and the fruit being 
eaten ; to neither of which purposes was the Tin da Parua ever 
applied. There is even reason to suppose that AVilldenow meant 
the Morus of Rumphius, and not the Tinda Parua, as he says 
that the plant, of which he had seen specimens, resembled the 
Morus alba. As however the Morus indica of Rumphius com- 
prehends two species, both equally entitled to the specific appel- 
lation, and as the Tinda Parua is not a Morus, the name should 
be altogether abandoned. 

Dr. Koenig, under the name Trophis cspera, described one of 

3 y 2 the 

528 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

the most common Indian trees. Why he called it a Tropins I 
cannot say, except that its bark, like that of the Tropins ameri- 
cana, is used for cleaning the teeth ; for its fructification differs 
much from that of the Trophis americana as described by Lin- 
naeus. T>r. Roxburgh from Koenig himself knew the tree which 
was called Trophis aspera, and was satisfied that it was the Tinda 
Parua, as indeed must be evident to every person who compares 
the tree with Kcenig's account published by Retzius. Whether 
or not Koenig was aware of the circumstance, I know not; but 
many botanists continue to describe the Tropins aspera as if it 
were a different plant from the Morus indica; nor does Willdenow 
seem to doubt of its being a Trophis, although this is by no means 
supported by his description taken from Koenig, and which, so 
far as it goes, is correct. I do not know on what authority the 
fruit of the Trophis aspera is stated in the Encyclopedic (viii. 125.) 
to have two cells ; but, were this correct, the compiler might 
naturally enough have thought that it should have been joined 
with the Streblus of Loureiro, which Vahl, perhaps the author of 
this mistake, has been pleased to call Achymus, a genus not even 
of the same natural order with the Tropins, nor with even the 
Tinda Parua ; for this also is no doubt one of the Urticce, as the 
following account will show. 

Arbor rigida, cortice cinereo lsevi, ramulis intertextis, hispiclis, 
parcius lactescentibus. Folia alterna, subbifaria, rigida, sub- 
sessilia, elliptica, basi obtusiora, emarginata, apice acumi- 
nata, hispida, costata, venis reticulata, serraturis obtusis 
incisa. Stipules geminae, laterales, caducae. 

Masculina arbor. Pedunculus brevis, geminatus vel fascicula- 
tus, axillaris, ebracteatus, terminatus involucro penta- vel 
hexa-phyllo, flores nonnullos (5—8) in capitulum subrotun- 
dum colligente. Calyx quadripartitus, reflexus. Filamenta 


on the Hot- 1 us Malabaricus, Part I. .yj<) 

quatuor, subulata, laciniis calycinis opposita. bisque loo- 
giora, antheris adultis, elasticc rerlexa. 
Foeminina arbor. Florcs axillares, minimi, ssepe seniles, ge- 
mini, saepius tamen subfasciculati, subpedicellati, brac- 
teis suffulti duabus minutis, persistentibus, calyci arete ad- 
hoerentibus. Calyx quadripartitus, persist! us, laciniis con- 
cavis, convolutis, germen arete incumbentibus. Germen 
superum, oblongum. Stylus bipartitus, exsertus, laciniis 
rlexuosis. Stigmata simplicia. Bacca nutans, lutea, sub- 
rotundo-lentiformis, bractea calyceque persistentibus ma\- 
ime acutis involuta, succulenta, unilocularis. Stmen soli- 
tarium, magnum, subglobosum. Perispermum viride, forma* 
seminis, hinc rima exaratum. Embryo intra rhnam peri- 
spermi nidulans, incurvus, teres. 

Ana Parua, p. 88. 
In this part there is neither description nor drawing. In tin 
general index we are referred to part vii. p. 83. ; and in the in- 
dex to the seventh part we are referred for the Ana Parua to the 
44th table and 83d page; but the Acatsia-l'atli or Cuscut a is 
described there. Plukenet seems however to have received some 
further account of this plant than is contained here ; for he says 
as follows : " Ana-Para (misprinted for Ana-Parua) Ilort. Mai. 
p. l.f. 88. Poona Cat (Poonce fructus) Malabarorum. Insigne ad 
venerem incentativum. Mant. 13." And again he says, "Poona 
Cai Malabarorum magnum est ad venerem incentativum. Mant. 
143/' This is referred to the third line of page 247 of the Al- 
magestum, which treats of the Pai-Paroea (Hort. Mai. v. t. 46'.), 
to which accordingly the Brahmans gave the same name, Ben- 
darli, that is given to the Ana-Parua ; and Syen has the follow- 
ing note at the end : " Prima Peroea species in parte prima 
descripta est nomine Tindce Parua?" We may therefore, I think, 


530 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

fairly conclude that the Ana-Parua is the same with the Pai 
Paroea, Parua and Parcea being different orthographies for the 
same name, and Pai and Cai being the specific names given on 
the coast of Malabar, called properly Kaerulu, while Cai is that 
used in the Tamul language of Coromandel, vulgarly called Ma- 
labars by Europeans. 

Cavalam, p. 89. Jig- 49. 
By mistake quoted in the letter-press as 50. 
This plate and the accompanying letter-press are wanting 
in my copy. I shall only therefore say, that the figure repre- 
sents the Sterculia Balanghas, EncycL Meth. Sup. i. 614. sub 


Ambalam, p. 91. Jig- 50. 

The letter-press in my copy is wanting, but the figure remains, 
and I know the plant well. Plukenet (Mant. 156.) proposed 
with doubt the supposition that this might be the same with his 
Primus americanus, Sec. (Aim. 307-)) which is the Chrysobalanus 
Icaco, and accordingly the Ambalam has been quoted as such. 
Rumphius (Herb. Amb. i. 162.) considered it the same with his 
Condondum ; and Burman, in his explanation, added to the lat- 
ter many of the synonyma which Plukenet had given to the 
Ambalam, and with more reason ; for the stone of the Condon- 
dum, according to Rumphius, is " magnum fibrosum nucleum 
instar glebae intricate, et confectae ex plumulis filamentosis, quo- 
rum qucedam eminent instar spinularum — in hujus autem cen- 
tro seu cavitate parvus continetur nucleus prunellorum silves- 
trium formam referens." This account by no means resembles 
the fruit of the Ambalam, which contains a hard nut divided into 
five cells. 

In the Encyclopedie (iii. 697.) the Condondum is considered as 
the Mangifera pinnata, which Willdenow (Sp. PL i. 1151.) says 


on the Hortu* Malabaricus, Part I. 531 

is a species of Spondias. I therefore suppose that Willdenow 
took the Ambalam to be the Mangifera pi /mat a, for it is really a 
Spondias, which in the Encyclopedic (iv. 261.) is called Spondias 
amara, not I presume from any bitter quality, but from the name 
Amra, by which it is known in the Ilindwi and Bengalese dia- 
lects, derived from the Amarataca of the Sanscrita. 

Athough the figure is not quoted in the Hortu* Bcngaknsis, 
I know perfectly that the Ambalam is the Spondias mangifera <>i 
that Catalogue (34.), and probably of Willdenow (ii. 751.), bo 
called, I suppose, on the belief that it was the Mangifera piu- 
nata of Linmeus. But this is extremely doubtful, the Comlon- 
dum of Rumphius having a much better claim, from the stria - 
ture of the fruit, to be considered a Mangifera : and in the 
account of the Mangifera pinnata in the Encyclopedic, derived 
from plants in the Isle of France, it is stated that the nut of its 
fruit is analogous to that of the common Mango; that is to saw 
is fibrous as in the Condondum and Chrysobalanus. Specimens 
of both the Ambalam and Mangifera pinnata from the Isle of 
France, the latter given to me by Dr. Wallich, are in the col- 
lection which I presented to the East India Company's Library. 
I have little doubt, therefore, that while we call the Ambalam, 
Spondias amara, quoting the Spojidias mangifera of Roxburgh and 
"Willdenow as synonyms, w T e may restore the Mangifera pinnata 
of the younger Linnreus to the system, quoting for it the Con- 
dondum. Its being polygamous is no proof of its not being a 
Mangifera, that being the case with the common Mango. That 
the Mangifera indica is not a Spondias, is clear from its having 
only one stylus. 


532 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Cat Ambalam, p. 93. 

Figure 50 is also quoted for this in the letter-press ; but it be- 
longs to the preceding plant. 

The description of the Cat Ambalam is so imperfect, that I can 
judge nothing of what it may be; only the term Cat prefixed to 
the name implies that it grows wild. 

Agaty, p. 95. Jig. 51. 
By mistake quoted in the letter-press as 53. 
This very common and highly ornamental tree, by Syen, in 
his note, was considered, most justly, as of the same genus with 
the Sesban of Egypt, which, as he observes, is found also in 
Ceylon, and is indeed common all over India. The Sesban was 
then considered a Galega, a better classification than was after- 
wards adopted (Burman Ind. l69> 170.), when both Agaty and 
Sesban were united with Aeschynomene, the distinguishing cha- 
racter of which is to have jointed legumes. The former was 
then called A. grandiflora, and the latter A. Sesban. This clas- 
sification being no longer tenable, Willdenow removed the two 
kindred plants to the genus Coronilla from its character (lomen- 
tum articulatum veiillum via alis longius), equally ill suited to 
comprehend them ; as the Agaty has legumen bivalve, veiillum 
alis brevius. On this account probably Dr. Roxburgh allowed 
these plants to remain in the genus Aeschynomene {Hort. Beng. 
56.), the alteration of Willdenow having been not for the better. 
M. Poiret in the Encyclopedic (vii. 127- ) restored matters to the 
opinion of Syen, making however Sesban a genus, and giving 
the Agaty as the Sesban grandiflorus. In the Hort us Kewensis 
(iv. 331.) the same idea is judiciously adopted ; but the names 
are rendered more suitable to Latin declination, and thus we 
have the Sesbana grandiflora. 


on the llortus Malakariais, Pari I. 

Cada Pilava, p. 97- fig* >-• 

Besides thePada vara (Hort. Mai. vii. /. 87.), which Beams to 
be the Morinda umbellata of Linnaeus, and to which I shall have 
occasion to return in this Corainnitary. we have in India two 
distinct classes of Morindas, all of which thai I h;ivc seen, one 
excepted, answer to the specific character -iwn of the Morinda 
citrifolia, arborea, pedunculis solitariis : but the one which T ex- 
cepted agrees so well in every respect but size with one of the 
classes, that it should be included ; and the specific characters of 
Linnaeus being thus unable to distinguish them from his Morinda 
citrifolia, I shall enter into some detail concerning the whole. 

The first division of Morindai that I have seen in India, are 
thus to be distinguished : pedunculis terminalibus geminis, vet la* 
teralibus solitariis oppositifoliis. 

Species 1. 

Morinda citrifolia, caule arbusculoso erecto, pedunculis nudis 

brevissimis, stipulis obtusis, baccis unitis. 
Morinda citrifolia. Burm. hid. 58. Willd. Sp. PI. i. <V)2. En- 

cxjcl. Meth. iv. 314. 
Morinda caule arboreo, pedunculis solitariis. Linn. 77. Ziyi. 82. 
Cada Pilava. Hort. Mai. i. 97- t. 52. 
Bancudus latifolia. Herb. Amb. iii. 158. t. 99. 
Arbor conifera Macandou Javanensium Bontii. Pluk. Amalth. 

Colitur ubique ad pagos Indiae ob fructum. 

Arbuscula (vel Frutex) magna ramulis compressiusculis, ad petio- 
los incrassatis, glabris. Folia opposita, approximate, ellip- 
tica, integerrima, apice acuta, basi acuminata, nitida, venosa, 
plus quam sexpollices longa. Petiolus teres, folio utrinque 
decurrente alatus, brevissimus, g)aber. Stipvlce interfolia- 

vol. xiii. 3 7. ceae, 

534 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

cere, deciduce, oblongae, obtusae, erectae, integerrimse, bre- 
ves. Capitulum rloriferum, foliorum altero deficiente, oppo- 
sitifolium, magnitudine ovi columbini, obtusum, nudum. 
Calyx : margo integer. Corolla alba limbo quinquepartito, 
laciniarum duabus remotioribus. Fr actus ovatus, glaber, 
obtusus, magnitudine ovi anserini, e baccis arete adhaerenti- 
bus, apice quinquangularibus, areolaris, flavescens, edulis. 

Species 2. 
Morinda bracteata, caule arboreo, pedunculo ad apicem foliato 

elongato, baccis unitis. Hort. Beng. 15. 
Bancudus angustifolia. Herb. Amb. iii. 157- t. 98. 
Habitat in insulis Andamanicis. 

Arbor viginti vel triginta pedes alta, ramulis angulatis subtetra- 
gonis. Folia opposita, lanceolata, integerrima, acuminata, 
glabra, venosa, undulata. Fetiolus brevissimus. Stipulce 
interfoliaceae. Fedunculus foliorum altero deficiente oppo- 
sitifolius, teres, erectus, capitulo multo longior, foliolo uno 
vel altero ad apicem bracteatus. Capitulum floriferum sub- 
rotundum magnitudine nucis moschatae. Calyx: margo in- 
teger. Corolla alba laciniis duabus erectioribus. Bacca te- 

While in the Andaman islands, Mr. Stockoe, one of the officers 
stationed there, showed me a piece of Gamboge which had been 
found in the island ; and a Malay was procured, who undertook 
to show me the tree from whence it had been taken. This Mo- 
rinda was what he showed, calling it Bancudu, evidently the name 
used by Rumphius for the Morinda. Indeed this differs only 
from his Bancudus angustifolius in having one or two bracts, or 
small leaves rather, at the top of the pedunculus, in place of 
having a bract between every flower. The Malay was probably 


on the Ilortus Makbaricus, Part I. ;,.,;, 

deceiving me. On my return from Ava specimens were sent 
home, and are probably in the Banksiaa Museum. 

Species 3. 

Morinda squarrosa, caule fruticoso erccto, pedunculo nudo, firoctu 

baccis hinc inde prominentibus nodoso. 
Daruya Huridra Bengalensium. 
Habitat in dumetis Camprupae. 

Frtttei magnus, vel Arbuscuia spontanea. Folia glabra, ondu- 
lata, in ramis elliptica, in ramulis lanceolata, sed apicem 
versus latiora. Capituia florifera ovata, obtusa, ebracteata, 

magnitudine nucis mosc-hata*. Pcduncuhts petiolo duplo 
longior, nudus. Baccce, vel potius Draper, Imdo-albidse, 
pulpo albo diaphano tectae, non conferruminatsB ut in dua- 
bus praecedentibus, sed distinctse, uonnullis etiam aborti- 
entibus sacpius remota?, unde fructus squarrosus. Nnci- 
culce in singulis baccis bina?, biloculares. Semina solitaria. 

Species 4. 

Morinda persicafolia, caule suffruticoso difTuso, capitulis subses- 

silibus, stipulis acutis. 
Habitat in campis et sylvis regni Peguensis et in Ava. 

Suffrutex laxus, tetragonus, obtusangulus, glaber. Ramuli ad 
apicem caulis pauci, patentissimi. Folia opposita, elliptic a. 
integerrima, saepius acuta, aliquando acuminata, nuda. Pe- 
tiolus brevissimus, folio decurrente marginatus. Stipule 
interfoliacea?, subulate, petiolo longiores. Capitulum sub- 
sessile, laterale, foliorum unico deficiente oppositifolium, 
vel terminale, aliquando foliolo bracteatum, magnitudine 
pisi, floribus decern circiter compositum. Calyx quinque- 
fidus. Corolla incurva, capitulo multo longior. 

3 z 2 The 

536 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

The second division of the Morindas which I have seen may 
be distinguished as follows : pedimculis terminalibns geminis, vel 
lateraUbus solitariis axilla ribus. 

Species 5. 

Morinda Madia, foliis tomentosis oppositis. 

Mudi Carnatice. 

Habitat in sylvis Carnatae. 

Arbuscula ramis quaclrangularibus, tomentosis, ad petiolos annu- 
laris. Folia opposita, e cordata ad ellipticam formam vari- 
antia, integerrima, acuminata, costata, venosissima, utrin- 
que tomentosa. Petiohts semiteres, brevissimus, submar- 
ginatus, tomentosus. Stipule interfoliaceae, persistentes, 
erectae, saepius bifidae, acutae, integerrimae, tomentosae, 
petiolo breviores. Pedunculus axillaris, alternus, solitarius, 
erectus, petiolo brevior, ebracteatus, apice gerit capitulum 
baccis quinque seu sex, abortu forte monospermis onustum. 
Flores non vidi. 

Species 6. 

Morinda Chachuca, foliis subtus pubescentibus, inferioribus ter- 

Cha chuka (oculi seni) Bengalensium in Matsia. 
Habitat in Matsiae et Magadhae sylvis. 
Cortex radicis tinctorius, an igitur sylvestris varietas Morinda 

Ach vel Al dictae, qua? in Malva praecipue colitur ob radices 

tinctorias, cui quoque pedunculi axillares ? {Hunter apad 

Acta Calcutt. iv. 35). 

Arbuscula ramis hexagonis ; ramulis tetragonis, nudis. Folia 
elliptica, vel lanceolato-ovata, in ramis majoribus terna, in 
ramulis opposita, integerrima, acuta, supra sea bra, subtus 
pnbescentia, ad axillas costarum barbata, venosa. Stipula 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. .Vi? 

faterfbliaceae,8emicirculares,saepi6s bilojtae, mediocres* per- 

sistentes. Petiolus brevissimus. Pedunatiui axillaris, soli- 
tarius, petiolo paulo longior, nudiis. Cqntidum sapid* sex 

florum, unde nomen. 

Species 7- 

Morinda nodosa, foliis oppositis ternis quaternisve glabris, fructu 

Bankather Hindice. 
Habitat in sylvis Magadhae. 

Arbuscula sequenti sigiilljma. FoUa in ramus tern* ve\ quater- 
na, in ramulis opposita, glabra, flora pubescentes. Fruo 
tus magnitudine ovi, germinibus rariis abortientibus oodo 

sus, et saepissime morsu insectorum omnino aboriivus, ri- 
mosus. Bacca drupaceae cortice crasso vii idj buccqbq, qua 
driloculares. Testa quatuor, planiuscuke, rngosae. 

Species 8. 

Morinda Coreia, foliis oppositis glabris. 
Koreya Hindice in Mithila. 
Habitat in sylvis Mithihe. 

Arbor mediocris ramulis compressis, quadrisulcis. obtusangulis, 
glabris. Folia opposita, approximate, elliptica, sed ultra 
medium latiora, utrinque acuta, undulata, integerrima, gla- 
bra, costata, venosa. Petiolus brevissimus, marginatus. 
Stipul<z interfoliaceae marcescentes. Pedunculus nunc axil- 
laris, solitarius, tunc saepiiis terminalis, solitarius vel gemi- 
nus, angulatus, glaber, petiolo multoties longior, nunc nu- 
dus, tunc prope apicem folio uno vel gemino comosus, unde 
capitulum quasi terminale, subsessile. Capitulum subro- 
tundum, dense imbricatum floribus albis circiter decern vel 
duodecim. Flores magni, odorati, substantia corolla? crassa, 

coriacea . 

538 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

coriacea. Calyx: margo superus integerrimus. Corolla in- 

fundibuliformis : tubus crassus longitudine limbi, extra vi- 

ridis, rudis ; H?nbus quinquepartitus, extr^ rudis, laciniis 

lanceolatis, acutis. Filamenta quinque brevissima. An- 

tliera lineares inclusae. Germen turbinatum, angulatum, 

inferum. Stylus filiformis, tubo paulo longior. Stigmata 

duo, exserta, antheris duplo longiora, tetragona, elongata, 


Appel, p. 99- fig- 53. 

European botanists have not yet placed the Appel in their 
systems. Plukenet (Aim. 38.) considered it as the same with 
the Tctragonia inclica of Ray, which I have no opportunity of 
comparing. From the nature of the oil procured from the root, 
and other sensible qualities, there can be little doubt that, al- 
though not quoted, it is the same with the Sambucus zeylanica 
odor at a aromatica of the elder Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 209.), exclud- 
ing the plant of Sloane. 

The younger Burman (Ft. hid. 132. t. 41. /. 1.) joined his 
father's Sambucus with the Cornutioides of Linnaeus (Fl. Zeyl. 
416.), both being called Mendi by the natives of Ceylon. It is 
true that Linnaeus describes the plant foliis integerrimis, while 
Rheede Imsfoliorum ora, in oris superioribus, minutis et raris apici- 
bus y alia magis alia minus eminent ia ; but his figure represents them 
as Linnaeus described ; and I know several nearly allied plants 
(Premnas), which on the same branch have occasionally some 
leaves entire, and others indented. I have little doubt therefore 
that the Appel, being the Sambucus odorata of the elder Burman, 
has been rightly joined with the Cornutioides of Linnaeus by the 
younger Burman, and by him called Cornutia corymbosa, but 
afterwards by Linnaeus was made the Premna serratifolia. 

Whether or not there be in nature any plant possessed of the 
characters attributed by Linnaeus to Premna and Cornutia, I 


on the Hortus Mahiburicus, Part f. 539 

know not : I have seen none such, although I have observed seVe- 
ral that are described under both these names, and that all agree 
with the generic character of Premna given by Mr. R. Brown 
{Prod. Flor. N. Hoi. i. 512.). None of these however could be 
considered as the Sambitcus zeylanica odorata aroma lira : \ <t one 
of them has been considered by excellent botanists (E?ie. Met ft. i. 
216. Hort. Beng. 46.) as the Premna serratifulia ; and I was long 
of the same opinion : but the sensible qualities of the Appel, as de- 
scribed by Rheede, are by no means reconcileable with this sup- 
position, and therefore I think that the Appel must still be allowed 
to rest the Cornutioides ; and although the compilers of the P/i- 
cyclopidie (i. 216.) seem to consider it as the Premna tcrratifolia 
of that work, I hesitate to consider Adanson wrong in supposing 
the germen to be below the calyx ; because in Rheede's figure 
several of the fruit appear to indicate their being crowned with 
the remains of the calyx. Should this be really the case, the 
figure of the younger Burman must represent a different plant 
from the Appel or Sambucus of his father, and may be the Cor- 
nutia corymbosa of the Encyclopedic, called a Premna by Willde- 
now, although neither author quotes him. The synonyma there- 
fore, I think, may be 

Cornutioides. Linn. Fl. Zeyl. 410. 

Appel. Hort. Mai. i. 99- t. 53. Pink. Aim. 38. 

Sambucus zeylanica, odorata, aromatica. Burm. Thes. Zeyl. 209- 

excluso synonymo Sloani. 
Comutia corymbosa. Burm. bid. 132. quod ad synonyma, sed 

non quod ad figuram, t. 41. f. 1. 

Ameri, p. 101. Jig. 54. 
That Rheede here intended to describe the plant from which 
indigo is made, there can be no doubt, as he expressly says so : 
but from the small resemblance which the figure bears to the 


540 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

plant used in India for the purpose, I suspect some mistake ; 
and I cannot conceive how Willdenow should quote it (Sp. PL iii. 
1237.) as his Indigofera tinctoria distinguished foliis quadri- 

Plukenet in the first place (Aim. 165.) refers the Nil or Anil of 
the Bauhins, no doubt the Indigo plant, to his Genista tinctoria 
maderaspatana, §c, which he figures in the Phytographia, t. 31. 
f, 3. and which seems to be an Aspalathus, but which has not 
the smallest resemblance to Indigo. The Ameri, however, he 
referred to his Colutea indica herbacea ex qua Indigo (Aim. 112.), 
to which he also refers many synonyma indicative of its being 
the Indigo plant, although he excludes those of both the Bau- 
hins, which belong to the real Indigo ; for the plant of J. Bau- 
hin, which he quotes as synonymous with the Amen, is the Co- 
lutea foliis Anil nominal wn, and not the Anil sett Nil Indorum 
color. Plukenet does not refer in the Almagestum to any figure 
for this plant ; but in the Phytographia (t. 165. f. 5.) we have a 
Colutea siliqnosa maderaspatana ad nodos caulium siliquis bigemel- 
lis, forte Colutea foliis Anilnominatum J. Bauhin, which he there- 
fore conjectures to be the same with the Colutea indica above 
mentioned, and with the Ameri. This Colutea of Plukenet is 
certainly not the Indigo plant, although quoted as such in the 
Encyclopedic (iii. 245.), and without being certain, I rather 
think that it is a Galega. 

Next in the Almagestum (54.) Plukenet starts the opinion of 
there being two species of the plants from which Indigo is made, 
one with straight legumes, and the other with crooked ones* re- 
ferring for this last to his Colutea indica, seu Indigo sylvestris 
polyceratos, siliquis recurvis, amcricanus (Aim. 112.), thus indi- 
cating that the plant used in America is different from that used 
in India ; on which idea the compiler of the Encyclopedic has 
founded speculations not at all exact ; and the idea seems fully 


on the Hurt us Mulabaviats, Pari I. 541 

adopted in the Hortta Kewtnsis (iv. 354.), where we have ;i West 

Indian and an East Indian Indigo. 

Under the proper Latin name, fndu-um, Rumphius (Herb. 

A?nb. v. 2 ( 20. f. 80.) has given us a true description, and not ;i 
bad figure, of the plant producing Indigo, such as i- cultivated 
every where in India, and, as he shows, the produce originally 

of Gujerat ; and he says that he knows only of one species. 1 1< 
had indeed heard of another, which grows wild (st/vestro), but 
he had never seen it. There are indeed plenty of wild Indigqfi 
rat, and some of them not unlike the cultivated kind ; but In- 
digo, at least on any considerable scale, was never / believe 
made from any of them 

The elder Burman {Tins. Ztj/l. 69.) followed Rumphius in 
making only one species of the Indigo plant, and reduced to this 
all the synonyma referring to such a production, and of course 
included both the Ameriof Rhecde and the Indirum of Rumphius, 
as well as the kind cultivated in America. I have however Little 
doubt that the Ameri is some wild Indigo/era, which was brought 
by mistake to Rheede, Indigo not being a production of Malabar 

Rumphius was not a favourite with Linnaeus; and in the Flora 
Zcylanica (273.) is not quoted for the Indigo plant. But although 
Linnaeus quotes the Ameri, he evidently meant the Indicum of 
Rumphius, from his specific character, Indigofera kguminibtti 
arcuatis incanis, racemis folio brevioribus, by which the Indigo 
plant may at once be recognised. Linniuus here gives us only 
one Indigo plant; nor is any change for the worse made by the 
younger Burman {Fl. Ind. 170.), only he adds as a variety the 
plant of Plukenet (Phyt. t. 165. /. 5.), and from Linnaeus gives 
the specific name /. tinctoria. 

Although the terms tiil and Anil were used by the old writer- 
as synonymous (the former being the name of the Indigo plant 
in the Bengalese and Ilindwi dialects, while the latter seems to 

vol. xni. 4 a be 

542 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

be the same, with the Arabic article prefixed) ; yet Linnreus, hav- 
ing received an Indigofera somewhat resembling the tinctoria, 
gave it the name of Anil; and, in endeavouring to establish spe- 
cific characters between this and the tinctoria, Willdenow has pro- 
duced such as contain little or no difference, the only real dis- 
crepancy being, that the one is said to have three pair of leaflets 
and the other four. This is such a difference as no one can rely 
upon to establish species, among plants with which the number 
of leaflets in the same individuals is so liable to vary. The one 
is also said to have leaves pubescent below, while the other has 
them smooth on both sides : but this depends entirely on the age 
of the leaf: and on the whole, on examining the Indigo plant 
carefully, I could not say whether it was the I, Anil or J. tinc- 
toria of Willdenow ; I only judge it to be the latter from the 
synonyma, which clearly indicate it to be that from which the 
drug is prepared, while no hint is given of the Anil being applied 
to this purpose. 

In the Encyclopedic (iii. 244.) matters become worse and worse ; 
the Anil is the true and best Indigo plant, and the Indicum of 
Rumphius, deriving its very name from India, and known as an 
Indian production from the most remote antiquity, is removed 
on Plukenet's authority to America. The distinction, too, into 
an Indigo plant with crooked legumes, and one with straight 
ones, which had been taken up by Plukenet, is repeated in the 
Encyclopedic ; and the latter, in order to distinguish it from the 
proper American dye, is called Indigofera indica, an unseemly 
pleonasm. It is indeed admitted, that a small quantity of indif- 
ferent Indigo may be procured from this I. indica; and the 
compilers seem to think that until the time of Rumphius the true 
Indicum was not known ; as the synonyma of the Bauhins and 
other older writers, referring to the Indigo plant, are given to 
the 1. indica, which, along with the Ameri of Rheede, includes 


on the Hortus Malabaricus, Part I. 543 

the Galega of Plukonct, concerning which I have already iiiven 
my opinion/* The I. indica of the Encyclopcdie seems to be ■ spon- 
taneous production, " elk croit matwrtllement a I'Js/c dc France* 
d Madagascar, au Malabar, et dans I'Lidc, aux lieux incultes 
pierreux on sabloneux." From this 1 am led to conclude, thai 
the compiler of this most valuable work was perfectly right in 
quoting the Ameri for it, and in quoting the Indicum of Rum- 
phius for his 1. Anil; but then to this last he should have trans- 
ferred the synonyma of the Bauhins, Parkinson, Morjison, llay, 
and the elder Barman ; and I have said that the plant of Plu- 
kenet is probably a Galega nearly allied to the tinctoria. 

The only proper synonymous plant for the Indignfera indica 
is therefore the Ameri of Rheede, a spontaneous plant, and by 
no means that cultivated in India. It may how <\ er be th<* 
rulca of Dr. Roxburgh (Ilort. Bcng. 57.), called Car Niii, 01 wild 
Indigo, by the natives, and I believe capable of yielding an In- 
digo, although with difficulty. Dr. Roxburgh, however, does 
not quote the Ameri as synonymous, and had in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta a plant, which came there by accident, and 
which he considered as the J. Anil of Willdenow. This /. Anil 
of Dr. Roxburgh was never cultivated for Indigo, and was pro- 
bably indigenous in the garden, but for some time escaped the 
notice of the superintendent ; for in such an extensive garden 
(several hundred acres) some spontaneous productions remained 
undescribed during the whole of his life. 

Colon 1 l, p. 103. Jig. 55. 
Plukenet considered this as the same with his Col idea indica 
frutescens, foliis superne glabris vircntibus, subtus sericeo nitore 
argenteo splendentibus {Aim. 112.), and as the Nil seu Indigo spu- 
rium of Ray. Now I think that I know the Colonil well, and it 
will not agree with the abovementioned character of Plukenet : 

4 a 2 but 

544 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

but I know another plant that is exceedingly like what I take to 
be the Colonil, and which agrees perfectly with Plukenet's cha- 
racter, and which I shall first describe. 

Colutea indica, $c. Plukenetii. 

Habitat in aridis saxosis India? extra et intra Gangem. 

Caul in fruticosus, pedes duos circiter altus, ramosus, erectus, 
ramis alternis, patentibus, angulatis, pilosis. Folia alterna, 
cum impari pinnata. Foliola utrinque 7 — 10 supra glabra, 
subtus pilis decumbentibus incana, nitida, pedicellata, ob- 
longa, venis simplicibus striata ; inferiora obtusa cum acu- 
mine, superiora emarginata cum acumine e nervo medio 
producto. Petiolus communis teres, canaliculars, brevis- 
shnus, pilosus : partiales brevissimi, pilosi. Stipulce ge- 
mina?, subulatae, patentes, carinata?. liacemi primo ter- 
minales, sed prodeunte ramulo oppositifolii, sessiles, folio 
breviores, erecti. Rachis angulatus, sulcatus. Flores rubri, 
parvi. Fedicelli flore breviores, recti, patentes, teretes, 
pilosi, ex eodem puncto bini vel terni. Bractea setacea, 
brevis, ad singulos riorum fasciculos. Calyx pilosus, cylin- 
draceus, quinquedentatus, denticulis subulatis, inferiore 
longiore. Vexillum subrotundum, emarginatum ; lateribus 
revolutis adscendens. Alaz vexillo breviores, erecta?, ob- 
tusas. Carina ovata, acuta, incumbens, alis dimidio bre- 
vior. Stamina diadelpha. Anther a subrotundae. Germen 
teres. Stylus subulatus. Stigma obtusum, pubescens. Le- 
gwnen recurvatum, subarcuatum, planiusculum, acutum, 
torulosum, tomentosum, sed non hirtum. Semina plura 

The plant thus described I transmitted to Dr. Roxburgh, and 
we both considered it as the Galega tmctoria, under which name 
it stands in the Hortus Bengaknsis (57.) ; but, according to the 



on the Hortus Malabarictts, Part I »i.> 

Flora Zeylanica (30'J.). in that plant there are kt legumina ttricta 
glabra, caulis glaber, pedunculi ex singulis alts nud%\ apice tpicati, 

glabri." I must therefore now acknowledge the plants to be dif- 
ferent, and Plukenet's I shall call 

Galega (seu Tephrosia) scricea, leguminibns pubescentibus arcua- 
tis recurvis, foliolis 8 — 10-jugis subtus senceis cuneatis, ra- 
cemis oppositifoliis sessilibus, stipulis subulatis. 

The plant, which I suppose to be the Colonil, I found in the 
south of India very abundant, and I have since found it in the; 
north. Dr. Roxburgh considered it as the Galega purpurea, in 
which opinion I long agreed with him. It differs from the one 
above described merely in being entirely smooth : but agrees 
very well with almost every thing said in the Vlm-a Zeylanica 
(301.) and inWilldenow (Sp. PL iii. 1247.) concerning the Ga- 
lega purpurea, only the legumina cannot be called ttricta adscen- 
dentia, they are recurvata subarcuata. This is so small a diffe- 
rence, that I overlooked it until I compared the plant with the 
Coronilla zeylanica herbacea flare purpurascentc of Barman (Thes. 
Zeyl. 11 . t.32.), which is the proper authority for the Galega pur- 
purea; and I now am convinced that I was mistaken, the plant 
of Burman having racemes longer than the leaves and supported 
by long peduncles. I therefore now call this plant 

Galega (seu Tephrosia) Colonila, leguminibus glabris arcuatis re- 
curvis, foliolis 8 — 10-jugis subtus nudis, racemis oppositi- 
foliis sessilibus, stipulis subulatis. 

Habitat in India; aridioribus. Vidi in Carnata, Draveda, Ma- 

Galega tinctoria ditfert foliis subtus sericeis. 

The examination of the difficulties respecting the Colonil hav- 
ing; led me to consider some of the other species of Galega or Te- 


546 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

phrosia which I saw in India, I may here give the result. In 
my journey to Mysore, I had an opportunity of observing the 
Securidaca Maderaspatana, siliquis falcatis fulvis et villosis, plu- 
rlmis circa ramulos stellatim positis, of Plukenet (Aim. 339-, Phyt. 
t. 59. f. 6.), which is the Galega villosa of Willdenow (Sp. PL iii. 
1245.) ; and also the Coroniila zeylanica, siliquis fuscis hirsutis 
pilosis, flore albo, of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 78. t. 33.), which Will- 
denow makes a variety of the former ; and in this the Encyclo- 
pedic agrees with him (ii. 597). I must admit that the two plants 
have a strong affinity ; but that any change of soil or culture pro- 
duces such a difference of appearance as exists, remains to be 
proved. The latter plant I think is probably the Galega incana 
of Dr. Roxburgh (Hort. Peng. 57-)> but of this I am not sure. 
In the collection which I gave to Sir J. E. Smith, from Mysore, 
it was called Galega hirta, under which name I shall here de- 
scribe it. 

Galega (seu Tephrosia) hirta, leguminibus falcatis pendulis hirtis, 
racemo oppositifolio foliato pedunculato, foliolis cuneatis 
emarginatis, caule erecto. 

Habitat in ruderis Carnatae Julio florens. 

Radix ramosa, lignosa, perpendicularis. Caulis infra lignosus, 
cubitum altus, erectus, teres, tomentosus, ramosissimus. 
Rami patentes, dichotomi, subtetragoni. Folia alterna, 
subsessilia, cum impari pinnata. Foliola opposita, 4 — 8- 
juga, cuneiformia, integerrima, emarginata, oblique striata, 
supra glabra, subtus pilis longis incumbentibus pubescen- 
tia. Stipulce gemina?, laterales, e petiolo distinctae, per- 
sistentes, rigidae, e basi latissima acuminata?, patentes, in- 
tegerrimae, mediocres. Racemi erecti, folio longiores, op- 
positifolii, pedunculo communi villoso, angulis quatuor vel 
quinque acutis subulato. Floret nutantes ternati. interme- 


on tlw Hortus Malabaricus, Part I ;>47 

dio saepe abortivo. Bractece minuta\ sessiles, ad Bingtllos 

riorum fasciculos ternata? ; intermedia ovata acuta, laterali- 
bus stipukvformibus : intermedin locus ad fasciculos int'e- 
riores saepe per folium occupatus. Wares c\erulescentes 
carina alba. Calyx hirtus, ultra medium quinquefidus laci- 
niis subulatis, subaequalibus, longitudine fere corolhv. I i.i- 
illum magnum subrotundum, extra hirtum. Ala falcata-. 
obtusae, angustai. Carina tenuissima. Filamaita simple! 
et novemfidum, laciniis alternis longioribus. Anther* equa- 
les. Germen lanatum. Stylus subulatus. Stigma j)ilis ter- 
minalibus barbatum. Legumcn rctrof; ilcatum. calyce mul- 
toties longius, planum, emarginatum. hirtum, vahis inter 
semina conniventibus. Semina circiter lex. 

Galcga (seu Tephrosia) villosa Octobre floret in Carnata. et differt 
caule procumbente ; foliolis fere obcordatis, supra pilosis, 
subtus villosis ; floribus ad folia subsessilibus, congestis. 

Very nearly allied to the last-mentioned plant is one which I 
found also in my journey to Mysore, and which in the collection 
made there is called 

Galega (seu Tephrosia) procumbens, leguminibus strictis rectis 
pilosis, caule prostrato hirto, racemo oppositifolio foliato, 
stipulis setaceis, foliolis utrinque hirsuti>. 

Habitat in umbrosis Carnatae Septembri florens. 

Radix lignosa, caule crassior, descendens. Caules plures, infra 
lignosi, procumbentes, filiformes, pilis longis hirsuti, sub- 
dichotomi, flexuosi. Folia alterna, impari pinnata. Foliola 
4 — 5-juga, pedicellata, cuneiformia, opposita, integerrima, 
mucronata, oblique striata, utrinque hirsuta, superioribus 
sensim longioribus. Fetiolus communis foliolo brerior, hir- 
sutus. Stipules geminae, laterales, e petiolo enatae, persis- 


548 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

tentes, setaceae, patentes, hirsute, brevissimae. Racemus 
oppositifolius, ante norescentiam brevissimus, sed postea 
folio longior. Flores parvi, albidi, penduli, pedicellati, ex 
eodem puncto gemini. Folium florale caulino simile, ad 
imum par riorum saepe, sed non semper, adest ; ad caetera 
florum paria bracteae forma stipularum praeditae. Calyx 
pubescens, ultra medium quinquefidus laciniis setaceis lon- 
gitudine corollae. Vexillum subrotundum, exterius pube- 
scens. Alee longitudine carinae. Filament a simplex et no- 
vemfidum. Ant her a subrotundae. Stigma subrotundum. 
Lesumen erectiusculum, lineare, rectum, hirsutum, com- 
pressum, marginatum, obtusum cum cuspide rerlexo, valvis 
inter semina discretis. Semina circiter novem compressi- 
uscula, utrinque truncata, approximata. 

The distinction between Tephrosia, Urinaria, or Brisonia and 
Galega seems to me ill defined, and of little use. This plant 
last described perhaps should be a Galega, and the others Te- 

phrosias ? 

Sherigam Cottam, p. 105. Jig. 56. 

The other species of Cottam mentioned in the text, and which 
Syen the annotator could not discover, may be found in the 
Cottam (part i. t. 22.), or in the Tsieriam Cottam (part v. p. 21. 
t. 11.), neither of which, however, has any affinity with this 

' The elder Barman (Thes. Zeyl. 159. t. 74.) describes a plant, 
which the Dutch in Ceylon called Kleine Cocos, or small Coco 
(Theobroma), translated in the Encyclopedic 'petite Coque, comme 
si Von disoit arbrisseau a petites coquesf This name, Kleine Co- 
cos, using rather freely the form Aphceresis, or perhaps Synala:- 
pha, Burman made into botanical Greek, Microcos, a word at 
any rate sufficiently utterable, and of reasonable length. He 


on the I lor tits Malabaricus, Fart I. 


was less fortunate in comparing it with the Catutekka (Katou 
Theka) of the Ilortus Malabaricus (iv. t. 28.), which seems to be 
one of the Rubiacece : but, what was of more 1 importance, he gave 
a good figure and description, which Linnaeus (Fl.Zeyl. 207.) 
perceived belonged to the same plant with the Schageri Cottam ; 
and, adopting the generic name of Burman, called the plan! 
Microcos panicula terminatrice. 

In imitation of Linnaeus in the Species Plant arum, the younger 
Burman (FL Ind. 127.) called this the Microcos paniculate ; and 
another author was discovered to have described the plant, Plu- 
kenet having mentioned it by the name of Arbor malabarica mu- 
cronatis firmioribus venosisfoliis Cacavifenr temttlis, fioribut a<l sum- 
mum ramulorum comantibus {Aim. 40., Vhijt. 26'2. f. 3.), which 
shows that there is a real resemblance between this plant and the 
Theobroma, as it struck not only the Dutch of Ceylon, but the 
botanist Plukenet. Linnaeus afterwards abolished the genus 
M icrocos, and the Scherigam Cottam was called Grewia Microcos, 
under which denomination it still remains in the Encyclopedic 
(iii.44.) and Hortus Kewensis (iii. 301). Gartner, however, on 
examining its fruit with care, declares that it cannot be classed 
with the Grewia (de Hem. $c. i. 273.) ; and in fact it belongs to 
the order of Tiliacea, while the Grewia has no albumen in the 
seeds. Willdenow therefore restores the old name, Microcos 

Both in Ava and Bengal I have found a small tree or large 
shrub very nearly allied to the Microcos, but differing from the 
Schaseri Cottam in the form of the leaves. Of this I shall now 
add a description. 

Microcos Mala, foliis apicem versus latioribus, subtus glabris. 
Ma-la Barmanorum. 
Habitat in dumetis Bengalae orientalis, et in regno Peguensi vul- 

gatissima est arbuscularum. 
vol. xiii. ^ b Arbuscula 

550 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Arbuscula vel Frutex magna cortice cinereo, punctis elevatis 
aspero. Hamuli virides, pilosi. Folia alterna, bifaria, 
approximata, apicem versus latiora, apice acuminata, ad 
basin emarginata, serraturis minutis incisa, trinervia, venis 
minutissime reticulata, glabra, supra nitida. Petiolus teres, 
ad apicem incrassatus, brevissimus, pilosus. Stipulce ge- 
minae, laterales, erecta?, bipartitae, sessiles, lanceolatae, pe- 
tiolo dimidio breviores. Panicirfa terminalis, ramosissima, 
patens, ramis divaricatis, teretibus. Bract ece ad basin pe- 
dicellorum stipulaeformes ; ad apicem triphyllae, obtusse, 
deciduae, triflora?. Flores parvi, lutei, ad apices singulo- 
rum pedicellorum terni. Calyx pentaphyllus foliolis paten- 
tibus, deciduis, concavis, obtusis, oblongis, apices versus 
latioribus, coriaceis. Fetala quinque calyce alternantia, 
hujusque foliolis multo breviora, cavitate mellifera\ ad un- 
guem insculpta, apice acuta. Filament a Tpim'ima, inaequalia, 
subulata, hypogyna. Germen superum, sessile, subrotun- 
dum. Stylus subulatus. Stigma simplex. 

Drupa globosa, nuce, abortu forte loculorum 1 vel 2, di- vel tri- 

Obs. Microcos paniculata folia habet basin versus latiora, sub- 
tus tomentosa, et secundum Burmannum bracteas (calycem 
communem) hep taphy lias. 

Carua, p. 107- Jig. 57. 

Rheede evidently took this for the Cinnamon in its uncultivated 
state ; and Burman was of the same opinion : for although he 
does not quote the Carua as synonymous with his Cinnamomum 
foliis latis, ovatis, frugiferum (Then. Zeyl. 62.), he says, " Cin- 
namomi descriptio in Horto Malabarico accurata et egregia ex- 
hibetur ; — ita ut licet haec nostras Horti Malabarici figurie non 
respondeat, ipsnm tarn en et legitimum sit Cinnamomum ; — nota- 


on the llortus Malabaricus, Part I . 


turn autem illud volo, quod hrec nostra a Malabarica ilia tantum 

loco natali differat:" and that he meant no other plant than the 

Carua is clear from his saying, " vide porro notas ad Horti 

Malabarici partem i. p. 110," that is, the notes of Syen at the 

end of the account of the Carua. To this opinion however there 

are strong objections, as any one may readily see who compares 

the figure in the Hortus Malabaricus with that in the Thesaurus 

Zeylanicus {tab. 27.)- Burman's next figure (28.) has a much 

stronger resemblance to that of the Carua ; but then, from the 

description, it is evidently a Lauras, which I know the Carua to 

be. I therefore adopt the opinion of Plukenet, who notices 

three plants that I well know, and concerning which it will be 

necessary to enter into some detail. 

Plukenet's first plant is the Cassia einnamomea (Aim. 88.), the 
Cinnamomum of the Bauhins, &c. 

His second plant is the Cassia einnamomea sylvestris pigrior 
Malavarica, Carua Hort. Mai. (Aim. 88.), the Arbor canellifera 
Malabarica, cortice ignobiliore, cujus folium Malabathrum officina- 
rum Breijnii. 

His third plant is the Cassia einnamomea, strict iore folio, ignobi- 
lior, cujus folium est Malabathrum scu Tamalapatrum angustifo- 
lium ; in officinis frequens ocenrrit. 

I need not here enter into any discussion concerning the proper 
Cinnamon tree, of which Burman (63.) enumerates nine varieties, 
besides the royal (Rasse Coronde) kind; and these, in a botani- 
cal sense, are all probably mere varieties : but in the botanical 
garden at Calcutta there is a narrow-leaved Lauras Cinnamomum, 
which was introduced long before the English took Ceylon, while 
the true royal kind (Rasse Coronde) was sent by General Mac- 
dowal when he governed the island. Now, in my opinion, this 
narrow-leaved Cinnamon is the Carua of the Hortus Malabari- 
cus, not described by Burman, while what Dr. Roxburgh called 

4 b 2 the 

552 Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

the Lanrus Cassia is the third species of Plukenet, or Malaba- 
thrum angustifolium. We have thus two species of Malabathrum, 
in my opinion a corruption, by rejecting the first syllable of Ta- 
malapatrum, that is, the Tamala leaf : and I shall have occasion 
to show, that in the north of India we have some more varieties, 
the name of the tree there being Tej, Taj, or Twac, which gives 
us Tej pair a, &c. for the leaves : for in the south the name of 
every thing great or good changes the final a of the north into urn. 

But to return to the Carua : Dr. Roxburgh (Hort. Beng. 30.) 
thought that his narrow-leaved Cinnamon was the Cinnamomum 
perpetuo florens, folio tenuiore, acuto of Burman (Thes. Zeyl. 63. 
t. 28) ; but, according to Burman, this is not the Carua, but the 
Katou Kama of the Hortus Malabaricus (v. £.53.) ; and from the 
description of both authors, it is evident that this plant is not a 
Laurus, having a monopetalous corolla and five stamens. 

Linnaeus in the Flora Zeylanica (145.) gave the synonyma of 
the Laurus Cinnamomum very correct : but in treating of the 
Laurus Cassia, that is, the Cassia malabarica, which I have no 
doubt is the Carua, he seems to me to have fallen into two errors ; 
first, in quoting as synonymous Burman's tab. 28., which is not 
the Carua, but the Katou Kama ; and secondly, in quoting the 
Cassia cinnamomea myrrhce odoi^e, folio trinervi subtus ccesio, a 
fourth species of Plukenet (Aim. 89.), of which I know nothing 
but that it is quoted by Burman for the plant represented in his 
tab. 28., while Plukenet, as I have already mentioned, quotes 
the Carua for his second species. 

The Carua is a tree very common in the province of Malabar, 
and its bark is exported from thence in considerable quantity, 
now indeed chiefly to the Muhammedan countries, Christians 
receiving a better drug from China. This latter is no doubt the 
produce of a different tree (probably the Laurus Cubeba of Lou- 
reiro), the buds or young fruit of which are an article of com- 
merce : 

mi the HortH.s Malabar icus. Part I. 


lerce : ana this also is the case with the buds of the ( 'nssiu ma- 
labarica, which in Malabar are called Cubeba. The accounts of 
a Cubeba, produced by a species of Piper, seem to have ren- 
dered Loureiro's report suspected by the compiler of the Ency- 
clopedie (Supp. iii. 318.), but without reason. Cabal*, in the 
native language of India, signifies a kind of roast, like that of 
the heroes in Homer : 

Now any spice suited for garnishing such roasts, by sticking it 
between the rows of minute bits (pio-TvXXov) of meat, transfixed in 
a row by the wooden skewer (o£gXo?) on which they are roasted, is 
called a Cabab or Cubeba; and the sharp pedicels of both the 
Cassias, as well as of the Piper, serve for this purpose. 

The younger Burman (Fl. Ind. 91. ), following Linnams, called 
the Cassia malabarica the Lauras Cassia, with the same syno- 
nyma as in the Flora Zeylanica ; but he introduced a new species, 
the Lauras Malubatram, composed of the Katou Karua (llort. 
Mai. v. /. 53.), which is undoubtedly the same with his father's 
plant (Thes. Zeyl. t. 28.), which he quotes for the Lauras Cassia. 
He joins to the Katou Karua, the Siudoc of Rumphius (Hub. 
Amb. ii. 69.), which may indeed be the same plant, there being 
no figure, and a description so imperfect that it may be referred 
to almost any of the species, which nearly resemble the Cinna- 
mon. Willdenow abandons this Malabathrum, there not bein<£ 
the slightest indication in either Rheede or Rumphius of its 
leaves possessing the qualities of the drug ; and he makes the 
Katou Carua with five stamens, and a flower divided into five, a 
mere variety of the Laurus Cinnamomum. 

In that valuable collection the Encyclopedic Methodique (iii. 
433.) we have the synonyma of the Laurus Cinnamomum pro- 
perly enough given. To these, given by Linnaeus to the Laurus 


5.54 Dr. F R a n c i s Hami lto n -s Commentary 

Cassia, we have added the second species of Plukenet already- 
mentioned, but without excluding his fourth species, probably 
the same with the Katou Carua; and Burman's Thes. Zeyl. t. 28. 
is quoted with doubt, and supposed, notwithstanding his descrip- 
tion, to be a male plant of the Laurus Cinnamomum. It is how- 
ever pretty clear that the compiler did not examine the descrip- 
tion, his attention having been entirely occupied by the figure. 
After describing the plant, in many respects well, and pointing 
out some differences between it and the Cinnamon, the compiler 
endeavours to show that the Cortex caryophylloides of Rum- 
phius (Herb. Amb. ii. 65. t. 14.), called Laurus Culilaban by 
Linnaeus, is in reality the same with the L. Cassia. His reasons 
and arguments, resting on the mistaken notion of Linnaeus re- 
specting the leaves of the Cinnamon and Cassia being alternate, 
while those of the Culit lawan are opposite, only show how little 
was very lately known in Europe concerning these trees and 
others nearly allied to them. Dr. Roxburgh (Hurt. Beng. 30.) 
divided the genus Laurus into those having opposite leaves, and 
those with leaves placed alternately ; and among the former are 
justly placed the Cinnamon, Cassia and Culit lawan, with five 
other species ; and Dr. Roxburgh observed from nature. Op- 
posite leaves is the proper and regular disposition in these three 
plants, although in the same individuals examples may be often 
observed of the leaves being subalternate. Rumphius considered 
his Cortex eanjophylloides as being different from the Cassia lig- 
nea, the usual name in commerce for the bark of the Laurus 
Cassia; but I would build little on that supposition, because 
the Cassia lignea to which he alludes is that of the Philippine 
islands, probably the same with that of China : but Dr. Rox- 
burgh had obtained from the Moluccas a species, which he 
considered as different from both the narrow-leaved Cinnamon 
and Cassia, and for which he quotes the Cortex caryophylloides of 


on the Hurt us Malabaricus, Part I. 555 

Rumphius (Hort. Beng. 30.) ; yet still I have doubts on this 
head, the name of Dr. Roxburgh's plant in its native country 
not being Culit Ian an. 

After this long discussion, I shall give what I consider the 
proper synonyma of the Carua. 

Cassia cinnamomea, sylvestris pigrior Malavarica. Pluk. Aim. 

Cortex caryophjlloides. Herb. Amb. ii. 65. t. 14? 

Laurus foliis lanceolatis trinerviis, nervis supra basin unit is. 
Linn. FI. Zeyl. 146. exclusis synonymis Burmtmni, Flu- 
ke netii et Hermanni. 

Laurus Cassia foliis triplinerviis lanceolatis. Linn. Sp. PL 
Burm. FI. Ind. 91. Willd. Sp. PL ii. 477- Hort. Kew. ii. 
427. exclusis synonymis supradictis. 

Laurus Cassia foliis lanceolatis utrinque acutis triplinerviis, pa- 
niculis laxis sublateralibus. Encycl. Meth. ii i - 444. exclu- 
sis synonymis Pluk. p. 89- et Burmanni. 

Laurus Cinnamomum angustifolium. Hort. Beng. SO. 

I shall now proceed to describe the tree which Dr. Roxburgh 
called the Laurus Cassia, and which I think the third species of 
Plukenet, as I have mentioned in the former part of this account. 
I call this Tamala, from the native name given in Plukenet, 
while the Laurus Cassia or Carua was in Malabar called to me 
Lavanga, from its having a smell of Cloves ; and this excites a 
suspicion, notwithstanding what I have said, that the Carua is 
in fact the Cortex caryophylloicles of Rumphius. 

Laurus Tamala, foliis triplinerviis lanceolatis utrinque acutis, 

paniculis tcrminalibus, ramulis teretibus. 
Laurus Cassia. Hort. Beng. 30. 



Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary 

Cassia cinnamomea strictiore folio ignobilior, cujus folium est 
Malabathrum vel Tamalapatrum angustifolium, in officinis 
frequens. Pluk. Aim. 89- 

Taj Bengalensium. 

Colitur in hortis Camrupa3.. 

Arbor magnitudine mediocris, ramis teretibus, glabris. Folia 
nunc opposita, tunc in eadem arbore alterna, e tribus ad 
quinque pollices longa, unicum circiter lata, oblonga sed 
medium infra latiora, utrinque acuminata, margine cartila- 
gineo integerrima, crassa, supra nitida, subtus glabra et 
glauca, triplinervia, venis minute reticulata. Petiolus bre- 
vissimus, canaliculatus, glaber, estipulaceus. Panicula ter- 
minalis, sessilis, folio longior, brachiata, trichotoma, diva- 
ricata, rachi quadrangulari, ramis compressis glabris. Flores 
parvi, in capitulis subcongesti : expansos non vidi. Bacca 
calyce obsolete sexlobo cincta, ovalis, utrinque obtusa, 
magnitudine pisi majoris. Semen unicum ovatum. Coty- 
ledoncs crassae, hinc planae. Radicula adscendens. Cortex 
ramorum parum aromaticus. Folia valde aromatica, odore 
Cinnamomi forti. Siccata ubique in Bengala pro Mala- 
bathro vel Tejpatra venalia. 

The Tamala is readily distinguished from the Carua or Cassia 
by the smallness of its berry, that of the Carua resembling a 
small acorn. The Culit lawan of Dr. Roxburgh is distinguished 
by having the flowers collected by threes. 

Besides both this Tamala and the Culit lawan of Dr. Roxburgh, 
I have met with some other species that approach very near to 
the Carua. 

1. At Nathpur, on the Cosi river, I obtained specimens of 
another tree called Taj by the natives, but its leaves and bark- 
were destitute of the aromatic smell and taste by which the Ta- 

on the Hortus Malabaricus, Pari I . .v>7 

mala and Carua are distinguished. The Bpecimen was only in 

leaf, but agreed in every respect with the description of the 
Tamala, except that the leaves were acuminated, and the small 
branches quadrangular, with two of the m<Ics narrower than the 
others. This I shall call 

Laurus Tazia, foliis triplinerviis lanceolatis acuminatis, ramulis 

Taj montanorum. 
Habitat in montibus Emodi inferioribus ad Cosam rluvium. 

2. At the same place I procured similar specimens of a tree, 
which has a strong resemblance in qualities to the Carua, and 
which forms a third kind of Malabathrum, its leaves being com- 
monly sold as the Tajpatra in the markets of Mithila, although 
their smell and taste are inferior to those of the kind cultivated 
in Camrupa : both however become more aromatic when dried 
than they are in the recent plant. The bark of the larger branches 
and stem contains a considerable degree of aromatic smell and 
taste, on which account it is used as a spice ; but it is thick and 
rouo-h, very unlike Cinnamon, or the Cassia lignea of China, and, 
like that of the Carua and Cortex caryophylloidcs, is very mucila- 
ginous. I shall retain the name given to the tree by the moun- 
tain Hindus, who brought it to me. 

Laurus soncauriwn, foliis oblongis utrinque acutis subtriplinerviis, 

venis nonnullis minoribus subtus prominulis. 
Laurus japonica. Herb. Amb. vii. /;. 6S 1 
Soncouri montanorum. 
Habitat in montibus Emodi superioribus apud Cosam fluvium. 

Arbor ramis suboppositis, teretibus, glabris ; ramulis compres- 
sis, subquadrangularibus; cortice nonnihil aromatico. Folia 
nunquam opposita, sed per paria sa?pe approximate, ob- 

vol. xiii. 4 r longa, 

558 Dr. Francis Hamilton's 4Jammentary 

longa, utrinque acuta, nunc apicem, tunc basin versus la- 
tiora, et sublanceolata, margine cartilagineo integerrima, 
rigida, utrinque glabra, subtus glauca, nervis lateralibus 
non omnino oppositis triplinervia, nervis nonnullis vagis 
subtus prominulis et venis minutis transver$is reticulata. 
Petiolus brevissimus, semiteres, estipulaceus. 

3. In the gardens at Rangpur I found growing a tree, said to 
have been introduced from the mountains of Bhotan, and which, 
owing probably to the heat of the climate at Rangpur, did not 
produce flowers. Its name was not known. I shall therefore 
call it after the Sanscrita appellation of the country of which it 
is a native. 

Laurus sailyana, foliis utrinque acutis, lanceolato-ovatis, sub- 

Habitat in montibus Emodi superioribus prope Tistam fluvium. 

Arbor mediocris ramis suboppositis, teretibus, glabris ; ramulis 
compressis, subquadrangularibus. Folia saepiils suboppo- 
sita, oblonga, sed basin versus saepius latiora, utrinque 
acuta, integerrima, utrinque glabra, subtus glauca. Ner- 
vus utrinque ad basin folii minutus, decurrens ; interme- 
dius paulo supra basin semper trifidus ramis lateralibus bi- 
fidis, vel saepe bipartitis, unde folium, posthabitis nervis 
lateralibus minutis, quasi quintuplinervium, venis trans- 
versis obsolete reticulatum. 

Vis aromatica tota in radicis cortice posita. Hie autem cortex 
laevis, colore lateritius, odoratissimus, sapore grato aroma- 
ticus. Cortex ramorum et folia insipida, inodora. 

4. In the woods of Camrupa, on the banks of the Tista, I 
found a tree, which I at first took to be the Katou Carua of the 


on the Ilortus Malabaricus, Part I. 559 

Ilortus Malabaricus from the great size and form of its leaves ; 
and therefore I supposed it to be the Lauras Malabratum or Ma- 
lahathrum of the Encyclopedic (iii. 445.): but the plant I found 
is a Laurus, which the Katou Carua is not ; and the leaves and 
bark, both of its root and branches, were devoid of aromatic 
smell or taste. I suspect however that it is the same with the 
Laurus malabathrica of Dr. Roxburgh, who would never have 
classed a plant in the genus Laurus, which had five stamens and 
a quinquefid petal ; and he quotes the figure alone of the Katou 
Carua, having probably never looked at the description. The 
tree was in the garden when he took charge, so that he did not 
know from whence it came. I adopt the native name, as its 
leaves are never used for the Malabathrum. 

Laurus Bejolghota, foliis triplinerviis basi acutis, paniculis ter- 
minalibus, pedicellis subtrirloris, cortice foliisque insipidis. 
Laurus Malabathrica. Hort. Bens:. 30? 
Bejolghota Bengalensium. 
Habitat in sylvis Camrupae ad Tistam rluvium. 

Arbor magna ramulis tetragonis, obtusangulis, glabris, opposi- 
tis. Folia plerumque opposita, pedem fere longa, tres pol- 
lices lata, elliptica vel oblonga, sed supra medium plerum- 
que latiora, nervo marginali integerrima,basi acuta, utrinque 
glabra, supra nitida, subtus glauca, crassa, triplinervia, ve- 
nis vagis minute reticulata ; omnium, quae vidi, apices in- 
sectis erosi. Petiolus brevissimus glaber, depressus, sub- 
anceps, estipulaceus. Panicula facie terminales, plures 
patentes, subtrichotomae, rachi tetragono, ramulis compres- 
sis. Flores parvi, subterni. Paniculce fructiferae, forte pro- 
deunte novo ex gemma terminali ramulo, infrafoliacea?, ut 
in similibus plerumque fit, nam fructum non vidi. 

4 c 2 5. From 


Dr. Francis Hamilton's Commentary, fyc. 

5. From the Morang hills specimens of the branches in leaf, 
and of the bark of the root of a tree, were brought to me at 
Nathpur. The former so much resembled those of the Bejolghota 
before described, that I should have had no doubt of the two trees 
being the same, had it not been for the bark of the root, which 
strongly resembled that from Bhotan. It is remarkable, that the 
top (apex) of every leaf in this as well as in the Bejolghota was 
eaten off by insects. I call this by the native name 

Laurus Bazania, foliis triplinerviis utrinque acutis inodoris, cor- 

tice radicis aromatico. 
Bajania montanorum. 
Habitat in montibus Emodi superioribus prope Cosam fluvium. 

Cortex radicis fuscus fortius et grate odoratus, sapore cinnamo- 
meo praeditus. Cortex ramorum et folia inodora insipida, 
unde a Katou Carua certe diversa. Neque flores neque 
fructus vidi. 

XXIV. Oh- 

( 561 ) 

XXIV. Observations on the Chrysanthemum (ndicum of Linnaeus, 

By Joseph Sabine, Esq. F.R.S. and L.S. $c. 

Read December 18, 1821. 

Having been lately engaged in an examination* of the plants 
cultivated in the English gardens under the name of Chinese 
Chrysanthemums, and which have generally been considered by 
English botanists as varieties of the Chrysanthemum Tndicum of 
Linnaeus, I have been led to adopt the opinion, that the plants 
which he intended to designate by that name, are different from 
those to which the appellation has of late been applied in this 
country. And as these plants were sufficiently described by 
different writers, at the time when Linnaeus formed the character 
of his species, and referred it to the plants of various authors 
which he quoted, I consider that his omission of reference to the 
others must be taken as evidence that he did not deem it expe- 
dient to unite the whole. 

When the first of the Chinese Chrysanthemums now in our 
gardens was introduced into France in 1789, M. Ramatuellet, 
who published an account of it, called it Anthemis grandiftora. 
Willdenowj subsequently, in 1801, placed it under the same 
genus ; but he gave it another specific name, calling it Anthemis 

* See Horticultural Transactions, vol. iv. p. 326. "Account and Description of 
the Varieties of Chinese Chrysanthemums, &c." 
f Journal d'Histoire Naturelie, vol. ii. p. 235. 
f Wilklenow in Nov. Jet. Soc. Nat. Sclent. Berol. vol. iii. p. 451. 


562 Mr. Sabine's Observations 

Artemisifefolia* ; and as a proof that he considered it to be quite 
different from the Chrysanthemum Indicum of Linnaeus, he re- 
tained that plant as distinct, leaving it in its proper station 
in his Species Plantarum^. Another author { has called the 
Chinese Chrysanthemum Anthemis stipulacea. The reason for 
the removal of it from Chrysanthemum to Anthemis was, that 
paleae were found to exist on the receptacle at the base of the 
florets, and that circumstance constitutes part of the character 
of Anthemis and not of Chrysanthemum, the receptacle of which 
is naked. 

The plant now known as the Purple Chinese Chrysanthemum, 
which had been described in France by M. Ramatuelle, was 
sent to England by M. Cels in 1790 ; a description and figure of 
it were published in the Botanical Magazine (pi. 327-) in 1796, 
where it was called Chrysanthemum Indicum ; but no notice was 
taken of M. Ramatuelle's observation or change of name. In the 
second edition of the Hortus Kezvcnsis^ it is also given as Chry- 
santhemum Indicum. At the time (1813) of the publication of 
that work several varieties, which are enumerated, had then 
been introduced ; M. Ramatuelle's memoir is referred to in it, 
and Willdenow's Chrysanthemum Indicum as well as his Anthe- 
mis Artemisitffotia are quoted as belonging to the species. The 
same opinion of the application of the references was held by the 
Editor of the Botanical Register]] in 1815, who gave figures of 
two of the varieties, accompanied with some observations on the 
species. The authors of those works appear to have considered 
that the existence of the paleae on the receptacle in the culti- 
vated plants was only the effect of luxuriance, and not likely to 

* Willdenow Sp. PL vol. in. p. 2184. Willd. Enum. vol. ii. p. 91 1. 

f Willdenow Sp. PI. vol. iii. p. 2147. 

J Mcench Supphmcntum ad Methodum Plantarum, p. 238. 

$; vol. v. p. 95. j| vol. i. plate and p. 4. 


on the Chrysanthemum Tndicum of Linnaus. 563 

be found in the wild state of the species, and that therefore the 
placing them under Chrysanthemum was still correct. 

In the Botanical Regisier (p. .327.), under the article Anthe- 
mis apiifolia, will be found the reasons why it is still considered 
proper to refer the plants in question to Chrysanthemum ; but 
this is not a point which I am desirous of entering into, my only 
object being to ascertain what plants were considered by Lin- 
nieus as belonging to his Chrysanthemum Indicum, and whether 
it is not probable that he contemplated the separation of die 
Chinese Chrysanthemums from it. 

The first notice of Chrysanthemum Indicum, as a species, under 
that name, is in the first edition of the Species Plantarum*, 
published in 1753. In that work Linmrus makes two varieties 
of the plant ; his first, the Var. a, is described from his own 
Herbarium, and is also referred to a description and figure of 
Plukenet; the Var. j3 is referred to another plant, which is also 
described and figured by Plukenet, as well as to Linmeus's own 
account in his Flora Zeylanica^' of a specimen in the Herbarium 
collected by Hermann, between the years lt>70 and 10'77, in the 
Island of Ceylon. It seems, from the observations in the Flora 
Zeylanica, that in considering the plant as belonging to Chry- 
santhemum, the attention of Linnoeus had not been directed to 
the paleoe on the receptacle, but to the formation of the calyx, 
which appeared to accord with that of Chrysanthemum ; so that. 
in fact, this point of difference between the two genera of Chry- 
santhemum and Anthemis, which is so much relied on by later 
botanists, had not been under Linnaeus's consideration when he 
fixed the place of the plant he had described. 

Before I proceed further to observe on the works referred to 
by Linnaeus, it will be expedient to examine the original writers 

* vol. ii. p. 88f). t Flo/ a Zei/tanuu, p. 198. no. 421. 


56 i Mr. Sabine's Observations 

on the plants of China and Japan, from which countries all the 
plants are derived. Kaempfer, Thunberg, and Loureiro have 
noticed them, and their observations will materially assist in the 
investigation of the subject. 

Kaempfer's Account of the Plants of Japan was published in 
1712 (neither Linnaeus nor Willdenow refer to his work in either 
of their editions of the Species Flantarum) ; he describes* the 
plants we call the Chinese Chrysanthemums, under the name of 
Matricaria, as growing both wild and in gardens in Japan, being 
called by the natives Kik, Kikf, or Kikku ; he mentions that 
there are many varieties, some of which are in blossom at all 
times of the year, and that they are a principal ornament of the 
gardens in the towns. He distinctly describes eight with double 
flowers ; the first has flowers variegated with red and yellow, 
about one inch in diameter, having a small yellow disc ; the 
second has flowers variegated with red and yellow, three inches 
in diameter, and without any apparent disc ; the third has a very 
double golden-coloured blossom without a disc, as large as a dou- 
ble hundred-leaved Rose, and having broad fragrant leaves ; the 
fourth has white flowers, of various sizes, without any disc ; the 
fifth has its flowers slightly flesh-coloured, two inches in diame- 
ter, and without a disc ; the sixth has reddish-purple flowers, 
with a moderately-sized disc ; the seventh is a plant with nume- 
rous branches, flowering abundantly, its flowers being scarlet 
suffused with dingy red, having a yellow disc of an inch in dia- 
meter ; in the eighth the flower is an inch and a half in diameter, 
the radial florets being white, with purple at their ends, yellow 
tubular florets being mixed with them. In addition to these, he 
mentions other plants with flowers of very different characters 
from the preceding, which he appears to have considered as in 

* Karmpfer Anw.mtalea \ Erotic/F, pp. H7 5— 877- 


on the Chrysanthemum Indicum of Linnccus. 565 

some way connected with them, and therefore I notice them, 
though I do not suppose that they belong to those on which I am 
now treating. 

Thunberg in his Flora Japonica, published in 1784, describes ' 
the plant which he considers as Linnaeus's Chrysanthemum In- 
dicum, and refers it to the preceding account of Kamipl'er. 
He states, that it is called by the Japanese t Kikokf, Kiko m 
Fauna, Kik, Kikf, or Kikku; that it has many varieties, different 
in the colour as well as size of the flowers ; and also that there 
are single- and double-flowering plants of it: that it is much cul- 
tivated in the houses and gardens of Japan, on account of the 
beauty of its flowers ; that it prows spontaneously ;it Papenberg 
near Nagasaki, and other places in Japan ; and that it flowers in 
the summer and autumn months. 

Loureiro published his Description of the Plants of Cochin- 
china in 1790, and amongst them enumerated J the Chrysanthe- 
mum Indicum of Linnaeus, to whose Species Flantarum he refers, 
adopting his character of the plant. Loureiro 's description of 
the stem and leaves belongs exactly to the Chinese Chrysanthe- 
mums, and it was certainly those plants which he meant to de- 
scribe. He represents them as having double flowers ; that is, 
with the florets all ligulate, and adds, that their receptacles were 
naked; but to this last assertion I attach little importance, it 
being probable that, as he knew that the genus (according to 
Linnaeus) ought to have that character, he assigned it without 
examination ; we know the fact to be, that their receptacles are 

* Thunberg Flora Japonica, p. 320. Chrysanthemum Indicum. 

"f Some of these names are slightly different from those given by Kzempfer, but the 
difference is only in the terminations, of which there are several united to Kik. The 
addition in the second name is only expressive of elegance; the term Fauna being 
usually added by the Japanese, when they desire to mark a plant as possessing such 

% Flora Cochinchinensis, p. 499- edit. 2.; a Willdenow, yo\.\\. p. 6 10. 

vol. xiii. 4 d chaffy. 

566 Mr. Sabine's Observations 

chaffy. His description of the varieties is very perfect; they 
differ, he says, a little in the form and size of their leaves and in 
the size of their stems, but most in the colour of their flowers, 
which are white, flesh-coloured, purple, violet-yellow, and red, 
and three inches and more in diameter. These varieties, he 
states, are cultivated in the gardens of Cochinchina and China, 
on account of the beauty of their flowers, but he adds that the 
odour of the whole plant is disagreeable. 

The preceding accounts are all referable without difficulty to 
the plants called Chinese Chrysanthemums, for there is nothing 
recorded by these authors which does not well agree with those 
varieties we already know, save that it is stated by Thunberg 
that some of them blossom in the summer, and by Koempfer 
that they are in flower in all seasons*. But they do not well 
apply to any of the descriptions and accounts quoted or given by 
Linnseus under Chrysanthemum Indicum. 

I have already referred to the account in the first edition 
(published in 1753) of the Species Plantarum; but as Linnasus in 
his second edition t of that work (published in 1762-3) added 
some references (viz. those to Rheede and Rumphius), which 
were not in the former, it will be advisable to take the latter 
publication as the basis of the inquiry. The whole article in it 
is as follows : 

Chrysanthemum (Indicum) foliis simplicibus ovatis sinuatis angu- 
latis serratis acutis. 

* The natural time for the flowering of the Chinese Chrysanthemums is during the 
late autumn months ; but some of the varieties blossom with us in October, and others 
are scarcely fully open till December; it may therefore be reasonably imagined that the 
skill of the Chinese, applied to accelerating the period of blossoming in the former case, 
and retarding it in the latter, may have effected in a great measure the extended period 
of flowering mentioned by Thunberg and Kaempfer. 

f Species Plantarum, edit. 2. vol. ii. p. 1253. 


on the Chrysanthemum Indie um of Linnaus. 567 

Matricaria Sinensis, minore flore, petalis et umbonc ochroleu- 
cis. Pink. Amaith, p. 142. tab. 430. Jig. 3. (erroneously 
printed fig. 2.) 

Matricaria Sinensis. Humph. Amb. vol. v. p. 250. tab. 91. 

. fig - h 

Tsjetti-pu. Rheede Mai. vol. x. p. 87- tab. 44. 

P. Chrysanthemum Madraspatanum, oxyacantlr.o foliifl cwsiis ad 

marginem spinosis, calyce argenteo. Pluk. Aim. p. 101. 

(Phytographia) tab. 160. Jig. 6. 
Matricaria Indica, latiore folio, More pleno. Moris. Hist. vol. iii. 

p. 33. 
Matricaria Sinensis, flore monstroso. Vaill. Act. 1720. p. 285. 

(printed 36'8 in the Species Plant arum). Flora Zeylan. 

num. 421. 
Matricaria Zeylanica hortensis, flore pleno. Rail Suppl. p. 224. 

I shall examine each of the above quotations and synonyms in 
the order in which they occur. 

Plukenet's Amaltheum (his works were published some a little 
before, and others soon after the beginning of the eighteenth 
century,) gives no further description of his plant than appears 
in the quotation : but from the figure it may be observed, that 
the leaves are like those of our Chinese Chrysanthemums, though 
but slightly indented : that the flowers are produced from the 
sides as well as the ends of the branches ; that they are very 
small, the rays and disc (as mentioned in the description) being 
yellow. Although the disc is noticed in the description, in the 
figure the flowers are represented as fully double, and conse- 
quently without any apparent disc. 

Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense was published in the year 
1750 by John Burmann. It is a description and account of 
plants collected in Amboyna and the adjacent islands. The ac- 

4 d 2 count 

568 Mr. Sabine's Observations 

count of the Matricaria Sinetisis* is, that it was introduced from 
China, where it is known by the name of Kiok-hoa, but that it is 
called by the Malays Serune ; that its natural time of flowering 
in China is May and June, which being the rainy season in 
Amboyna, prevents the flowers from opening well, and that from 
October to April the plant is without flowers. It is stated further, 
that the Chinese cultivate it in pots, keeping it dwarf, and al- 
lowing only one flower to blow, but that in their gardens it does 
not succeed well, degenerating and perishing in two years. The 
figure represents the leaves like those of our Chinese Chrysan- 
themums, and the flowers double and very small. The plant is 
described as having a small root creeping under the ground, and 
throwing up suckers, though it is propagated by cuttings, in 
order to obtain larger flowers. Five varieties are mentioned, 
but the three last are said to be only known in China : the two 
first were cultivated in India ; one of these has a white, the 
other a yellow flower. The white grows from two feet to two 
feet and a half high, with brittle branches, its leaves being 
deeply cut, dark green, and underneath downy ; but the upper 
leaves are different in shape ; the flowers globular, of the shape 
and size of a Caltha (a Calendula), with numerous white petals 
filling up the whole flower, except the centre, which shows a 
small yellow disc, and smells like Chamomile. The yellow va- 
riety is mentioned as having larger leaves, more elegantly cut, 
being more dwarf, and with flowers larger than the former. Of 
the three other varieties, the first was a flower similar to the two 

* There are several points in the description and history of these plants of the Her- 
barium Amboineme that cannot possibly be applicable either to the small-flowering 
plants supposed to have been the real Chrysanthemum Indicum of Linnaeus, or to those 
we call the Chinese Chrysanthemums. I am disposed to suspect that some confusion 
exists in the account, and that the characters of several plants have been mixed toge- 


on (he Chrysanthemum Indicum of Li/nurus. 569 

preceding, of a red colour, but which did not blossom well : 
the next had a greenish ash-coloured flower ; and the blossom